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Encyclopedia > Strawberry
Strawberry

Scientific classification
Kingdom: planetae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Rosales
Family: Rosaceae
Subfamily: Rosoideae
Genus: Fragaria
L.
Species

20+ species; see text // [edit] Plants (and their fruits) called strawberry Genus Fragaria, the true strawberry, in the family Rosaceae Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) Musk Strawberry (Fragaria moschata) Beach Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) Iturup Strawberry (Fragaria iturupensis) Virginia Strawberry (Fragaria virginiana) Garden Strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa) Barren Strawberry (Potentilla sterilis) Mock Strawberry (Potentilla indica, syn. ... Image File history File links Emblem-important. ... Image File history File links StrawberryWatercolor. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... This article is about the astronomical term. ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Barbeyaceae Cannabaceae (hemp family) Dirachmaceae Elaeagnaceae Moraceae (mulberry family) Rosaceae (rose family) Rhamnaceae (buckthorn family) Ulmaceae (elm family) Urticaceae (nettle family) For the Philippine municipality, see Rosales, Pangasinan. ... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... Genera Aphanes Dryas - mountain avens Filipendula Fragaria - strawberry Geum - avens Kerria Potentilla - cinquefoil Rhodotypos Rosa - rose Rubus - bramble fruit Waldsteinia The rose subfamily Rosoideae includes many shrubs and perennial herbs. ... Carl Linnaeus, Latinized as Carolus Linnaeus, also known after his ennoblement as  , (May 13, 1707[1] – January 10, 1778), was a Swedish botanist, physician and zoologist[2] who laid the foundations for the modern scheme of nomenclature. ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ...

The strawberry (Fragaria) (plural strawberries) is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae and the fruit of these plants. There are more than 20 named species and many hybrids and cultivars. The most common strawberries grown commercially are cultivars of the Garden strawberry. For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Global distribution of Rosaceae Subfamilies Rosoideae Spiraeoideae Maloideae Amygdaloideae or Prunoideae The Rosaceae or rose family is a large family of plants, with about 3,000-4,000 species in 100-120 genera. ... For other uses, see Fruit (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... This Osteospermum Pink Whirls is a successful cultivar. ... Binomial name Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne Garden Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is the most common variety of strawberry cultivated worldwide. ...

Contents

Morphology

The strawberry is an accessory fruit; that is, the fleshy part is derived not from the ovaries which are the "seeds" (actually achenes) but from the peg at the bottom of the hypanthium that held the ovaries. So from a technical standpoint, the seeds are the actual fruits of the plant, and the flesh of the strawberry is modified receptacle tissue. It is whitish-green as it develops and in most species turns red when ripe. An accessory fruit is a fruit in which the fleshy part is derived not from the ovary (or surrounding stem, if the ovary is inferior) but from some adjacent tissue. ... An achene is a type of simple dry fruit produced by many species of flowering plants. ... A hypanthium is a bowl-shaped part of a flower consisting of the bottoms of the sepals, petals, and stamens stuck together. ...


History

The typical modern strawberry, of the genus Fragaria, comes from the Americas, and is a hybrid of both North and South American varieties. Interestingly, the crossbreeding was done in Europe to correct a mistake; the European horticulturists had only brought female South American plants, and were forced to cross them with the North American variety in order to get fruit and seeds. Fragaria comes from "fragans", meaning odorous, referring to the perfumed flesh of the fruit. Madam Tallien, a great figure of the French Revolution, who was nicknamed Our Lady of Thermidor, used to take baths full of strawberries to keep the full radiance of her skin. Fontenelle, centenarian writer and gourmet of the 18th century, considered his long life was due to the strawberries he used to eat. Strawberries were considered poisonous in Argentina until the mid-nineteenth century. Strawberries have a taste that varies by cultivar, and ranges from quite sweet to rather tart. World map showing the Americas CIA political map of the Americas The Americas are the lands of the Western hemisphere or New World, consisting of the continents of North America[1] and South America with their associated islands and regions. ... The Latin words hortus (garden plant) and cultura (culture) together form horticulture, classically defined as the culture or growing of garden plants. ... François Gérards Portrait de Madame Tallien, 1804 Thérésa Tallien (usually known as Madame Tallien; born Juana Maria Ignazia Teresa Cabarrús; July 31, 1773 – January 15, 1835) was a French social figure during the Revolution. ... The French Revolution (1789–1815) was a period of political and social upheaval in the political history of France and Europe as a whole, during which the French governmental structure, previously an absolute monarchy with feudal privileges for the aristocracy and Catholic clergy, underwent radical change to forms based on... The Thermidorian Reaction was a revolt in the French Revolution against the excesses of the Reign of Terror (which ended with the execution of Robespierre), and triggered by the execution of Robespierre and several other leading members of the Committee of Public Safety on a vote of the Comittee. ... For other uses of Fontenelle, see Fontenelle (disambiguation). ...


Popular etymology has it that the name "straw" berry comes from gardeners' practice of mulching strawberries with straw to protect the fruits from rot (a pseudoetymology that can be found in non-linguistic sources such as the Old Farmer's Almanac 2005). However, there is no evidence that the Anglo-Saxons ever grew strawberries, and even less that they knew of this practice. A fake etymology is an invented explanation (etymology) for the origin of a word. ... In agriculture and gardening, mulch is a protective cover placed over the soil, primarily to modify the effects of the local climate. ... Bales of straw bundles of rice straw Pile of straw bales, sheltered under a tarpaulin Straw is an agricultural byproduct, the dry stalk of a cereal plant, after the nutrient grain or seed has been removed. ... This article is about the Old Farmer’s Almanac, for a similarly titled publication, see Farmers Almanac Cover of Old Farmers Almanac 2005 The Old Farmer’s Almanac is a reference book that contains weather forecasts, tide tables, planting charts, and recipes. ...


There is an alternative theory that the name derives from the Anglo-Saxon verb for "strew" (meaning to spread around) which was streabergen (Strea means "strew" and Bergen means "berry" or "fruit") and thence to streberie, straiberie, strauberie, straubery, strauberry, and finally, "strawberry", the word which we use today. The name might have come from the fact that the fruit and various runners appear "strewn" along the ground.


Classification

There are more than 20 different Fragaria species worldwide. Key to the classification of strawberry species is recognizing that they vary in the number of chromosomes. There are seven basic types of chromosomes that they all have in common. However, they exhibit different polyploidy. Some species are diploid, having two sets of the seven chromosomes (14 chromosomes total). Others are tetraploid (four sets, 28 chromosomes total), hexaploid (six sets, 42 chromosomes total), octoploid (eight sets, 56 chromosomes total), or decaploid (ten sets, 70 chromosomes total). This article is about the biological chromosome. ... Polyploidy refers to cells or organisms that contain more than two copies of each of their chromosomes. ...


As a rough rule (with exceptions), strawberry species with more chromosomes tend to be more robust and produce larger plants with larger berries (Darrow).

Diploid species
Woodland Strawberry, Fragaria vesca
Woodland Strawberry, Fragaria vesca
Tetraploid species
Hexaploid species
Octoploid species and hybrids
Decaploid species and hybrids
  • Fragaria ×Potentilla hybrids
  • Fragaria ×vescana

Numerous other species have been proposed. Some are now recognized as subspecies of one of the above species (see GRIN taxonomy database). Image File history File links Fragaria_vesca_2. ... Image File history File links Fragaria_vesca_2. ... Binomial name Fragaria vesca Coville The Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) occurs naturally throughout the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Fragaria daltoniana J.Gay Fragaria daltoniana is a species of strawberry native to the Himalayan Mountains. ... Binomial name Fragaria iinumae Makino Fragaria iinumae is a species of strawberry native to Japan and Russia. ... Binomial name Fragaria nilgerrensis Schlecht. ... Binomial name Fragaria nipponica Makino Fragaria nipponica is a species of strawberry native to the Japanese island of Honshu. ... Binomial name Fragaria nubicola Lindl. ... Binomial name Fragaria vesca Coville The Woodland Strawberry (Fragaria vesca) occurs naturally throughout the Northern Hemisphere. ... Binomial name Fragaria viridis Duchesne Fragaria viridis is a species of strawberry native to Europe and central Asia. ... Binomial name Fragaria yezoensis Hara Fragaria yezoensis is a species of strawberry native to the Japanese island of Hokkaido. ... Binomial name Fragaria moupinensis Cardot Fragaria moupinensis is a species of strawberry native to China. ... Binomial name Fragaria moschata Duchesne The Musk Strawberry, Fragaria moschata, is a species of strawberry native to Europe. ... Binomial name Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne Garden Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is the most common variety of strawberry cultivated worldwide. ... Binomial name Fragaria chiloensis (L.) Duchesne The Beach Strawberry, Chilean Strawberry, Sand Strawberry, or Coastal Strawberry (Fragaria chiloensis) is one of two species of strawberry that were hybridized to create the modern Garden Strawberry. ... Binomial name Fragaria iturupensis Staudt The Iturup Strawberry, Fragaria iturupensis is a variety of strawberry occuring naturally only on Iturup Island and nowhere else in the world. ... Binomial name Fragaria virginiana Mill. ...


The Mock Strawberry and Barren Strawberry, which both bear resemblance to Fragaria, are closely related species in the genus Potentilla. The Strawberry tree is an unrelated species. Binomial name Potentilla indica (Andr. ... Binomial name Potentilla sterilis L. Barren Strawberry (Potentilla sterilis) is a plant in the Rosaceae family. ... Species About 500, including: White Cinquefoil Trailing Tormentil Silverweed Hoary Cinquefoil Tall Cinquefoil Canadian Cinquefoil Grey Cinquefoil Alpine Cinquefoil Common Tormentil Shrubby Cinquefoil Pink Barren Strawberry Norwegian Cinquefoil Marsh Cinquefoil Pennsylvania Cinquefoil Sulphur Cinquefoil Creeping Tormentil Rock Cinquefoil Oldfield Cinquefoil Barren Strawberry Spring Cinquefoil Potentilla is a genus of about... For other uses of Strawberry, see Strawberry (disambiguation). ...


Production trends

Strawberry output in 2005
Strawberry output in 2005

The FAO reports that the United States was the top producer of strawberry worldwide in 2005 followed by Spain. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of strawberry output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (USA - 1,053,240 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of strawberry output in 2005 as a percentage of the top producer (USA - 1,053,240 tonnes). ... Possible meanings: Faro Airport (Portugal) Federation of Astrobiology Organizations Financial Aid Office Food and Agriculture Organization This page expands a three-character combination which might be any or all of: an abbreviation, an acronym, an initialism, a word in English, or a word in another language. ...


Pests

A number of species of Lepidoptera feed on strawberry plants; for details see this list. The order Lepidoptera is the second most speciose order in the class Insecta and includes the butterflies, moths and skippers. ... Strawberries () are used as food plants by the larvae of a number of Lepidoptera species including: Angle Shades (Phlogophora meticulosa) Brown-tail (Euproctis chrysorrhoea) Common Marbled Carpet (Chloroclysta truncata) Common Swift (Korscheltellus lupulina) Emperor Moth (Pavonia pavonia) Ghost Moth (Hepialus humuli) Heart and Dart (Agrotis exclamationis) Hypercompe indecisa Juniper Pug...


Diseases

This article is a list of diseases of strawberry (Fragaria × ananassa). ...

Uses

In addition to being consumed fresh, strawberries are frozen or made into preserves. Strawberries are a popular addition to dairy products, as in strawberry flavored ice cream, milkshakes and yoghurts. Strawberry pie is also popular. Strawberries can also be used as a natural acid/base indicator. ...


Gallery

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:


Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Binomial name Fragaria x ananassa Duchesne Garden Strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa) is the most common variety of strawberry cultivated worldwide. ... Remnants of the floral parts are clearly evident on these immature banana fruits, demonstrating that the fruit is developing from an inferior ovary A blueberry carries the five sepals of the flower at the tip, showing that the berry forms below the flower. ...


References and external links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Strawberry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (760 words)
The strawberry (Fragaria) is a genus of plants in the family Rosaceae, and the fruit of these plants.
The strawberry is an accessory fruit; that is, the fleshy part is derived not from the ovaries (which are the "seeds", actually achenes) but from the peg at the bottom of the hypanthium that held the ovaries.
In the rose the extremity of the floral axis is concave and bears the carpels in its interior.
Strawberry, California - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (597 words)
Strawberry is a census-designated place (CDP) and an unincorporated district of Mill Valley in Marin County, California, United States.
Strawberry was considered as one of the top contenders for the headquarters for the United Nations.
Strawberry is the site of a major transfer bus stop for the Golden Gate Highway and Transportation District.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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