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Streltsy (Стрельцы in Russian) were the units of Russian guardsmen (sl. strelets, стрелец. literally "shooter"; often translated as "musketeer," but more properly "harquebusier") in the 16th - early 18th centuries, armed with firearms (riflemen). They are also collectively known as Strelets Troops (Стрелецкое Войско). A military unit is an organisation within an armed force. ... In linguistics, grammatical number is a morphological category characterized by the expression of quantity through inflection or agreement. ... A firearm is a kinetic energy weapon that fires either a single or multiple projectiles propelled at high velocity by the gases produced by action of the rapid confined burning of a propellant. ... Rifleman - allied soldier from World War II. Rifleman is a private soldier in a rifle unit of infantry. ...

Contents

Creation and structure

The first strel'tsy units were created by Ivan the Terrible sometime between 1545 and 1550 and armed with the harquebus. They first saw combat at the Siege of Kazan' in 1552. Initially, the strel'tsy were recruited from among the free tradespeople and rural population. Subsequently, military service in this unit became lifelong and hereditary. This, while initially an elite force in the sixteenth century, their effectiveness was reduced by poor training and lack of volunteerism in recruiting.[1] Ivan IV (August 25, 1530–March 18, 1584) was the first ruler of Russia to assume the title of tsar. ... Events February 27 - Battle of Ancrum Moor - Scots victory over superior English forces December 13 - Official opening of the Council of Trent (closed 1563) Battle of Kawagoe - between two branches of Uesugi families and the late Hojo clan in Japan. ... Events February 7 - Julius III becomes Pope. ... The Arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus or hackbut) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... Recruit (from the French recrue, from the verb recroître to grow again, i. ... A tradesman is a skilled manual worker in a particular trade or craft. ... Sign in a rural area in Dalarna, Sweden Qichun, a rural town in Hubei province, China An artists rendering of an aerial view of the Maryland countryside: Jane Frank (Jane Schenthal Frank, 1918-1986), Aerial Series: Ploughed Fields, Maryland, 1974, acrylic and mixed materials on apertured double canvas, 52... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For the scientific journal Heredity see Heredity (journal) Heredity (the adjective is hereditary) is the transfer of characters from parent to offspring, either through their genes or through the social institution called inheritance (for example, a title of nobility is passed from individual to individual according to relevant customs and...

Streltsy in the 17th century.

Strel'tsy were subdivided into viborniye (выборные), or electives (later – of Moscow) and gorodskiye (городские), or municipal (in different Russian cities). The Strel'tsy of Moscow guarded the Kremlin, performed general guard duty, and participated in military operations. They also carried out general police and fire-brigade functions in Moscow. Grigorii Kotoshikin, a Russian diplomat who had spied for and then defected to Sweden in the 1660s, reported that they used axes and buckets and copper pumps as well as hooks to pull down adjacent buildings so the fire would not spread, but Adam Olerius, a Westerner who traveled to Russia in the seventeenth century, noted that they never used water.[2] The Municipal Strel'tsy performed garrison and border duty and carried out orders of the local administration. Strel'tsy subordinated to the Streltsy Department (Стрелецкий приказ, or Streletsky prikaz), however, in times of war they subordinated to their superiors. The Municipal Strel'tsy were also under the jurisdiction of the local voevodes. Strel'tsy had identical uniforms (usually red, blue or green coats with yellow boots), training and weapons (arquebuses, muskets, poleaxes, bardiches (used to steady their gun while firing), sabers, and sometimes pikes). Image File history File linksMetadata Streltsy. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Streltsy. ... For other uses, see Moscow (disambiguation). ... A municipality or general-purpose district (compare with: special-purpose district) is an administrative local area generally composed of a clearly defined territory and commonly referring to a city, town, or village government. ... The Moscow Kremlin The Moscow Kremlin ( Russian: Московский Кремль) is the best known kremlin ( Russian citadel). ... The word operation can mean any of several things: The method, act, process, or effect of using a device or system. ... For people named Garrison, see Garrison (disambiguation) Garrison House, built by William Damm in 1675 at Dover, New Hampshire Garrison (from the French garnison, itself from the verb garnir, to equip) is the collective term for the body of troops stationed in a particular location, originally to guard it, but... Self-illuminating Border flower pot between Burghausen, Salzach(river) in Germany and Ach in Austria. ... Local governments are administrative offices that are smaller than a state or province. ... Streltsy Department (Стрелецкий приказ in Russian), one of the main governmental bodies in Russia in 16th and 17th centuries. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into voivod. ... A uniform is a set of standard clothing worn by members of an organisation whilst participating in that organisations activity. ... A weapon is a tool used to kill or incapacitate a person or animal, or destroy a military target. ... Japanese arquebus of the Edo era (teppo) The arquebus (sometimes spelled harquebus, harkbus[1] or hackbut; possibly related to German Hakenbuechse or Dutch Haakbus) was a primitive firearm used in the 15th to 17th centuries. ... Muskets and bayonets aboard the frigate Grand Turk. ... A bardiche or long poleaxe is a type of polearm that was used during times of war in medieval Europe. ... Classic Example This is a page about the long poleaxe. ... The Saber (spanish/portuguese: knowledge) currency is an educational sectoral currency in Brazil that is handed out by the ministry of education. ... A modern recreation of a mid-17th century company of pikemen. ...


The strel'tsy were used in static formations, often against set formations or fortifications. They often fired from a platform and employed a mobile wooden "fortification" known in Russian at a "gulai gorod" (literally a "walking fort"). They reportedly fired in volley or caracole fashion; the first line firing and then stepping back to reload while the second line stepped forward to fire.[3]


The biggest military administrative unit of the strel'tsy forces was pribor (прибор), that would later be renamed into prikaz and in 1681 – into regiment (полк, or polk). Commanders of the Strel'tsy unit (стрелецкие головы, or streletskiye golovy) and colonels in charge of regiments were chiefs of prikazi. They had to be nobles and appointed by the government. Events March 4 - Charles II of England grants a land charter to William Penn for the area that will later become Pennsylvania. ... British regiment A regiment is a military unit, consisting of a variable number of battalions - commanded by a colonel. ... Commander is a military rank which is also sometimes used as a military title depending on the individual customs of a given military service. ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... The Lords and Barons prove their Nobility by hanging their Banners and exposing their Coats-of-arms at the Windows of the Lodge of the Heralds. ...


The regiments (polki) were subdivided into sotni (сотни, or hundreds) and desyatki (десятки, or tens). They could be mounted (стремянные, or stremyanniye; стремя (stremya) in Russian means “stirrup”) and unmounted (пешие, or peshiye; пеший (peshiy) means "foot soldier"). Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... The term foot soldier may refer to: (military) A generic term for members of the infantry (television) Characters in the animated cartoon, Teenage Mutant Ninja Turtles, belonging to the Foot Clan This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...


The Muscovite government was chronically short of cash so that the strel'tsy were often not paid well. While "entitled" to something like four rubles a year in the 1550s, they were often allowed to farm or trade in order to supplement their incomes. This reduced their combat effectiveness and often their desire to go on campaigns (since a season on campaign meant loss of income).[3] Streltsy lived in their own neighborhoods or districts settlements and received money and bread from the State Treasury. In certain locations, Strel'tsy were granted strips of land instead of money. The Strel'tsy settlement in Moscow was located near where the main campus of Moscow State University now stands.[4] Ronda, Spain Main street in Bastrop, Texas, a small town A town is a community of people ranging from a few hundred to several thousands, although it may be applied loosely even to huge metropolitan areas. ... The term treasury was first used in classical times to describe the votive buildings erected to house gifts to the gods, such as the Siphnian Treasury in Delphi or the many buildings put up in Olympia, Greece by competing city-states, to impress each other during the Ancient Olympic Games. ...


The Strel'tsy in Politics

"The Morning of the Strel'tsy Execution" after their failed uprising in 1698 by Vasily Ivanovich Surikov(1848-1916).
"The Morning of the Strel'tsy Execution" after their failed uprising in 1698 by Vasily Ivanovich Surikov(1848-1916).

At the end of the 16th century, there were 20,000-25,000 strel'tsy; in 1681, 55,000, including 22,500 in Moscow alone. Strel'tsy’s engagement in handicrafts and trade led to a significant proprietary inequality among them and their blending with tradepeople. Even though Streltsy demonstrated their fighting efficiency on several occasions, such as the siege of Kazan in 1552, the war with Livonia, the Polish-Swedish invasion in the early 17th century and military operations in Poland and Crimea, in the second half of the 17th century Streltsy started to display their backwardness compared to the regular soldier or reiter regiments (see Regiments of the new type). Military service hardships, frequent salary delays, abuse on the part of local administration and commanders made for regular Strel'tsy's (especially the poorest ones) participation in anti-serfdom uprisings in the 17th and early 18th centuries, such as the peasant wars in the beginning of the 17th century and in 1670-1671 (leader – Stepan Razin), urban uprisings (Moscow Uprising of 1682, Streltsy Uprising of 1698, Astrakhan Uprising of 1705-1706). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x580, 123 KB) Morning of excution of streltsy by Vasily Ivanovich Surikov File links The following pages link to this file: Red Square Streltsy Vasily Surikov Streltsy Uprising Wikipedia:Commons ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1000x580, 123 KB) Morning of excution of streltsy by Vasily Ivanovich Surikov File links The following pages link to this file: Red Square Streltsy Vasily Surikov Streltsy Uprising Wikipedia:Commons ... Streltsy Uprising of 1698 - an uprising of the Moscow Streltsy regiments. ... Self-Portrait Vasily Ivanovich Surikov (Василий Иванович Суриков) (January 24, 1848 (Julian calendar: January 12) – March 19, 1916 (Julian calendar: March 6)) was the foremost Russian painter of large-scale historical subjects. ... A handicraft shop in Delhi, India Handicraft, also known as craftwork or simply craft, is a type of work where useful and decorative devices are made completely by hand or using only simple tools. ... For the use of the < and > signs in punctuation, see Bracket. ... A siege is a military blockade of a city or fortress with the intent of conquering by force or attrition, often accompanied by an assault. ... Kazan (Russian: ; Tatar: Qazan, Казан) is the capital city of the Republic of Tatarstan, Russia, and one of Russias largest cities. ... Events April - War between Henry II of France and Emperor Charles V. Henry invades Lorraine and captures Toul, Metz, and Verdun. ... Baltic Tribes, ca 1200 CE This article is about the region in Europe. ... An invasion is a military action consisting of armed forces of one geopolitical entity entering territory controlled by another such entity, generally with the objective of conquering territory, or altering the established government. ... Motto: Процветание в единстве - Prosperity in unity Anthem: Нивы и горы твои волшебны, Родина - Your fields and mounts are wonderful, Motherland Location of Crimea (red) on the map of Ukraine. ... Reiters (German: Reiter, or horserider) were a type of cavalry, which appeared in the armies of Western Europe in the 16th century, in place of the outmoded lance-armed knights, along with the cuirassiers and dragoons. ... Regiments of the new type, or regiments of the foreign type (&#1055;&#1086;&#1083;&#1082;&#1080; &#1085;&#1086;&#1074;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086; &#1089;&#1090;&#1088;&#1086;&#1103; or &#1055;&#1086;&#1083;&#1082;&#1080; &#1080;&#1085;&#1086;&#1079;&#1077;&#1084;&#1085;&#1086;&#1075;&#1086; &#1089;&#1090;&#1088;&#1086;&#1103;, Polki nogovo... Costumes of slaves or serfs, from the sixth to the twelfth centuries, collected by H. de Vielcastel from original documents in European libraries. ... Uprising is another word for rebellion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... 1670 was a common year beginning on a Saturday in countries using the Julian calendar and a Wednesday in countries using the Gregorian calendar. ... Events May 9 - Thomas Blood, disguised as a clergyman, attempts to steal the Crown Jewels from the Tower of London. ... Stepan (Stenka) Timofeyevich Razin (&#1057;&#1090;&#1077;&#1087;&#1072;&#1085; (&#1057;&#1090;&#1077;&#1085;&#1100;&#1082;&#1072;) &#1058;&#1080;&#1084;&#1086;&#1092;&#1077;&#1077;&#1074;&#1080;&#1095; &#1056;&#1072;&#1079;&#1080;&#1085; in Russian) (1630 - 6. ... Crowded Shibuya, Tokyo shopping district An urban area is an area with an increased density of human-created structures in comparison to the areas surrounding it. ... A scene from the uprising: Natalia Naryshkina shows Ivan V to the Streltsy in order to prove that he is alive and well, while the Patriarch attempts to calm the crowd. ... Streltsy Uprising of 1698 - an uprising of the Moscow Streltsy regiments. ... Events January 4 - Palace of Whitehall in London is destroyed by fire. ... The Bulavin Rebellion, also called the Astrakhan Rebellion (Russian: Булавинское восстание), is the name given to a violent civil uprising in Imperial Russia between the years 1707 and 1709. ... // Events Construction begins on Blenheim Palace, in Oxfordshire, England. ... Events March 27 - Concluding that Emperor Iyasus I of Ethiopia had abdicated by retiring to a monastery, a council of high officials appoint Tekle Haymanot I Emperor of Ethiopia May 23 - Battle of Ramillies September 7 - The Battle of Turin in the War of Spanish Succession - forces of Austria and...


At the same time, those strel'tsy, who had been on top of the hierarchy, enjoyed their social status and, therefore, tried to hold back the regular Streltsy forces and keep them on the government’s side. In the late 17th century, Streltsy of Moscow began to actively participate in a struggle for power between different government groups, supporting the dissidents and showing hostility towards any foreign innovations. A hierarchy (in Greek: , derived from — hieros, sacred, and — arkho, rule) is a system of ranking and organizing things or people, where each element of the system (except for the top element) is subordinate to a single other element. ... Social status is the honor or prestige attached to ones position in society (ones social position). ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The strel'tsy became something of a "pretorian element" in Muscovite politics in the late seventeenth century.[5] In 1682 they attempted to prevent Peter the Great from coming to the throne in favor of his half-brother, Ivan. [6]


Disbandment

After the fall of Sophia Alekseyevna in 1689, the government of Peter the Great engaged in a process of gradual limitation of Streltsy’s military and political influence. Eight Moscow regiments were removed from the city and transferred to Belgorod, Sevsk, and Kiev. Sofia Alekseyevna (Царевна Софья Алексеевна in Russian) (September 17 (27), 1657 – July 3 (14), 1704) was a regent of Russia (1682-1689) who allied herself with a singularly capable courtier and politician, Prince Vasily Galitzine, to install herself as a regent during the minority of her brothers, Peter I and Ivan V. The... Events Louis XIV of France passed the Code Noir, allowing the full use of slaves in the French colonies. ... Peter the Great or Pyotr Alexeyevich Romanov (Russian: Пётр I Алексеевич Pyotr I Alekse`yevich, Пётр Великий Pyotr Veli`kiy) (9 June 1672 – 8 February 1725 [30 May 1672–28 January 1725 O.S.][1]) ruled Russia from 7 May (27 April O.S.) 1682 until his death, jointly ruling before 1696 with his... Coat of arms of Belgorod Belgorod (Russian: ) is a city in Western Russia, situated on the Severny Donets river just 40 km north from the Ukrainian border, at 50°37′N 36°35′E. It is the administrative center of Belgorod Oblast. ... Sevsk (Севск in Russian) is a small town in the Bryansk Oblast in Russia, located on the Sev River (Dnieper basin) 142 km away from Bryansk. ... Map of Ukraine with Kiev highlighted Coordinates: , Country Ukraine Oblast Kiev City Municipality Raion Municipality Government  - Mayor Leonid Chernovetskyi Elevation 179 m (587 ft) Population (2006)  - City 4,450,968  - Density 3,299/km² (8,544. ...


In spite of these measures, the strel'tsy revolted yet again while Peter was on his Great Embassy in Europe. While the revolt was put down by the Scottish general Patrick Gordon (he had entered Russian service under Tsar Alexei Mikhailovich in 1661) even before the Tsar's return to Russia, Peter nonetheless cut short his embassy and returned to finally crush the strel'tsy with savage reprisals including public executions and torture.[7] Patrick Gordon (1635 - November 29, 1699) was general of the Imperial Russian army, of Scottish origin. ...


The corps was technically abolished in 1689. However, after having suffered a defeat at Narva in 1700, the government stopped their disbandment. The most efficient strel'tsy regiments took part in the most important military operations of the Great Northern War and in Peter’s Prut Campaign of 1711. Gradually, Streltsy were incorporated into the regular army. At the same time, they started to disband the Municipal Streltsy. The reconstructed fortress of Narva (to the left) overlooking the Russian fortress of Ivangorod (to the right). ... Events January 1 - Russia accepts Julian calendar. ... Combatants Sweden Ottoman Empire (1710–1714) Ukrainian Cossacks Russia Denmark-Norway Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Saxony after 1718 Prussia Hanover Commanders Charles XII of Sweden Ahmed III Ivan Mazepa Peter the Great Frederick IV of Denmark Augustus II the Strong Strength 77,000 in the beginning of the war. ... Russo-Turkish War of 1710-1713, a war between Russia and the Ottoman Empire, which started after the Russians had defeated the Swedes in the Battle of Poltava. ... 1711 (MDCCXI) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 11-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Liquidation of the streltsy units was finally finished only in the 1720s, however, the Municipal Strel'tsy were kept in some cities until the late 18th century. Events and Trends Manufacture of the earliest surviving pianos. ...


The Preobrazhensky and Izmailovsky regiments of Imperial Guards replaced the strel'tsy as the tsar's bodyguards.

Image File history File linksMetadata Streltsi. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (844x501, 45 KB) Strelets Patrol at the Ilyinsky Gates in Old Moscow. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Orenburgsky. ...

References

  1. ^ Michael C. Paul, "The Military Revolution in Russia 1550-1682," The Journal of Military History 68 No. 1 (January 2004): 9-45, esp. pp. 20-22.
  2. ^ Paul, "The Military Revolution in Russia," 21.
  3. ^ Richard Hellie, Enserfment and Military Change in Muscovy (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1971), 164-165; Paul, "The Military Revolution in Russia," 22.
  4. ^ Paul, "The Military Revolution in Russia," 20, 41; Chernov,"Obrazovanie stel'tsogo voiska," Istoricheskie zapiski 38 (1951): 282-284; Hellie, Enserfment and Military Change in Muscovy, 161; John Keep, Soldiers of the Tsar: Army and Society in Russia 1462-1874 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1985), 60.
  5. ^ Paul, "The Military Revolution in Russia," 21.
  6. ^ Paul, "The Military Revolution in Russia," 21
  7. ^ Paul, "The Military Revolution in Russia," 21.

Literature

  • Moutchnik, Alexander (2006). Der Strelitzen-Aufstand von 1698, in: Volksaufstände in Russland, ed. by Heinz-Dietrich Löwe (in German). Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz Verlag, 163-196. ISBN 3-447-05292-9. 

See also

  • History of Russian military ranks

  Results from FactBites:
 
Streltsy Department - Biocrawler (135 words)
Streltsy Department (Стрелецкий приказ in Russian), one of the main governmental bodies in Russia in 16th and 17th centuries.
SD was in charge of the Moscow and Municipal Streltsy, their lands and other property, disbursement of their salary and bread allowances, and their cases in court.
After the Streltsy Uprising in 1698, SD was engaged in regular administrative and managerial matters.
streltsy - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com (536 words)
Streltsy were subdivided into выборные (viborniye), or electives (later of Moscow) and городские; (gorodskiye), or municipal (in different Russian cities).
Streltsys engagement in handicrafts and trade led to a significant proprietary inequality among them and their blending with tradepeople.
Liquidation of the Streltsy units was finally finished in 1720s, however, the Municipal Streltsy were kept in some cities until the late 18th century.
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