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Encyclopedia > Street children
Afghan street urchin smiles for the camera in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan (June 2003).
Afghan street urchin smiles for the camera in downtown Kabul, Afghanistan (June 2003).

The term street children is used to refer to children who live on the streets. They are deprived of family care and protection. Most children on the streets are between the ages of 10 and 14 years old, and their populace between different cities is varied. 'Street children 'street urchins' are homeless children who live on the street. In particular, those that are not taken care of by parents or other adults. Street children live in abandoned buildings, containers, automobiles, parks, or on the street itself. A great deal has been written defining street children. The problem is that there are no precise categories but rather a continuum ranging from children who spend some time in the streets but basically live at home to those who live entirely in the streets and have no adult supervision or care. Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (2203 × 1440 pixel, file size: 197 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 523 pixelsFull resolution (2203 × 1440 pixel, file size: 197 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... For other places with the same name, see Kabul (disambiguation). ... For the Korean family name Park, see Korean name. ...


A widely accepted set of definitions, commonly attributed to UNICEF, defines street children into two main categories: UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ...

  1. Children on the street are those engaged in some kind of economic activity ranging from begging to vending. Most go home at the end of the day and contribute their earnings to their family. They may be attending school and retain a sense of belonging to a family. Because of the economic fragility of the family, these children may eventually opt for a permanent life on the streets.
  2. Children of the street actually live on the street (or outside of a normal family environment). Family ties may exist but are tenuous and are maintained only casually or occasionally.[1]

Street children exist in many major cities, especially in developing countries, and may be the subject of abuse, neglect, exploitation, or even in extreme cases murder by "clean up squads" hired by local businesses.[2] Beggars in Samarkand, 1905 Begging is the practice whereby a person obtains money, food, shelter or other things from people they encounter by request. ... Soda pop and snack machines A vending machine is a machine that dispenses merchandise when a customer deposits money, validated by a currency detector, sufficient to purchase the desired item (as opposed to a shop, where the presence of personnel is required for every purchase). ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... A developing country is a country with low average income compared to the world average. ... Abuser redirects here. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Exploitation means many different things. ...


In Latin America, a common cause is abandonment by poor families unable to feed all their children. In Africa, an increasingly common cause is AIDS. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... Child abandonment is the practice of abandoning offspring outside of legal adoption. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Definitions

The question of how to define a street child has generated much discussion that is usefully summarized by Sarah Thomas de Benítez in, "The State of the World's Street Children: Violence."

‘Street children’ is increasingly recognized by sociologists and anthropologists to be a socially constructed category that in reality does not form a clearly defined, homogeneous population or phenomenon (Glauser, 1990; Ennew, 2000; Moura, 2002). ‘Street children’ covers children in such a wide variety of circumstances and characteristics that policy-makers and service providers find it difficult to describe and target them. Upon peeling away the ‘street children’ label, individual girls and boys of all ages are found living and working in public spaces, visible in the great majority of the world’s urban centres.[3]

The definition of ‘street children’ is contested, but many practitioners and policymakers use UNICEF’s concept of boys and girls aged under 18 for whom ‘the street’ (including unoccupied dwellings and wasteland) has become home and/or their source of livelihood, and who are inadequately protected or supervised (Black, 1993).[4]

Names

Street Children is a widely used term in the English language and has analogues in other languages such as French (les enfants des rues), Spanish (niños de la calle), Portuguese (meninos da rua) and German (straßenkinder). Street kids is also commonly employed although it is sometimes thought to be pejorative. [5] In other languages children who live and/or work in the streets are known by many names. Some examples are listed below:

"gamin" (urchin) and "chinches" (bed bugs) in Colombia, "marginais" (criminals/marginals) in Rio, "pajaro frutero" (fruit birds) in Peru, "polillas" (moths) in Bolivia, "resistoleros" (little rebels) in Honduras, "scugnizzi" (spinning tops) in Naples, "Bui Doi" (dust children) in Vietnam, "saligoman" (nasty kids) in Rwanda, or "poussins" (chicks), "moustiques" (mosquitos) in Cameroon and "balados" (wanderers) in Zaire and Congo.[6]

Numbers, Distribution and Gender

Numbers

Estimates vary but one often-cited figure is that the number of children living independently in the streets totals between 100 million and 150 million worldwide.


According to a report from the Consortium for Street Children, a United Kingdom based consortium of related NGOs: NGO is an abbreviation or code for: Non-governmental organization Nagoya Airport (IATA code) This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ...

Estimating numbers of ‘street children’ is fraught with difficulties. In 1989, UNICEF estimated 100 million children were growing up on urban streets around the world. 14 years later UNICEF reported: ‘The latest estimates put the numbers of these children as high as 100 million’ (UNICEF, 2002: 37). And even more recently: ‘The exact number of street children is impossible to quantify, but the figure almost certainly runs into tens of millions across the world. It is likely that the numbers are increasing’ (UNICEF, 2005: 40-41). The 100 million figure is still commonly cited, but has no basis in fact (see Ennew and Milne, 1989; Hecht, 1998; Green, 1998). Similarly, it is debatable whether numbers of street children are growing globally or whether it is the awareness of street children within societies which has grown.[7]

Distribution

Street children may be found on every continent in a large majority of the world's cities. The following estimates indicate the global extent of street child populations.

  • Kenya 250,000 - 300,000[8]
  • Egypt 200,000 - 1 million[9]
  • Morocco 30,000[10]
  • India 11 million[11]
  • Vietnam 23,000[12]
  • Mongolia 3700 - 4000[13]
  • Philippines 200,000[14]
  • Brazil 1 - 10 million (conflicting estimates)[15]
  • Uruguay 3000[16]
  • Jamaica 6,500[17]
  • Russia 1 - 3 million[18]

While the majority are in underdeveloped or poor countries, they are also found in highly industrialized and relatively rich states such as Germany (10,000)[19] and the USA (750,000 to 1 million).[20]


Gender

Although there are variations from country to country, 70% or more of street children are boys.[21][22]


History

Children sleeping in Mulberry Street - Jacob Riis photo New York, United States of America (1890)
Children sleeping in Mulberry Street - Jacob Riis photo New York, United States of America (1890)

Children making their home/livelihoods on the street is not a new or modern phenomenon. In the introduction to his history of abandoned children in Soviet Russia 1918 -1930, Alan Ball states: This article is about the state. ... Motto: (traditional) In God We Trust (official, 1956–present) Anthem: The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City Official language(s) None at the federal level; English de facto Government Federal Republic  - President George W. Bush (R)  - Vice President Dick Cheney (R) Independence - Declared - Recognized...

Orphaned and abandoned children have been a source of misery from earliest times. They apparently accounted for most of the boy prostitutes in Augustan Rome and, a few centuries later, moved a church council of 442 in southern Gaul to declare: “Concerning abandoned children: there is general complaint that they are nowadays exposed more to dogs than to kindness.”[1] In tsarist Russia, seventeenth-century sources described destitute youths roaming the streets, and the phenomenon survived every attempt at eradication thereafter. Long before the Russian Revolution, the term besprizornye had gained wide currency.[2][23]

In 1890, Danish-American journalist Jacob Riis described "street arabs" in New York and his description of their characteristics and mode of life could easily be applied to modern street children.[24] Jacob Riis in 1906 Jacob August Riis (May 3, 1849 - May 26, 1914), a Danish-American muckraker journalist, photographer, and social reformer, was born in Ribe, Denmark. ...


Examples from popular fiction include Kipling's “Kim” as a street child in colonial India, and Fagin's crew of pickpockets in "Oliver Twist" as well as Sherlock Holmes' "Baker Street Irregulars" attest to the presence of street children in 19th century London. This article is about the novel. ... Oliver Twist (1838) is Charles Dickens second novel. ... The Baker Street Irregulars are several different groups, all named after the original, from various Sherlock Holmes stories. ...


Causes

Children may end up on the streets for several basic reasons: They may have no choice – they are abandoned, orphaned, or thrown out of their homes. Secondly, they may choose to live in the streets because of mistreatment or neglect or because their homes do not or cannot provide them with basic necessities. Many children also work in the streets because their earnings are needed by their families. But homes and families are part of the larger society and the underlying reasons for the poverty or breakdown of homes and families may be social, economic, political or environmental or any combination of these.


In a 1993 report, WHO offered the following list of causes for the phenomenon:[25] WHO redirects here. ...

  • family breakdown
  • armed conflict
  • poverty
  • natural and man-made disasters
  • famine
  • physical and sexual abuse
  • exploitation by adults
  • dislocation through migration
  • urbanization and overcrowding
  • acculturation

The orphaning of children as a result of HIV/AIDS is another cause that might be added to this list.[26][27]


Street children in Russia

In Russia, street children usually find a home in underground pipe and cable collectors during the harsh winter. These underground homes offer space, shelter and most importantly of all, heat from hot water and central heating pipes. For other uses, see Winter (disambiguation). ...


Russia has up to 4 million street children,[28] and one crime in four involves underage youths. Officially, the number of children without supervision is more than 700,000. However, experts believe the real figure has long been between 2 and 4 million.[29]


Street children in India

Two street children in Chennai, India
Two street children in Chennai, India

The Republic of India is the seventh largest and second most populous country in the world. With acceleration in economic growth, India has become one of the fastest growing developing countries. This has created a rift between poor and rich; 22 percent of the population lives below the income poverty line. Due to unemployment, increasing rural-urban migration, attraction of city life and a lack of political will India now has one of the largest number of child laborers in the world. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (728 × 938 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 465 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (728 × 938 pixel, file size: 159 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Madras redirects here. ...


Street children are subject to malnutrition, hunger, health problems, substance abuse, theft, CSE, harassment by the city police and railway authorities, as well as physical and sexual abuse, although the Government of India has taken some corrective measures and declared child labor as illegal. Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... The commercial sexual exploitation of children (CSEC) has been defined as one of the worst forms of child labour by the Worst Forms of Child Labour Convention (Convention No 182) of the International Labour Organization (ILO). ...


Street children in Vietnam

According to data by the Street Educators’ Club, the number of street children in Vietnam has reduced from 21,000 in 2003 to 8,000 in 2007. The number dropped from 1,507 to 113 in Hanoi and from 8,507 to 794 in Ho Chi Minh City. In the meantime the number of migrant children is increasing. Many street children are by large migrants as well. The Number is, however, not to be confirmed due to the different definition on street children. There are almost 400 humanitarian organisations and international non-governmental organizations providing help for about 15,000 children, who live in especially difficult conditions[30]. Such organizations include Young Lives International, VNhelp, Saigon Children's Charity, KOTO Hanoi, Humanitarian Services for Children of Vietnam, Enfants du Monde - Droits de l'Homme, Children of Vietnam, Catalyst Foundation, Aid Children Without Parents, Save the Children Sweden, Cay Mai street children, Care program and others. Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Saigon redirects here. ... This is a list of non-governmental organizations working in Vietnam or connected with Vietnam. ... Catalyst Foundation - non-profit organization supporting orphaned, abandoned and homeless children in Vietnam through scholarship programs and direct relief efforts. ... Save the Children Logo Save the Children is an international non-profit organization dedicated to working for children. ...


Street children in Bucharest, Romania

The Council of Europe estimates that there are approximately 1000 street children in Bucharest, Romania, though estimates range from several hundred to 10,000. These children are homeless as a result of the policies of former Communist ruler Nicolae Ceauşescu, who forbade contraception in the hopes of ruling a populous nation, or of his successors, who consider the economy of greater importance than social welfare. Many of these children are abandoned or run away from home because their parents are too poor to feed them. Anthem Ode to Joy (orchestral)  ten founding members joined subsequently observer at the Parliamentary Assembly observer at the Committee of Ministers  official candidate Seat Strasbourg, France Membership 47 European states 5 observers (Council) 3 observers (Assembly) Leaders  -  Secretary General Terry Davis  -  President of the Parliamentary Assembly Rene van der Linden... Nickname: Motto: Patria si Dreptul Meu (My Country and My Right) Location of Bucharest within Romania (in red) Coordinates: , Country County Founded 1459 (first official record) Government  - Mayor Adriean Videanu Area  - City 228 km² (88 sq mi)  - Metro 238 km² (91. ... Nicolae CeauÅŸescu (IPA , in English, sometimes (and erroneously) ) (January 26, 1918–December 25, 1989) was the leader of Romania from 1965 until December 1989, when a revolution and coup removed him from power. ...


Some Romanian street children are preyed on by sex tourists, mainly from western Europe, and many can be seen inhaling aurolac (a paint thinner) from plastic bags, the substance of choice for those of limited means. Sex tourism is tourism, partially or fully for the purpose of having sex, often with prostitutes. ... A current understanding of Western Europe. ... An aerosol metered-dose inhaler (MDI) used for administration of asthma medication. ... Look up substance in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


Street children in Brazil

Estimates on the numbers of Brazilian street children vary from 200 to 8 million. In one recent survey in São Paulo, 609 children were found to be sleeping on the streets. At least 50 were under 12 and unaccompanied by adult relations. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... This article is about the city. ...


The main means of surviving on Brazil's streets are: finding food in rubbish bins or on refuse tips; being financially exploited by street sellers or as shoe shiners; stealing; prostitution; drug running. Theft (also known as stealing) is, in general, the wrongful taking of someone elses property without that persons willful consent. ... The Optional protocol on the sale of children, child prostitution and child pornography to the Convention on the Rights of the Child states that the prostitution of children or child prostitution is the practice whereby a child is used by others for sexual activities in return for remuneration or any...


Street children are known to receive beatings from the police or members of the public and also can face imprisonment, malnutrition, disease and AIDS. A prison is a place in which people are confined and deprived of a range of liberties. ... Percentage of population affected by malnutrition by country, according to United Nations statistics. ... This article is about the medical term. ... For other uses, see AIDS (disambiguation). ...


Underlying causes

Brazil is the fifth largest country in the world with a population of approximately 190 million people. The disparity between the rich and the poor in Brazilian society is one of the largest. The richest 1% of Brazil's population control 50% of its income. The poorest 50% of society live on just 10% of the country's wealth.


Street children are an urban problem which has roots in rural poverty, neglect and the enforced, even violent displacement of large numbers of people from the land. A boy from an East Cipinang trash dump slum in Jakarta, Indonesia shows what he found. ...


This problem is accentuated by the fact that the urban population is becoming younger. In Latin America alone, projections for the year 2020 point to 300 million urban minors, 30% of whom will be extremely poor [Ref: Independent Commission on International Issues]. 78% of the Brazilian population live in cities and towns. Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ...


The persistent poverty, rapid industrialisation and the burgeoning of urban shanty towns (favelas), generate massive social and economic upheaval. Profound poverty means family disintegration, violence and break-up become more prevalent. For other uses, see Violence (disambiguation). ...


Death squads

Most of Brazil's street children expect to be killed before they are 18. Between 4 and 5 adolescents are murdered daily and that every 12 minutes a child is beaten [Ref: Brazil's National Movement of Street Children]. Conservative figures put the number at 2 killings every day.


There are reports that some children have been executed and/or mutilated. In July 1993, eight children and adolescents were killed in a shooting near the Candelária Church in Rio. This event was widely publicised around the world, and the routine killing of street children in Brazil was harshly criticised. As a result, the death squads moved underground. However, corrupt officials are still reputed to be involved - In São Paulo, 20% of homicides committed by the police were against minors in the first months of 1999.[citations needed]


Drug gangs

Drug gangs now account for roughly half the child murders in Rio [Rio de Janeiro State Legislature]. Since the 1990s, a pervasive drug culture has been burgeoning. Today, Brazil ranks as the second biggest consumer of cocaine in the world, after the USA. As a result, in Rio's 680 favelas (where 25% of the city's population live) drug gangs control extremely violent areas. Some street children are recruited by such drug gangs and given guns for protection. They then traffic drugs and messages between sellers and buyers. A child's chance of dying in the drug areas of the favelas is "eight to nine times greater than in the Middle East". [Ref: Save The Children] Drug subcultures are examples of countercultures, primarily defined by recreational drug use. ... For other uses, see Cocaine (disambiguation). ... This article is about firearms and similar devices. ...


Government and non-government responses

Responses by governments

Because they have not reached the age of majority street children have no representation in the governing process. They have no vote themselves nor by proxy through their parents, from whom they likely are alienated. Nor do street children have any economic leverage. Governments, consequently, may pay little attention to them.


The rights of street children are often ignored by governments despite the fact that the nearly all of the world's governments[31] have ratified the UN Convention on the Rights of the Child.[32] Governments are often embarrassed by street children and may blame parents or neighboring countries.[33][34] Non-Governmental Organizations (NGOs) may also be blamed for encouraging children to live in the streets by making street life more bearable or attractive through the services they provide.[35] The United Nations Convention on the Rights of the Child is an international convention setting out the civil, political, economic, social and cultural rights of children. ... NGO redirects here. ...


When governments implement programs to deal with street children these generally involve placing the children in orphanages, juvenile homes or correctional institutes.[36][37] However, some children are in the streets because they have fled from such institutions[38][39][40][41] and some governments prefer to support or work in partnership with NGO programs.[42] Governments sometimes institute roundups when they remove all the children from city streets and deposit them elsewhere or incarcerate them.[43][44][45]


In the most extreme cases, governments may tacitly accept or participate in social cleansing operations that murder street children.[46][47][48] In Brazil, for example, "Police say the death squads earn $40 to $50 for killing a street kid and as much as $500 for an adult. In January, Health Minister Alceni Guerra said the government had evidence that 'businessmen are financing and even directing the killing of street children.'"[49]


NGO responses

Non-government organizations employ a wide variety of strategies to address the needs and rights of street children. These may be categorized as follows:

  • Advocacy - through media and government contacts agencies may press for the rights of street children to be respected.
  • Preventive - programs that work to prevent children from taking to the streets, through family and community support and education.
  • Institutional
    • residential rehabilitation programs - some agencies provide an environment isolated from the streets where activities are focussed on assisting children to recover from drug, physical or sexual abuse.
    • full-care residential homes - the final stage in many agencies' programs is when the child is no longer in the streets but lives completely in an environment provided by the agency. Some agencies promote fostering children to individual families. Others set up group homes where a small number of children live together with houseparents employed by the agency. Others set up institutional care centers catering to large numbers of children. Some agencies include a follow-up program that monitors and counsels children and families after the child has left the residential program.
  • Street based programs - these work to alleviate the worst aspects of street life for children by providing services to them in the streets. These programs tend to be less expensive and serve a larger number of street children than institutional programs since the children still must provide for themselves in the streets.
    • feeding programs
    • medical services
    • legal assistance
    • street education
    • financial services (banking and entrepreneur programs)
    • family re-unification
    • drop-in centers/night shelters
    • outreach programs designed to bring the children into closer contact with the agency
  • Conscientization - change street children's attitudes to their circumstances - view themselves as an oppressed minority and become protagonists rather than passive recipients of aid.[50][51]

Many agencies employ several of these strategies and a child will pass through a number of stages before he or she "graduates". First he/she will be contacted by an outreach program, then may become involved in drop-in center programs, though still living in the streets. Later the child may be accepted into a half-way house and finally into residential care where he or she becomes fully divorced from street life.[52][53]


See also

Benposta (from the Galician words ben and posta, meaning well set), known in Spanish as Ciudad de los Muchachos (City of Youth), is a communal charitable organization for troubled youth founded by Father Jesús Silva in 1952. ... Bag lady redirects here. ... For other uses, see Orphan (disambiguation). ... A runaway child is a minor who has left the home of his or her parent or legal guardian without permission. ... Covenant House is the largest privately-funded childcare agency in the United States providing shelter and service to homeless and runaway youth. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.unicef.org/evaldatabase/files/ZAM_01-009.pdf UNICEF assessment of street children
  2. ^ http://hrw.org/children/street.htm Human Rights Watch- Abuse of Street Children
  3. ^ Page 8, Section 2.2. State of the World's Street Children-Violence. www.streetchildren.org.uk. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  4. ^ Page 2. State of the World's Street Children-Violence. www.streetchildren.org.uk. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  5. ^ Don't Call Me Street Kid Campaign English Home. www.iadb.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  6. ^ Street Children: WHO 3 of 9. www.pangaea.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  7. ^ Page 64, Section 7.1.1. State of the World's Street Children-Violence. www.streetchildren.org.uk. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  8. ^ IRIN In-Depth. www.irinnews.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  9. ^ UNICEF - Press centre - British Airways staff visit street children centres in Cairo. www.unicef.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  10. ^ Guardian. www.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  11. ^ Street Children "our lives our words" - NI 377 - The Facts. www.newint.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  12. ^ World Street Children News :: Street children roundup `common’ :: November :: 2006. streetkidnews.blogsome.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  13. ^ Ecpat International. www.ecpat.net. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  14. ^ World Street Children News :: Children in detention in the Philippines :: November :: 2003. streetkidnews.blogsome.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  15. ^ A chacina das crianças da Candelária. www.veja.com.br. Retrieved on 2008-04-06. Hope Unlimited launches $4.8 million campaign for street kids. www.christianexaminer.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  16. ^ Street Children "our lives our words" - NI 377 - Ricardo: ‘The only thing I hate in the world is the police’. www.newint.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  17. ^ No night out for street kids - JAMAICAOBSERVER.COM. www.jamaicaobserver.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  18. ^ Doctors of the World - USA: Health is a Human Right. www.dowusa.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  19. ^ Growing number of street children in Germany, report says : Europe World. www.earthtimes.org. Retrieved on 2008-03-22.
  20. ^ Street Children "our lives our words" - NI 377 - The Facts. www.newint.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  21. ^ Consortium for Street Children. www.streetchildren.org.uk. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  22. ^ Street Children: WHO 3 of 9. www.pangaea.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  23. ^ And Now My Soul Is Hardened. content.cdlib.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  24. ^ XVII. The Street Arab. Riis, Jacob A. 1890. How the Other Half Lives. www.bartleby.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  25. ^ Street Children: WHO 3 of 9. www.pangaea.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  26. ^ African Orphans Project - help AIDS orphans and streetkids live a better life. inicia.es. Retrieved on 2008-02-05.
  27. ^ UNICEF - Ethiopia - Ethiopia: Steady increase in street children orphaned by AIDS. www.unicef.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  28. ^ 'Child by child,' group aids homeless street kids
  29. ^ FCF's Work with Russian Street Kids
  30. ^ Greater commitment to Vietnamese street children needed, Asia News
  31. ^ The USA and Somalia are the only states that have not ratified the CRC. See HRW Report, "Promises Broken"
  32. ^ PROMISES BROKEN. www.hrw.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  33. ^ Manila exec revives bill penalizing parents of street kids - INQUIRER.net, Philippine News for Filipinos. newsinfo.inquirer.net. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  34. ^ World Street Children News :: Joint effort to solve plight of street children :: April :: 2006. streetkidnews.blogsome.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  35. ^ World Street Children News :: WFP denies ‘encouraging’ street children in Uganda :: September :: 2006. streetkidnews.blogsome.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  36. ^ Daily Express, Sabah, Malaysia - Only if 500 street kids or more. www.dailyexpress.com.my. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  37. ^ Stabroek News - Gov't Promises residential Facility for Street Children. www.stabroeknews.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  38. ^ JRL - Russia, Children, Homelessness, Moscow Street Children. www.cdi.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  39. ^ Guardian. www.guardian.co.uk. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  40. ^ Dishing Out Food and Hope to Georgia's Street Children. www.wfp.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  41. ^ Bolivia: Abandoned Street Children Turn To Drugs. www.wfn.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  42. ^ PMC to build a nest for street kids-Pune-Cities-The Times of India. timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-09.
  43. ^ Ethiopia: Cruel and inhumane actions against street children in Addis Ababa (World Organisation Against Torture (OMCT) Human Rights NGO). www.geocities.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  44. ^ Children of the Dust: Abuse of Hanoi Street Children in Detentions. www.hrw.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  45. ^ Zimbabwe Police In Roundup Of Harare Street Children And Vendors. www.voanews.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  46. ^ Bands of children back on streets in San Jose. www.amcostarica.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  47. ^ Armedcon: Countries, Guatemala - Historic Award to Guatemalan Street Children Families. www.essex.ac.uk. Retrieved on 2008-02-10.
  48. ^ The Manila Times Internet Edition. www.manilatimes.net. Retrieved on 2008-02-12.
  49. ^ stephen brookes - international - The Murder of Rio's Street Kids. www.stephenbrookes.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  50. ^ Shine-A-Light. www.shinealight.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-16.
  51. ^ Street Action. www.streetaction.org. Retrieved on 2008-02-16.
  52. ^ What Works in Street Children Programming: The JUCONI Model. International Youth Foundation. Retrieved on 2008-02-07.
  53. ^ Street children in Latin America -- Scanlon et al. 316 (7144): 1596 -- BMJ. www.bmj.com. Retrieved on 2008-02-17.

UNICEF Logo The United Nations Childrens Fund or UNICEF (Arabic: ; French: ; Spanish: ) was established by the United Nations General Assembly on December 11, 1946. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 96th day of the year (97th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 36th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 40th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 41st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 43rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 47th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...

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  Results from FactBites:
 
STREET CHILDREN IN GABORONE BOTSWANA (4051 words)
This issue of children's future was already touched on during the first phase of the Programme through a study on the rehabiliation of street children in a french speaking country (Congo).
These children are not at school and are separated from the home for the most part of the day with the result that they are deprived of parental care and guidance in their formative years.
It is evident from the field that parents' views on the factors which influenced their children's decision to be on the streets are somewhat inconsistent with those of the street children.
Who are the Street Children? (647 words)
Broadly, street children are those for whom the street (in the widest sense of the word: unoccupied dwellings, wasteland, doorways, sewers…) more than their family, has become their real home, a situation in which there is no protection, supervision, or direction from responsible adults.
“Children of the streets” are those whose ties with family are completely broken and who are completely alone, without support (even the support of extended family, step-family, or god parents) and must struggle for daily survival.
The street children that we have worked with have told us that it is impossible to survive in the streets without using drugs such as terokal (a toxic glue used for shoes), crack, and cocaine.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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