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Encyclopedia > Strela 2
A soldier posing with a Strela launcher. Photo by GulfLINK.
A soldier posing with a Strela launcher. Photo by GulfLINK.

For the STRELA computer, see Strela computer. Image File history File links A U.S. military photo taken from http://www. ... Strela computer (ЭВМ Стрела) was the first mainframe computer manufactured serially in the Soviet Union. ...


The 9K32 "Strela-2" (Russian 9К32 "стрела-2" - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-7 "Grail") is a man-portable, shoulder-fired, low-altitude surface-to-air missile (SAM) system similar to the US Army REDEYE, with a high explosive warhead and passive infrared homing guidance. The SA-7 was the first generation of Soviet man portable SAMs, its first version entered service in 1968. Although the SA-7 is limited in range, speed, and altitude, it can force enemy pilots to fly above its effective ceiling, causing increased chance of detection by radar and vulnerability to other air defence systems. The SA-7 is a tail-chase missile system and its effectiveness depends on its ability to lock onto the heat source of low-flying fixed and rotary-wing aircraft. NATO reporting names are unclassified code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... Akash Missile Firing French Air Force Crotale battery Bendix Rim-8 Talos surface to air missile of the US Navy A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the armed forces of the United States. ... The FIM-43 Redeye was a man-portable surface-to-air missile system. ... A B61 nuclear bomb in various stages of assembly; the nuclear warhead is the bullet-shaped silver cannister in the middle-left of the photograph. ... Infra-red homing refers to a guidance system which uses the infra-red light emission from a target to track it. ... Soviet redirects here. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ... This long range radar antenna, known as ALTAIR, is used to detect and track space objects in conjunction with ABM testing at the Ronald Reagan Test Site on the Kwajalein atoll. ... American troops man an anti-aircraft gun near the Algerian coastline in 1943 Anti-aircraft warfare, or air defense, is any method of combating military aircraft from the ground. ... A tail-chase engagement (or rear-aspect engagement) is one where a surface-to-air missile system or jet aircraft engages another aircraft while the target aircraft is flying away from the attacker. ...

Contents

Development History

A SA-7 missile and launcher.
A SA-7 missile and launcher.

In the immediate post-WWII period the Soviet air defence doctrine had placed a heavy emphasis on national air defence against nuclear-armed bombers. Numerous long-range, high-altitude SAM systems were developed to counter this threat, but in the meanwhile relatively little development took place in mobile battlefield air defences able to move with army maneuver elements and defend them against low-altitude air attack in a conventional war. Image File history File links A U.S. military photo taken from http://www. ... Image File history File links A U.S. military photo taken from http://www. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The Korean war showed that the era of conventional war was far from over, and the Soviet Union responded with a 10-year plan that called for several mobile battlefield air defence systems to create a multi-tier system to cover all altitude ranges. The new doctrine listed 5 new requirements:

  • front-level medium to high altitude area defence system 9K8 Krug (NATO designation SA-4 "Ganef")
  • army-level low to medium-range area defence system 3K9 Kub (NATO designation SA-6 "Gainful")
  • division-level low altitude short-range system 9K33 Osa (NATO designation SA-8 "Gecko")
  • regimental-level all-weather radar-guided gun system ZSU-23-4 "Shilka"
  • battalion-level very short range systems Strela-1 (NATO designation SA-9 "Gaskin") and Strela-2 (NATO SA-7 "Grail")

Both Strela-1 and Strela-2 were initially intended to be man-portable systems. However, as the Strela-2 proved to be considerably smaller and lighter system, the specifications of the Strela-1 were changed, calling for a heavier vehicle-mounted missile of higher performance to support the ZSU-23-4 gun systems in the regimental air defence role. A 2K11 TEL in transit. ... A 2K11 TEL in transit. ... A 3M9 TEL with missiles erected. ... A 3M9 TEL with missiles erected. ... 9K33M3 (SA-8 Gecko) TELAR. Photo by Naval Expeditionary Warfare Training. ... 9K33M3 (SA-8 Gecko) TELAR. Photo by Naval Expeditionary Warfare Training. ... The ZSU-23-4 Shilka is a lightly armoured, self-propelled, radar guided anti-aircraft weapon system (SPAAG). ... A 9K31 transporter erector launcher 9K31 TEL w/Flat Box passive radar detection array The Nudelman 9K31 Strela-1 (Russian 9К31 Стрела-1 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-9 Gaskin) is a highly mobile, short-range, low altitude infra-red guided surface-to... A 9K31 transporter erector launcher 9K31 TEL w/Flat Box passive radar detection array The Nudelman 9K31 Strela-1 (Russian 9К31 Стрела-1 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-9 Gaskin) is a highly mobile, short-range, low altitude infra-red guided surface-to... The ZSU-23-4 Shilka is a lightly armoured, self-propelled, radar guided anti-aircraft weapon system (SPAAG). ...


As development began in the Turopov OKB (later changed to Kolomna), the detailed information of the US FIM-43 Redeye became available. While it was by no means a simple reverse-engineered copy, in many ways the Strela design borrowed heavily from the Redeye, with which it was developed simultaneously. Development was protracted and many difficulties were faced in designing a sufficiently small seeker head and rocket. Eventually the designers had to settle for a simpler seeker head than that of the Redeye. The FIM-43 Redeye was a man-portable surface-to-air missile system. ...


The initial version the 9K32 "Strela-2" (US DoD designation SA-7A, missile round 9M32) finally entered service in 1968, 5 years behind schedule. The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... Year 1968 (MCMLXVIII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full calendar) of the 1968 Gregorian calendar. ...


The Strela-2 was quickly followed by the slightly improved version "Strela-2M" (US DoD designation SA-7B, missile round 9M32M) in 1970, and then a more radical improvement, the 9K36 "Strela-3" (NATO reporting name SA-14 "Gremlin", missile round 9M36). 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday. ... The 9K34 Strela-3 (Russian 9К34 Стрела-3 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-14 Gremlin) man-portable air defence missile system (MANPADS) was developed in Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela-2 (NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) system. ... NATO reporting names are unclassified code names for Soviet and Chinese military equipment. ... The 9K34 Strela-3 (Russian 9К34 Стрела-3 - arrow, NATO reporting name SA-14 Gremlin) man-portable air defence missile system (MANPADS) was developed in Soviet Union as a response to the poor performance of the earlier 9K32 Strela-2 (NATO reporting name SA-7 Grail) system. ...


There is a naval version of this missile. Its NATO reporting name is SA-N-5.


Versions

  • 9K32M Strela-2M - "SA-7 Grail"
  • Strela 2M2J Sava - Yugoslav version
  • HN-5 - Hongying 5, Chinese version
  • Anza MKI - Pakistani version
  • Ayn as Saqr - Egyptian version

Operators

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See also

Training of Czech Air defence units - video

Russian and former Soviet surface-to-air missiles
v  d  e
The SA designation sequence:

SA-1 Guild | SA-2 Guideline | SA-3 Goa | SA-N-3 Goblet | SA-4 Ganef | SA-5 Gammon | SA-6 Gainful | SA-7 Grail
SA-8 Gecko | SA-9 Gaskin | SA-10 Grumble | SA-11 Gadfly | SA-12 GladiatorGiant | SA-13 Gopher | SA-14 Gremlin
SA-15 Gauntlet | SA-16 Gimlet | SA-17 Grizzly | SA-18 Grouse | SA-19 Grisom | SA-20 Gargoyle | SA-21 Growler
SA-22 ? | SA-23 ? | SA-24 ? | Soviet redirects here. ... A surface-to-air missile (SAM) is a missile designed to be launched from the ground to destroy aircraft. ... The SA-1 Guild is the NATO reporting name for the S-25 Berkut (Russian: - golden eagle) surface-to-air guided missile, the first operational SAM . ... This article or section needs copy editing for grammar, style, cohesion, tone and/or spelling. ... S-125 missiles on quadruple launcher, displayed in Finnish Anti-aircraft museum (Ilmatorjuntamuseo) in Tuusula. ... SA-N-3 launcher on a Kresta II class cruiser. ... A 2K11 TEL in transit. ... S-200 missile on its launcher. ... 2P25 TEL with missiles erected. ... 9K33M3 (SA-8 Gecko) TELAR. Photo by Naval Expeditionary Warfare Training. ... 9K31 transporter erector launcher. ... A single S-300-PM missile TEL ready to fire. ... A 9K37M TELAR 9A310M1. ... A single S-300-PM missile TEL ready to fire. ... An SA-13 TELAR. Photo by GulfLINK. The 9K35 Strela-10 (Russian: ; English: ) is a highly mobile, visually aimed, optical/infra-red guided, low-altitude, short-range surface to air missile system. ... An 9K34 Strela-3 (SA-14) missile and launch tube. ... A 9K330 TELAR. Photo from Field Artillery Magazine. ... The 9K38 Igla (Russian 9К38 Игла́ – needle, NATO reporting name SA-18 Grouse) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. ... A Buk-M1-2 SAM system 9A310M1-2 self-propelled launcher The 9K37M1-2 Buk-M1-2 (Russian Бук – beech, NATO reporting name SA-17 Grizzly) is the continuation of the series of Russian surface-to-air missiles (SAMs) which started with the 3M9 Kub (SA-6 Gainful) and 9K37 Buk... The 9K38 Igla (Russian 9К38 Игла́ – needle, NATO reporting name SA-18 Grouse) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. ... The Tunguska Integrated Air Defence System. ... A single S-300-PM missile TEL ready to fire. ... The S-400, 48N6DM The S-400 Triumf (Russian: ; English: ) is a new generation of anti-aircraft/anti-missile weapon system developed by the Almaz Central Design Bureau as an upgrade of the S-300 family. ... Pantsir-S1 (NATO reporting name SA-22) is a surface-to-air missile system produced by KBP of Tula, Russia. ... The S-300VM Antey-2500 (NATO reporting name SA-23 GladiatorGiant) is a new Russian anti-ballistic missile system. ... The 9K38 Igla (Russian 9К38 Игла́ – needle, NATO reporting name SA-18 Grouse) is a Russian/Soviet man-portable infrared homing surface-to-air missile (SAM) system. ...

List of Russian and former Soviet missiles
Missiles

 
 

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