FACTOID # 11: Oklahoma has the highest rate of women in State or Federal correctional facilities.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Streptomycin" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Streptomycin
Streptomycin chemical structure
Streptomycin
Systematic (IUPAC) name
5-(2,4-diguanidino-3,5,6-trihydroxy-cyclohexoxy)-4- [4,5-dihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)

-3-methylamino-tetrahydropyran-2-yl] oxy-3-hydroxy-2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-carbaldehyde Image File history File links Streptomycin. ... IUPAC nomenclature is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds. ...

Identifiers
CAS number 57-92-1
ATC code A07AA04 J01GA01
PubChem 19649
DrugBank APRD00412
Chemical data
Formula C21H39N7O12
Mol. weight 581.574 g/mol
Physical data
Melt. point 12 °C (54 °F)
Pharmacokinetic data
Bioavailability  ?
Metabolism  ?
Half life  ?
Excretion  ?
Therapeutic considerations
Pregnancy cat.

? CAS registry numbers are unique numerical identifiers for chemical compounds, polymers, biological sequences and alloys. ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... A division of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System A Alimentary tract and metabolism A07A Intestinal anti-infectives A07AA Antibiotics A07AA01 Neomycin A07AA02 Nystatin A07AA03 Natamycin A07AA04 Streptomycin A07AA05 Polymyxin B A07AA06 Paromomycin A07AA07 Amphotericin B A07AA08 Kanamycin A07AA09 Vancomycin A07AA10 Colistin A07AA11 Rifaximin A07AA51 Neomycin, combinations A07AA54 Streptomycin, combinations... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... PubChem is a database of chemical molecules . ... DrugBank is a database available at the University of Alberta that provides information about thousands of products. ... A chemical formula (also called molecular formula) is a concise way of expressing information about the atoms that constitute a particular chemical compound. ... The molecular mass of a substance (less accurately called molecular weight and abbreviated as MW) is the mass of one molecule of that substance, relative to the unified atomic mass unit u (equal to 1/12 the mass of one atom of carbon-12). ... The melting point of a solid is the temperature at which it changes state from solid to liquid. ... In pharmacology, bioavailability is used to describe the fraction of an administered dose of medication that reaches the systemic circulation, one of the principal pharmacokinetic properties of drugs. ... Metabolism (from Greek μεταβολισμός metabolismos) is the biochemical modification of chemical compounds in living organisms and cells. ... The elimination half-life of a drug (or any xenobiotic agent) refers to the timecourse necessary for the quantity of the xenobiotic agent in the body (or plasma concentration) to be reduced to half of its original level through various elimination processes. ... Excretion is the biological process by which an organism chemically separates waste products from its body. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother during pregnancy. ...

Legal status
Routes  ?

Streptomycin is an antibiotic drug, the first of a class of drugs called aminoglycosides to be discovered, and was the first antibiotic remedy for tuberculosis. It is derived from the actinobacterium Streptomyces griseus. Streptomycin stops bacterial growth by damaging cell membranes and inhibiting protein synthesis. Specifically, it binds to the 23S rRNA molecule of the bacterial ribosome, which prevents the release of the growing protein (polypeptide chain). Humans have structurally different ribosomes than bacteria, thereby allowing the selectivity of this antibiotic for bacteria. Streptomycin cannot be given orally, but must be administered by regular intramuscular injection. An adverse effect of this medicine is ototoxicity. It can result in permanent hearing loss. The regulation of therapeutic goods, that is drugs and therapeutic devices, varies by jurisdiction. ... In pharmacology and toxicology, a route of administration is the path by which a drug, fluid, poison or other substance is brought into contact with the body 1. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Classes Actinobacteria The Actinobacteria or Actinomycetes are a group of Gram-positive bacteria. ... Intramuscular injection is the injection of a substance directly into a muscle. ... Ototoxicity is damage of the ear (oto), specifically the cochlea or auditory nerve and sometimes the vestibulum, by a toxin (often medication). ...


History

It was first isolated on October 19, 1943 in the laboratory of Selman Abraham Waksman at Rutgers University by Albert Schatz, a graduate student in his laboratory. Waksman and his laboratory discovered several antibiotics, including actinomycin, clavacin, streptothricin, streptomycin, grisein, neomycin, fradicin, candicidin, candidin, and others. Two of these, streptomycin and neomycin, found extensive application in the treatment of numerous infectious diseases. Streptomycin was the first antibiotic that could be used to cure the disease tuberculosis. Waksman is credited with having coined the term antibiotics. October 19 is the 292nd day of the year (293rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1943 (MCMXLIII) was a common year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1943 calendar). ... Categories: Stub | 1888 births | 1973 deaths | Biochemists ... Rutgers redirects here. ... Albert Schatz (d. ... Actinomycin is any of a class of polypeptide antibiotics isolated from soil bacteria of the genus Streptomyces. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ...


The details and credit for the discovery of streptomycin were strongly contested by Albert Schatz and resulted in litigation. The contention arose because Schatz was the graduate student in charge of performing the lab work on streptomycin; however, it was argued that he was using techniques, equipment and lab space of Waksman's while under Waksman's direction. There is contention as to whether or not Schatz should have been included in the Nobel Prize awarded in 1952. However, the committee stated that the Nobel Prize was awarded not only for the discovery of streptomycin but also for the development of the methods and techniques that led up to its discovery and the discovery of many other antibiotics. Albert Schatz (d. ... Nobel Prize medal. ... An antibiotic is a drug that kills or slows the growth of bacteria. ...


The litigation ended with a settlement for Schatz and the official decision that Waksman and Schatz would be considered co-discoverers of streptomycin. Schatz was awarded the Rutgers medal in 1994, at the age of 74. The controversy ultimately had a negative impact on the careers of both Waksman and Schatz and the controversy continues today.


Uses

Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for Tubercle Bacillus) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by the bacterium Mycobacterium tuberculosis, which most commonly affects the lungs (pulmonary TB) but can also affect the central nervous system, lymphatic system, circulatory system, genitourinary system, bones and joints. ... Binomial name Yersinia pestis (Lehmann & Neumann, 1896) van Loghem 1944 Yersinia pestis is a Gram-negative bacterium belonging to the family Enterobacteriaceae. ... Bubonic plague is the best-known variant of the deadly infectious disease plague, which is caused by the enterobacteria Yersinia pestis. ... Chloramphenicol (or 2,2-dichlor-N-[(aR,bR)-b-hydroxy-a-hydroxymethyl-4-nitrophenethyl]acetamide) is an antibiotic that was derived from the bacterium Streptomyces venezuelae and is now produced synthetically. ... Tetracycline is a broad-spectrum antibiotic produced by the streptomyces bacterium, indicated for use against many bacterial infections. ...

References

  • Kingston, William (2004). Streptomycin, Schatz v. Waksman, and the Balance of Credit for Discovery. Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences 59 (3), 441-462.
  • Mistiaen, Veronique. Time, and the great healer. The Guardian, Saturday 2 November 2002. The history behind the discovery of streptomycin.
  • Lawrence, Peter A. (2002). The misallocation of credit is endemic in science. Nature 415 (6874), 835-836.



November 2 is the 306th day of the year (307th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 59 days remaining. ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ... First title page, November 4, 1869 Nature is one of the oldest and most reputable scientific journals, first published on 4 November 1869. ...

Aminoglycosides (J01G) edit

Amikacin, Gentamicin, Kanamycin, Neomycin, Netilmicin, Streptomycin, Tobramycin Aminoglycosides are a group of antibiotics that are effective against certain types of bacteria. ... A section of the Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System. ... Amikacin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat different types of bacterial infections. ... Gentamicin is a aminoglycoside antibiotic, and can treat many different types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infection. ... Kanamycin (marketed under the brand name Kantrex®) is an aminoglycoside antibiotic, available in both oral and intravenous forms, and used to treat a wide variety of infections. ... Neomycin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic that is found in many topical medications such as creams, ointments and eyedrops. ... Netilmicin is an aminoglycoside antibiotic. ... Tobramycin sulfate is an aminoglycoside antibiotic used to treat various types of bacterial infections, particularly Gram-negative infections. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
821. Streptomycin (WHO Food Additives Series 34) (8146 words)
Streptomycin is poorly absorbed by inhalation, therefore high levels may be produced in respiratory secretions, causing a marked decrease in bacterial flora in the upper respiratory tract (Huber, 1966).
Streptomycin damages the hair cells of the Organ of Corti in the cochlea and the hair cells of the vestibular apparatus which are found in the macula of the saccule, the macula of the utricule, and the ampullae of the three semicircular canals.
Streptomycin crossed the placental barrier and was identified in tissue fluids of embryos from treated dams.
the Drug Monitor - streptomycin - Nasr Anaizi, PhD (823 words)
Streptomycin (Mol wt = 1457.41) was the first of the aminoglycoside antibiotics (AGs) developed.
Streptomycin is also highly active against gram-negative aerobic pathogens with some activity against gram-positive cocci.
Streptomycin is almost always used in combination with another antibiotic (eg: a penicillin) but can be used as a single agent in the treatment of tularemia and the plague.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m