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Encyclopedia > Stream
Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria, Australia.
Butchers Creek, Omeo, Victoria, Australia.

A stream is a body of water with a current, confined within a bed and stream-banks. Depending on its locale or certain characteristics, a stream may be referred to as brook, beck, burn, creek, crick, kill, lick, rill, river syke, bayou, rivulet, or run. Streams are important as conduits in the water cycle, instruments in groundwater recharge, and they serve as corridors for fish and wildlife migration. The biological habitat in the immediate vicinity of a stream is called a riparian zone. Given the status of the ongoing Holocene extinction event, streams play an important corridor role in connecting fragmented habitats and thus in conserving biodiversity. Stream is an umbrella term used in the scientific community for all flowing natural waters, regardless of size. The study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology and is a core element of environmental geography. The primary meaning of stream is a body of water, confined within a bed and banks and having a detectable current. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 650 KB) Butchers Creek, Omeo If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license with the terms... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1600x1067, 650 KB) Butchers Creek, Omeo If you are a (commercial) publisher and you want me to write you an email or paper mail giving you an authorization to use my works in your products or a license with the terms... Omeo is a town in Victoria, Australia, located on the Great Apline Road, east of Mount Hotham, in the East Gippsland Shire. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... A current is a movement or flow of fluids, especially water in a river or ocean. ... The bed of this stream is made up of rocks, some very rounded (having had a longer life in the stream) and some not. ... A rill is a narrow and shallow incision into soil resulting from erosion by overland flow that has been focused into a thin thread. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... Big Cypress Bayou in Jefferson, Texas off U.S. Route 59. ... The movement of water around, over, and through the Earth is called the water cycle. ... Groundwater recharge is the practice of directing water - often rainwater, but sometimes reclaimed water - into groundwater aquifers. ... For other uses, see Fish (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Habitat (disambiguation). ... A well preserved Riparian strip on a tributary to Lake Erie. ... The Dodo, a bird of Mauritius, became extinct during the mid-late seventeenth century after humans destroyed the forests where the birds made their homes and introduced animals that ate their eggs. ... Habitat fragmentation is a process of environmental change important in evolution and conservation biology. ... Rainforests are among the most biodiverse ecosystems on earth Biodiversity is the variation of life forms within a given ecosystem, biome or for the entire Earth. ... Water covers 70% of the Earths surface. ... Environmental geography is the branch of geography that describes the spatial aspects of interactions between humans and the natural world. ...

Creeks are the site of recreation as well.
Creeks are the site of recreation as well.

Contents

Types

A creek in Australian.
A creek in Australian.
River
A large natural stream, which may be a waterway.
Creek (North America and Australia)
A small to medium sized natural stream. Sometimes navigable by motor craft and may be intermittent. In some dialects it is pronounced: "crick".
Creek (UK and India)
A tidal inlet, typically in a saltmarsh or mangrove swamp. Alternatively, between enclosed and drained, former saltmarshes or swamps. In these cases, the stream is the tidal stream, the course of the seawater through the creek channel at low and high tide.
Tributary
A contributory stream, or a stream which does not reach the sea but joins another river (a parent river). Sometimes also called a branch or fork.
Brook
A stream smaller than a creek, especially one that is fed by a spring or seep. It is usually small and easily forded. A brook is characterized by its shallowness and its bed being composed primarily of rocks.

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is the sixth-largest country in the world, the only country to occupy an entire continent, and the largest in the region of Australasia/Oceania. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... For dialects of programming languages, see Programming language dialect. ... In United Kingdom usage, the term creek refers exclusively to a tidal water channel. ... This article is about tides in the ocean. ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway An inlet is a body of water, usually seawater, which has characteristics of one or more of the following: a bay a cove an estuary a firth a fjord a geo a sea loch a sea lough a... An Atlantic coastal salt marsh in Connecticut. ... Above and below water view at the edge of the mangal. ... Annual mean sea surface salinity for the World Ocean. ... Look up tributary in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... A seep is a wet place, where a liquid, usually water, has oozed from the ground to the surface. ... A ford is a section of water (most commonly a section of a river) that is sufficiently shallow as to be traversable by wading. ... The bed of this stream is made up of rocks, some very rounded (having had a longer life in the stream) and some not. ...

Other names

Yellow River in Marshall County, Indiana. Rivers of this size are often referred to as "creeks."
Yellow River in Marshall County, Indiana. Rivers of this size are often referred to as "creeks."
A rocky stream in Hawaii
A rocky stream in Hawaii
Ambro torrent, Italy.
Ambro torrent, Italy.

In the United Kingdom, there are several regional names for a stream: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1527 KB) Yellow River in Marshall County, Indiana. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1527 KB) Yellow River in Marshall County, Indiana. ... Marshall County is a county located in the state of Indiana. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 545 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 545 KB) Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1435 KB) Summary Taken by me, Russell Andreasen at the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2048x1536, 1435 KB) Summary Taken by me, Russell Andreasen at the Bay of Fundy, Nova Scotia. ... The Bay of Fundy (French: ) is a bay located on the Atlantic coast of North America, on the northeast end of the Gulf of Maine between the Canadian provinces of New Brunswick and Nova Scotia, with a small portion touching the U.S. state of Maine. ... Motto: Munit Hae et Altera Vincit (Latin: One defends and the other conquers) Capital Halifax Largest city Halifax Regional Municipality Largest metro Halifax Regional Municipality Official languages English (de facto), French Government Lieutenant-Governor Mayann E. Francis Premier Rodney MacDonald (PC) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 11 Senate...

In North America: For other uses, see Yorkshire (disambiguation). ... Lancashire is a non-metropolitan county of historic origin in the North West of England, bounded to the west by the Irish Sea. ... Cumbria (IPA: ), is a shire county in the extreme North West of England. ... A downland is an area of open chalk upland. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the country. ... North-East England is one of the nine official regions of England and comprises the combined area of Northumberland, County Durham, Tyne and Wear and a small part of North Yorkshire. ... The north, the midlands and the south Southern England is an imprecise term used to refer to the southern counties of England. ... North American redirects here. ...

  • Bourn in Cascadia refers mostly to wide but relatively short, stilly streams with broad, rocky and gravelly beaches/banks, uneven bottoms very deep in some places but dappled with small, rocky aights, with uncommonly clear water except for adjacent pools filled with debris and plantlife in which fishes and amphibians spawn. Often a distributary of a river and a tributary of a coastal or lakeside marsh, or, somewhat less frequently, an "independent" (not especially near a lake or ocean) swamp or other wetland.
  • Kill in New York, Pennsylvania, Delaware, and New Jersey comes from a Dutch language word meaning "riverbed" or "water channel".
  • Run in Ohio, Pennsylvania, Maryland, or Virginia can be the name of a stream.
  • Branch, fork, or prong can refer to tributaries or distributaries that share the same name as the main stream, generally with the addition of a cardinal direction.

Different definitions of Cascadia and related terms. ... Atlantic herring, Clupea harengus, the most abundant fish species in the world, Photo by Uwe Kils This page is about the animals which live in water. ... For other uses, see Amphibian (disambiguation). ... distributary in Else and Hase at Melle A seasonal Distributary of the Kaveri river on the Kaveri delta, near Nannilam, India. ... As a body of water, a kill is a creek. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State of Delaware. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Dutch ( ) is a West Germanic language spoken by around 24 million people, mainly in the Netherlands, Belgium and Suriname, but also by smaller groups of speakers in parts of France, Germany and several former Dutch colonies. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... Official language(s) None (English, de facto) Capital Annapolis Largest city Baltimore Largest metro area Baltimore-Washington Metropolitan Area Area  Ranked 42nd  - Total 12,407 sq mi (32,133 km²)  - Width 101 miles (145 km)  - Length 249 miles (400 km)  - % water 21  - Latitude 37° 53′ N to 39° 43′ N... This article is about the U.S. state. ... Cardinal point redirects here. ...

Parts of a stream

Spring
The point at which a stream emerges from an underground course through unconsolidated sediments or through caves. A stream can, especially with caves, flow aboveground for part of its course, and underground for part of its course.
Source
The spring from which the stream originates, or other point of origin of a stream.
Headwaters
The part of a stream or river proximate to its source. The word is most commonly used in the plural where there is no single point source.
Confluence
The point at which the two streams merge. If the two tributaries are of approximately equal size, the confluence may be called a fork.
Run
A somewhat smoothly flowing segment of the stream.
Pool
A segment where the water is deeper and slower moving.
Riffle
A segment where the flow is shallower and more turbulent.
Channel
A depression created by constant erosion that carries the stream's flow.
Floodplain
Lands adjacent to the stream that are subject to flooding when a stream overflows its banks.
Stream bed
The bottom of a stream.
Gauging station
A point of demarkation along the route of a stream or river, used for reference marking or water monitoring.
Thalweg
The river's longitudinal section, or the line joining the deepest point in the channel at each stage from source to mouth.
Wetted perimeter
The line on which the stream's surface meets the channel walls.
Nickpoint
The point on a stream's profile where a sudden change in stream gradient occurs.
Waterfall or cascade
The fall of water where the stream goes over a sudden drop called a nickpoint; some nickpoints are formed by erosion when water flows over an especially resistant stratum, followed by one less so. The stream expends kinetic energy in "trying" to eliminate the nickpoint.
Mouth
The point at which the stream discharges, possibly via an estuary or delta, into a static body of water such as a lake or ocean.

A natural spring on Mackinac Island in Michigan. ... This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... For other uses, see Cave (disambiguation). ... River Wey near its source at Farringdon, Hampshire Headstream is the origin of water flow that initiates the subject watercourse. ... The headwaters of a river are small streams that create it. ... Look up point source in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Confluence of Rhine and Mosel at Koblenz In geography, a confluence describes the point where two rivers meet and become one, usually when a tributary joins a more major river. ... A stream pool, in hydrology, is a stretch of a river or creek in which the water depth is above average and the stream velocity is quite low. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... In physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... This picture shows the flood plain following a 1 in 10 year flood on the Isle of Wight. ... Flooding near Key West, Florida, United States from Hurricane Wilmas storm surge in October 2005 For other uses, see Flood (disambiguation). ... The bed of this stream is made up of rocks, some very rounded (having had a longer life in the stream) and some not. ... Thalweg (a German word compounded from Tal, valley, and Weg, way) is a term adopted into English usage for geography. ... wetted perimeter The term wetted perimeter is common in Civil Engineering and also in heat transfer applications. ... Nickpoint, in surface hydrology, is the location along the profile of a stream at which a sudden gradient change occurs. ... Stream gradient is the ratio of drop in a stream per unit distance, usually expressed as feet per mile or meters per kilometer. ... For other uses, see Waterfall (disambiguation). ... A cascade is a term for a waterfall, or series of waterfalls, and is applied abstractly to many different concepts involving a series of steps or effects that follow one after the other. ... For other uses, see strata (novel) and strata title. ... The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ... For other meanings, see Estuary (disambiguation) Río de la Plata estuary An estuary is a semi-enclosed coastal body of water with one or more rivers or streams flowing into it, and with a free connection to the open sea. ... Nile River delta, as seen from Earth orbit. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ...

Sources

Streams typically derive most of their water from precipitation in the form of rain and snow. Most of this water re-enters the atmosphere by evaporation from soil and water bodies, or by the evapotranspiration of plants. Some of the water proceeds to sink into the earth by infiltration and becomes groundwater, much of which eventually enters streams. Some precipitated water is temporarily locked up in snow fields and glaciers, to be released later by evaporation or melting. The rest of the water flows off the land as runoff, the proportion of which varies according to many factors, such as wind, humidity, vegetation, rock types, and relief. This runoff starts as a thin film called sheet wash, combined with a network of tiny rills, together constituting sheet runoff; when this water is concentrated in a channel, a stream has its birth. This article is about precipitation. ... For other uses, see Snow (disambiguation). ... Vaporization redirects here. ... Evapotranspiration (ET) is the sum of evaporation and plant transpiration. ... See: espionage, urban exploration, entryism, heating, ventilation, and air conditioning. ... Groundwater is water located beneath the ground surface in soil pore spaces and in the fractures of lithologic formations. ... Perito Moreno Glacier Patagonia Argentina Aletsch Glacier, Switzerland Icebergs breaking off glaciers at Cape York, Greenland This article is about the geological formation. ... Run-off or runoff may refer to one of the following. ...


Characteristics

Tämnarån, Sweden.
Tämnarån, Sweden.
Ranking 
To qualify as a stream it must be either recurring or perennial. Recurring streams have water in the channel for at least part of the year. A stream of the first order is a stream which does not have any other stream feeding into it. When two first-order streams come together, they form a second-order stream. When two second-order streams come together, they form a third-order stream. Streams of lower order joining a higher order stream do not change the order of the higher stream. Thus, if a first-order stream joins a second-order stream, it remains a second-order stream. It is not until a second-order stream combines with another second-order stream that it becomes a third-order stream.
Gradient 
The gradient of a stream is a critical factor in determining its character and is entirely determined by its base level of erosion. The base level of erosion is the point at which the stream either enters the ocean, a lake or pond, or enters a stretch in which it has a much lower gradient, and may be specifically applied to any particular stretch of a stream.
In geologic terms, the stream will erode down through its bed to achieve the base level of erosion throughout its course. If this base level is low, then the stream will rapidly cut through underlying strata and have a steep gradient, and if the base level is relatively high, then the stream will form a flood plain and meander.
Meander 
Meanders are looping changes of direction of a stream caused by the erosion and deposition of bank materials. These are typically serpentine in form. Typically, over time the meanders gradually migrate downstream.
If some resistant material slows or stops the downstream movement of a meander, a stream may erode through the neck between two legs of a meander to become temporarily straighter, leaving behind an arc-shaped body of water termed an oxbow lake or bayou. A flood may also cause a meander to be cut through in this way.
Profile 
Typically, streams are said to have a particular profile, beginning with steep gradients, no flood plain, and little shifting of channels, eventually evolving into streams with low gradients, wide flood plains, and extensive meanders. The initial stage is sometimes termed a "young" or "immature" stream, and the later state a "mature" or "old" stream. However, a stream may meander for some distance before falling into a "young" stream condition.

U.S. Corps of Engineer diagram showing the Strahler Stream Order The Strahler Stream Order is a simple hydrology algorithm used to define stream size based on a hierarchy of its tributaries. ... The base level of a river or stream is the lowest point to which it can flow, often referred to as the mouth of the river. ... For morphological image processing operations, see Erosion (morphology). ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x597, 668 KB) Summary This picture was taken by ColenFace Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1024x597, 668 KB) Summary This picture was taken by ColenFace Licensing I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify this document under the terms of the GNU Free Documentation License, Version 1. ... North Bay (, time zone EST) is a city in Northeastern Ontario, Canada (2006 population 53,966). ... For other uses, see Meander (disambiguation). ... Songhua River, northeast China. ... In physical geography, a channel is the physical confine of a river, slough or ocean strait consisting of a bed and banks. ...

Intermittent and ephemeral streams

An Australian creek, low in the dry season, carrying little water. The energetic flow of the stream had, in flood, moved finer sediment further downstream. There is a pool to lower right and a riffle to upper left of the photograph.
An Australian creek, low in the dry season, carrying little water. The energetic flow of the stream had, in flood, moved finer sediment further downstream. There is a pool to lower right and a riffle to upper left of the photograph.

In the United States, an intermittent stream is one that only flows for part of the year and is marked on topographic maps with a line of blue dashes and dots. A wash or desert wash is normally a dry streambed in the deserts of the American Southwest which flows only after significant rainfall. Washes can fill up quickly during rains, and there may be a sudden torrent of water after a thunderstorm begins upstream, such as during monsoonal conditions. These flash floods often catch travelers by surprise. An intermittent stream can also be called an arroyo in Latin America, a winterbourne in Britain, or a wadi in the Arabic-speaking world. Download high resolution version (1280x960, 369 KB)A shallow creek Taken by fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Stream Stream bed User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery Categories: GFDL images ... Download high resolution version (1280x960, 369 KB)A shallow creek Taken by fir0002 File links The following pages link to this file: Stream Stream bed User:Fir0002/Fir0002 gallery Categories: GFDL images ... // Topographic maps are a variety of maps characterized by large-scale detail and quantitative representation of relief, usually using contour lines in modern mapping, but historically using a variety of methods. ... This article is about arid terrain. ... The Southwest region of the United States is drier than the adjoining Midwest in weather; the population is less dense and, with strong Spanish-American and Native American components, more ethnically varied than neighboring areas. ... A shelf cloud associated with a heavy or severe thunderstorm over Enschede, The Netherlands. ... For other uses, see Monsoon (disambiguation). ... Lower Antelope Canyon was carved out of sandstone by flash floods A Flash Flood is a rapid flooding of geomorphic low-lying areas (washes), rivers and streams, caused by the intense rainfall associated with a thunderstorm, or multiple training thunderstorms. ... An arroyo is a dry creek bed or gulch that fills with water either seasonally, or after a heavy rain. ... Latin America consists of the countries of South America and some of North America (including Central America and some the islands of the Caribbean) whose inhabitants mostly speak Romance languages, although Native American languages are also spoken. ... A winterbourne is a stream or river that is dry through the summer months. ... Wadi alMujib, Jordan A wadi (Arabic: ) is traditionally a valley. ... Arabic can mean: From or related to Arabia From or related to the Arabs The Arabic language; see also Arabic grammar The Arabic alphabet, used for expressing the languages of Arabic, Persian, Malay ( Jawi), Kurdish, Panjabi, Pashto, Sindhi and Urdu, among others. ...


In Italy an intermittent stream is termed a torrent (Italian torrente). In full flood the stream may or may not be "torrential" in the dramatic sense of the word, but there will be one or more seasons in which the flow is reduced to a trickle or less. Typically torrents have Appenine rather than Alpine sources, and in the summer they are fed by little precipitation and no melting snow. In this case the maximum discharge will be during the spring and autumn. However there are also glacial torrents with a different seasonal regime. The Apennine Mountains (Greek: Απεννινος; Latin: Appenninus--in both cases used in the singular; Italian: Appennini) is a mountain range stretching 1000 km from the north to the south of Italy along its east coast, traversing the entire peninsula, and forming, as it were, the backbone of the country. ... In the nineteenth and early twentieth centuries, many Western anthropologists classified humans into a variety of races and subraces. ...


A blue-line stream is one which flows for most or all of the year and is marked on topographic maps with a solid blue line. In Australia, an intermittent stream is usually called a creek and marked on topographic maps with a solid blue line.


Generally, streams that flow only during and immediately after precipitation are termed ephemeral. There is no clear demarkation between surface runoff and ephemeral stream.


Drainage basins

Oyster Creek (Sugar Creek) in Sugar Land, Texas
Oyster Creek (Sugar Creek) in Sugar Land, Texas

The extent of land basin drained by a stream is termed its drainage basin (also known in North America as the watershed[1] and, in British English, as a catchment). A basin may also be composed of smaller basins. For instance, the Continental Divide in North America divides the mainly easterly-draining Atlantic Ocean and Arctic Ocean basins from the largely westerly-flowing Pacific Ocean basin. The Atlantic Ocean basin, however, may be further subdivided into the Atlantic Ocean and Gulf of Mexico drainages. (This delineation is termed the Eastern Continental Divide.) Similarly, the Gulf of Mexico basin may be divided into the Mississippi River basin and several smaller basins, such as the Tombigbee River basin. Continuing in this vein, a component of the Mississippi River basin is the Ohio River basin, which in turn includes the Kentucky River basin, and so forth. Sugar Land is a city located along the Gulf Coast region in the U.S. state of Texas within the Houston–Sugar Land–Baytown metropolitan area. ... Drainage basin. ... A continental divide is a line of elevated terrain which forms a border between two watersheds such that water falling on one side of the line eventually travels to one ocean or body of water, and water on the other side travels to another, generally on the opposite side of... North American redirects here. ... Gulf of Mexico in 3D perspective. ... North American continental divides. ... For the river in Canada, see Mississippi River (Ontario). ... The Tombigbee River is a tributary of the Mobile River, approximately 400 mi (644 long), in the U.S. states of Mississippi and Alabama. ... View of Pittsburgh, the largest metropolitan area on the Ohio River, where the Allegheny River (left) and the Monongahela River (right) join at Point State Park to form the Ohio River Cincinnati, Ohio is a well known city along the Ohio River, historically known for its riverboats. ... The Kentucky River is a tributary of the Ohio River, 259 mi (417 km) long, in the U.S. state of Kentucky. ...


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Streams

An arroyo is a dry creek bed or gulch that fills with water either seasonally, or after a heavy rain. ... Big Cypress Bayou in Jefferson, Texas off U.S. Route 59. ... Lulworth Cove in Dorset, England (Great Britain) A fjord (Lysefjorden) in Norway River Gambia flowing through Niokolokoba National Park Port Jackson, Sydney, Australia A tide pool on Gabriola Island, British Columbia showing ochre sea stars A body of water is any significant accumulation of water such as an ocean, a... In Scotland, and to some extent in North East England, burn is a name for a stream which is less than a river. ... The River Bourne at Winterbourne Gunner, a typical chalk stream Chalk stream is a term generally applied to the winterbournes, streams and rivers of the Southern England Chalk Formation in Hampshire, Wiltshire, and Dorset, England although it could well be used for similar watercourses elsewhere. ... For other uses, see Lake (disambiguation). ... This brook is an example of a lotic system. ... This article is about marsh, a type of wetland. ... Animated map exhibiting the worlds oceanic waters. ... A perennial stream or perennial river is a stream or river that flows continuously all year round. ... For other uses, see River (disambiguation). ... A Rock-cut basin is the term used for the depression in which a free standing rounded boulder sits within a water filled natural cavity or rock basin in a stream or river; such plucked-bedrock pits are created by Kolks, which are powerful vortices within the water currents. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Wadi alMujib, Jordan A wadi (Arabic: ) is traditionally a valley. ...

References

  1. ^ In British English, however, a watershed is the dividing line between drainage basins, in other words a water divide
Main European water divides (red lines) separating catchments (gray regions). ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stream - definition of Stream in Encyclopedia (954 words)
The gradient of a stream is a critical factor in determining its character, and is entirely determined by its base level of erosion.
When a stream flows over an especially resistant stratum and forms a waterfall or cascade, or the same results because for some reason the base level of erosion suddenly drops, perhaps as a result of a fault, the resulting sudden change in stream elevation is called a nickpoint.
The study of streams and waterways in general is known as surface hydrology and is important in environmental geography or environmental geology.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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