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Encyclopedia > Streaming media

Streaming media is multimedia that is continuously received by, and normally displayed to, the end-user while it is being delivered by the provider. The name refers to the delivery method of the medium rather than to the medium itself. The distinction is usually applied to media that are distributed over telecommunications networks, as most other delivery systems are either inherently streaming (e.g. radio, television) or inherently non-streaming (e.g. books, video cassettes, audio CDs). The verb 'to stream' is also derived from this term, meaning to deliver media in this manner. Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The end user is a central concept in software engineering, referring to an abstraction of the group of persons who will ultimately use a piece of software (i. ... A telecommunications network is a network of telecommunications links arranged so that messages may be passed from one part of the network to another over multiple links. ... [1]#redirect Book ... Bottom view of VHS videotape cassette with magnetic tape exposed Videotape is a means of recording images and sound onto magnetic tape as opposed to movie film. ... CD redirects here. ...

Contents

History

Attempts to display media on computers date back to the earliest days of computing, in the mid-20th century. However, little progress was made for several decades, due primarily to the high cost and limited capabilities of computer hardware.


Academic experiments in the 1970s proved out the basic concepts and feasibility of streaming media on computers.


During the late 1980s, consumer-grade computers became powerful enough to display various media. The primary technical issues with streaming were:

However, computer networks were still limited, and media was usually delivered over non-streaming channels, such as CD-ROMs. CPU can stand for: in computing: Central processing unit in journalism: Commonwealth Press Union in law enforcement: Crime prevention unit in software: Critical patch update, a type of software patch distributed by Oracle Corporation in Macleans College is often known as Ash Lim. ... -1... Low latency allows human-unnoticeable delays between an input being processed and the corresponding output providing real time characteristics. ... An operating system (OS) is the software that manages the sharing of the resources of a computer and provides programmers with an interface used to access those resources. ... In computing, buffer underrun is a state occurring when a buffer used to communicate between two devices or processes is fed with data at a lower speed than the data is being read from it. ... The CD-ROM (an abbreviation for Compact Disc Read-Only Memory (ROM)) is a non-volatile optical data storage medium using the same physical format as audio compact discs, readable by a computer with a CD-ROM drive. ...


The late 1990s saw:

  • greater network bandwidth, especially in the last mile
  • increased access to networks, especially the Internet
  • use of standard protocols and formats, such as TCP/IP, HTTP, and HTML
  • commercialization of the Internet

These advances in computer networking combined with powerful home computers and modern operating systems made streaming media practical and affordable for ordinary consumers. Stand-alone Internet radio devices are offering listeners a "no-computer" option for listening to audio streams. The last mile is the final leg of delivering connectivity from a communications provider to a customer. ... The Internet protocol suite is the set of communications protocols that implement the protocol stack on which the Internet and most commercial networks run. ... Hypertext Transfer Protocol (HTTP) is a communications protocol used to transfer or convey information on the World Wide Web. ... In computing, HyperText Markup Language (HTML) is a markup language designed for the creation of web pages and other information viewable in a browser. ... An Internet radio device is a hardware device that receives and plays audio from Internet radio stations or a users PC. The devices which are currently on the market mainly support MP3 (MPEG2 Layer 3) streaming. ...


In general, multimedia content is large, so media storage and transmission costs are still significant; to offset this somewhat, media are generally compressed for both storage and streaming. Look up Multimedia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... “Source coding” redirects here. ...


A media stream can be on demand or live. On demand streams are stored on a server for a long period of time, and are available to be transmitted at a user's request. Live streams are only available at one particular time, as in a video stream of a live sporting event.


Research in streaming media is ongoing and representative research can be found at the Journal of Multimedia. The Journal of Multimedia is a peer-reviewed scientific journal published monthly by Academy Publisher. ...


Streaming bandwidth and storage

Streaming media storage size (in the common file system measurements megabytes, gigabytes, terabytes, and so on) is calculated from streaming bandwidth and length of the media with the following formula (for a single user and file): ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... This article is about the unit of measurement. ... This article is about a measurement term for data storage capacity. ...

storage size (in megabytes) = length (in seconds) · bit rate (in kbit/s) / 8,388.608

(since 1 megabyte = 8 * 1,048,576 bits = 8,388.608 kilobits) This article is about the unit of time. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ... ReBoot character, see Megabyte (ReBoot). ... A kilobit is a unit of information storage, abbreviated kbit or sometimes kb. ...


Real world example:


One hour of video encoded at 300 kbit/s (this is a typical broadband video for 2005 and it's usually encoded in a 320×240 pixels window size) will be: The hour (symbol: h) is a unit of time. ...

(3,600 s · 300 kbit/s) / 8,388.608 = 128.7 MiB of storage

If the file is stored on a server for on-demand streaming and this stream is viewed by 1,000 people using a Unicast protocol, you would need formula here</math></math></math></math></math>The three-letter acronym MIB may refer to any of several concepts: Management Information Base, a computing information repository used (for example) by Simple Network Management Protocol An abbreviation for mebibyte (MiB) or mebibit (Mib) Men in Black, a group of mysterious agents... In computer networks, unicast is the sending of information packets to a single destination. ...


300 kbit/s · 1,000 = 300,000 kbit/s = 300 Mbit/s of bandwidth A megabit per second (mbps or mbit/s) is a unit of data transmission equal to 1,000 kilobits per second or 1,000,000 bits per second. ...


This is equivalent to 125.73 GiB per hour. Of course, using a Multicast protocol the server sends out only a single stream that is common to all users. Hence, such a stream would only use 300 kbit/s of bandwidth. See below for more information on these protocols. The term gib may refer to: a castrated male cat or ferret an abbreviation for gibibyte (GiB) or gibibit (Gib) an abbreviation for Gibraltar an abbreviation for Gib Board, itself an abbreviation of Gibraltar Board, all Winston Wallboards[1] tradenames for drywall (plasterboard). ... Routing Schemes anycast broadcast multicast unicast Multicast is sometimes also used to refer to a multiplexed broadcast, although that is a very different thing and should not be confused. ... In telecommunications and computing, bit rate (sometimes written bitrate) is the frequency at which bits are passing a given (physical or metaphorical) point. It is quantified using the bit per second (bit/s) unit. ...


Protocol issues

Designing a network protocol to support streaming media raises many issues.


Datagram protocols, such as the User Datagram Protocol (UDP), send the media stream as a series of small packets. This is simple and efficient; however, there is no mechanism within the protocol to guarantee delivery. It is up to the receiving application to detect loss or corruption and recover data using error correction techniques. If data is lost, the stream may suffer a dropout. A packet is the fundamental unit of information carriage in all modern computer networks. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ... In computer science and information theory, error correction consists of using methods to detect and/or correct errors in the transmission or storage of data by the use of some amount of redundant data and (in the case of transmission) the selective retransmission of incorrect segments of the data. ... Look up dropout in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


The Real-time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP) and the Real-time Transport Control Protocol (RTCP) were specifically designed to stream media over networks. The latter two are built on top of UDP. The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), developed by the IETF and published in 1998 as RFC 2326, is a protocol for use in streaming media systems which allows a client to remotely control a streaming media server, issuing VCR-like commands such as play and pause, and allowing time-based... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ... RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) is a sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). ...


Reliable protocols, such as the Transmission Control Protocol (TCP), guarantee correct delivery of each bit in the media stream. However, they accomplish this with a system of timeouts and retries, which makes them more complex to implement. It also means that when there is data loss on the network, the media stream stalls while the protocol handlers detect the loss and retransmit the missing data. Clients can minimize the effect of this by buffering data for display. The Transmission Control Protocol (TCP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ...


Another issue is that firewalls are more likely to block UDP-based protocols than TCP-based protocols. [citation needed]Unicast protocols send a separate copy of the media stream from the server to each client. This is simple, but can lead to massive duplication of data on the network. Multicast protocols undertake to send only one copy of the media stream over any given network connection, i.e. along the path between any two network routers. This is a more efficient use of network capacity, but it is much more complex to implement.[citation needed] In computer networks, unicast is the sending of information packets to a single destination. ... Routing Schemes anycast broadcast multicast unicast Multicast is sometimes also used to refer to a multiplexed broadcast, although that is a very different thing and should not be confused. ...


Furthermore, the most prominent of multicast protocols, IP Multicast, must be implemented in all nodes between server and client including network routers. As of 2005, most routers on the Internet however do not support IP Multicast, and many firewalls block it.[citation needed] IP Multicast is most practical for organizations that run their own networks, such as universities and corporations. Since they buy their own routers and run their own network links, they can decide if the cost and effort of supporting IP Multicast is justified by the resulting bandwidth savings. IP Multicast is a method of forwarding IP datagrams to a group of interested receivers. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Peer-to-peer (P2P) protocols arrange for media to be sent from clients that already have them to clients that do not. This prevents the server and its network connections from becoming a bottleneck. However, it raises technical, performance, quality, business, and legal issues. A peer-to-peer (or P2P) computer network is a network that relies on the computing power and bandwidth of the participants in the network rather than concentrating it in a relatively few servers. ...


Newer camcorders stream video to a computer over a FireWire connection. This uses a system of time-based reservations to ensure throughput, and can be received by multiple clients at once.[citation needed] Sony DV Handycam A camcorder is a portable electronic device for recording video images and audio onto an internal storage device. ... The 6-pin and 4-pin FireWire Connectors The alternative ethernet-style cabling used by 1394c FireWire is Apple Inc. ...


Widespread deployment of streaming media raises scaling and Quality of Service issues. Testing service deployments is a significant problem. Vendors offer equipment to test streaming services across a number of test domains including Scalability, Quality of Service, Quality of experience, and protocol conformance.[citation needed] In the fields of packet-switched networks and computer networking, the traffic engineering term Quality of Service (QoS) refers to control mechanisms that can provide different priority to different users or data flows, or guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow in accordance with requests from the... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Scale (computing). ... In the fields of packet-switched networks and computer networking, the traffic engineering term Quality of Service (QoS) refers to control mechanisms that can provide different priority to different users or data flows, or guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow in accordance with requests from the... Quality of Experience (QoE), also known as Quality of User Experience, is a subjective measure of a customers experiences with a vendor. ...


Social and legal issues

Some streaming broadcasters use streaming systems that interfere with the ability to record streams for later playback, either inadvertently, through poor choice of streaming protocol, or deliberately, because they believe it is to their advantage to do so. Broadcasters may be concerned that copies will result in lost sales or that consumers may skip commercials. Whether users have the ability and the right to record streams has become a significant issue in the application of law to cyberspace. It has been suggested that Virtual world be merged into this article or section. ...


In principle, there is no way to prevent a user from recording a media stream that has been delivered to their computer. Thus, the efforts of broadcasters to prevent this consist of making it inconvenient, or illegal, or both.


Additionally, using DRM (Digital Rights Management) technologies recording the bits that came through can give some control of the reproductions or plays, so if you have a file created to a streaming capture, you will need a license or key to unblock / decrypt the content. Digital rights management (DRM) is an umbrella term that refers to access control technologies used by publishers and other copyright holders to limit usage of digital media or devices. ...


Broadcasters can make it inconvenient to record a stream, for example, by using unpublished data formats or by encrypting the stream. Of course, data formats can be reverse engineered, and encrypted streams must be decrypted with a key that resides—somewhere—on the consumer's computer, so these measures are security through obscurity, at best. Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical component, a software program, etc. ... In cryptography and computer security, security through obscurity (sometimes security by obscurity) is to some a controversial principle in security engineering, which attempts to use secrecy (of design, implementation, etc. ...


Efforts to make it illegal to record a stream may rely on copyrights, patents, license agreements, or—in the United States—the DMCA. Not to be confused with copywriting. ... For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... To licence or grant licence is to give permission. ... The Digital Millennium Copyright Act (DMCA) is a controversial United States copyright law which criminalizes production and dissemination of technology that can circumvent measures taken to protect copyright, not merely infringement of copyright itself, and heightens the penalties for copyright infringement on the Internet. ...


References

is the 135th day of the year (136th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ...

See also

Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Shortcut: WP:WIN Wikipedia is an online encyclopedia and, as a means to that end, also an online community. ... // Streaming of high quality audio over IP networks is being increasingly used by broadcasters and others to provide high-quality audio contribution feeds (for example to provide audio links between a sports venue or concert hall and the broadcasters studios) Audio quality and delay (on duplex transmissions) are key... The Center for Democracy and Technology (CDT) is a Washington, DC based non-profit advocacy group that works to promote democratic values and constitutional liberties in the Digital Age. ... List of streaming media systems List of Internet stations Streaming media Community radio Internet radio device Internet radio Internet television Electronic commerce Categories: | | | | ... Destreaming or De-streaming is the process of recording streaming media onto your pc. ... EFF Logo The Electronic Frontier Foundation (EFF) is an international non-profit advocacy and legal organization based in the United States with the stated purpose of being dedicated to preserving free speech rights such as those protected by the First Amendment to the United States Constitution in the context of... Internet radio (aka e-Radio) is an audio broadcasting service transmitted via the Internet. ... An Internet radio device is a hardware device that receives and plays audio from Internet radio stations or a users PC. The devices which are currently on the market mainly support MP3 (MPEG2 Layer 3) streaming. ... This article is about internet protocol television. ... The following is a list of codecs. ... This is a list of Wikipedia articles on Internet streaming media resources. ... This is a list of streaming media systems with articles Broadwave Allows you to create your own broadcast from pre-recorded or live audio Campcaster Open source radio station management, live broadcast and remote automation Clipstream Upload to existing web server, no player required (uses Java) Epresence FFmpeg Flash Media... The term P2PTV refers to peer-to-peer software applications designed to redistribute video streams or files on a p2p network, typically TV stations across the world. ... In the fields of packet-switched networks and computer networking, the traffic engineering term Quality of Service (QoS) refers to control mechanisms that can provide different priority to different users or data flows, or guarantee a certain level of performance to a data flow in accordance with requests from the... Stream recorder, also called a stream ripper, is a computer program capable of saving data stream (containing for instance encoded music or video from a radio or a TV channel respectively) to a file instead of playing it straightaway. ... An overview of how VoIP works A typical analog telephone adapter for connecting an ordinary phone to a VoIP network Ciscos implementation of VoIP - IP Phone Voice over Internet Protocol, also called VoIP (pronounced voyp), IP Telephony, Internet telephony, Broadband telephony, Broadband Phone and Voice over Broadband is the... A webcast is a live media file distributed over the Internet using streaming media technology. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... It has been suggested that H.331 be merged into this article or section. ... Video clips are short clips in video format and predominantly found on the internet where the massive influx of new video clips during 2006 was dubbed as a new phenomenon having a profound impact on both the internet and other forms of media. ... Video commerce is transacting from a video using Internet (IP) communications. ... Video on demand (VOD) systems allow users to select and watch video and clip content over a network as part of an interactive television system. ... Video sharing refers to websites or software where a user can distribute their video clips. ...

Streaming media technologies

Adobe Flash, or simply Flash, refers to both the Adobe Flash Player, and to the Adobe Flash Professional multimedia authoring program. ... Accordent Technologies, Inc is a computer software company that develops rich media presentations that include online video synchronized with slides and other visuals. ... Ampache is a Web-based Audio file manager Ampache is a play on the two words Apache and Amplifier. ... Clipstream is a proprietary streaming media software product from Destiny Media Technologies. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Icecast is a free streaming media project maintained by the Xiph. ... FreeCast Manager, listeners website and FreeCast client FreeCast is a free software application which allows peer-to-peer streaming, sometimes called peercasting. ... // The Matroska Multimedia Container is an open standard free multimedia container format that can hold an unlimited number of video, audio, picture or subtitle tracks inside a single file. ... Windows Media is a multimedia framework for media creation and distribution for Microsoft Windows. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... Orb is a freeware streaming software that enables users to remotely access all their personal digital media files including pictures, music, videos, webcams and television. ... QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... ReelTime. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... RealPlayer, briefly known also as RealOne Player, is a cross-platform media player by RealNetworks that plays a number of multimedia formats including MP3, MPEG-4, QuickTime, Windows Media and multiple versions of proprietary RealAudio and RealVideo formats. ... SHOUTcast is a multiplatform freeware digital audio streaming technology developed by Nullsoft. ... The Slingbox is a TV streaming device that enables consumers to remotely view their cable, satellite, or personal video recorder (PVR) programming from an Internet-enabled computer with a broadband Internet connection. ... The SlimServer is a streaming audio server supported by Slim Devices, developed in particular to support their range of digital audio receivers. ... Winamp is a proprietary media player written by Nullsoft, now a subsidiary of Time Warner. ... Categories: Pages on votes for deletion | Stub ... Unreal Media Server is a streaming server for Windows platforms, designed to provide multimedia delivery over LAN and Internet. ...

Stream and transport protocols

HTTP (for HyperText Transfer Protocol) is the primary method used to convey information on the World Wide Web. ... Microsofts streaming server Microsoft Media Services (also called NetShow Services) uses the Microsoft Media Server (MMS) protocol to transfer unicast data. ... Real Time Messaging Protocol (RTMP) is a proprietary protocol developed by Adobe Systems (formerly developed by Macromedia) that is primarily used with Macromedia Flash Media Server to stream audio and video over the internet to the Adobe Flash Player client. ... The Real-time Transport Protocol (or RTP) defines a standardized packet format for delivering audio and video over the Internet. ... RTP Control Protocol (RTCP) is a sister protocol of the Real-time Transport Protocol (RTP). ... The Real Time Streaming Protocol (RTSP), developed by the IETF and created in 1998 as RFC 2326, is a protocol for use in streaming media systems which allows a client to remotely control a streaming media server, issuing VCR-like commands such as play and pause, and allowing time-based... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... RDT (Real Data Transport) is a transport protocol developed by RealNetworks in the 1990s. ... User Datagram Protocol (UDP) is one of the core protocols of the Internet protocol suite. ...

Media container formats

Containers assemble video and audio tracks in a file or data stream. Common examples are AVI, Ogg, QuickTime, RealMedia, ISO MP4 and the Matroska Media Container. Note that old containers, like AVI, are not well suited for streaming. A container format is a computer file format that can contain various types of data, compressed by means of standardized codecs. ... An audio file format is a container format for storing audio data on a computer system. ... AVI, an acronym for Audio Video Interleave, is a multimedia container format introduced by Microsoft in November 1992, as part of the Video for Windows technology. ... Ogg is an open standard for a free container format for digital multimedia, unrestricted by software patents and designed for efficient streaming and manipulation. ... QuickTime is a multimedia framework developed by Apple Inc. ... RealMedia is a multimedia container format created by RealNetworks. ... “ISO” redirects here. ... For other parts of the MPEG-4 standard, see MPEG-4. ... // The Matroska Multimedia Container is an open standard free multimedia container format that can hold an unlimited number of video, audio, picture or subtitle tracks inside a single file. ...


Streaming media content providers


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Website Hosting, Hosting, Streaming Media Web Hosting, Cheap Web Hosting, Streaming Media Hosting, - WebsiteSource.com (384 words)
Streaming media is also known as RealMedia, or separately as RealAudio© or RealVideo©.
A streaming clip consists of small packets of information that are sent over a network connection.
Before the advent of streaming media, your audience had to wait for your media file to download from the Internet or a network server in order to experience it.
Streaming Media (742 words)
Streaming Media is media (audio, video, or graphics) that is delivered as a stream of data, and played as it is received.
The process of streaming starts when a media file is broken into smaller pieces so it can be transferred and played as each of the pieces is received, rather than waiting for the whole file to be transferred before playback starts.
The data stream originates on the Internet, is transferred by modem to your computer, is decoded by a media player, and is then viewed by a consumer.
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