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Encyclopedia > Stratosphere
Look up stratosphere in
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Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. The layers are to scale: from Earth's surface to the top of the stratosphere (50km) is just under 1% of Earth's radius. (click to enlarge)
Atmosphere diagram showing stratosphere. The layers are to scale: from Earth's surface to the top of the stratosphere (50km) is just under 1% of Earth's radius. (click to enlarge)

The stratosphere is the second major layer of Earth's atmosphere, just above the troposphere, and below the mesosphere. It is stratified in temperature, with warmer layers higher up and cooler layers farther down. This is in contrast to the troposphere near the Earth's surface, which is cooler higher up and warmer farther down. The border of the troposphere and stratosphere, the tropopause, is marked by where this inversion begins, which in terms of atmospheric thermodynamics is the equilibrium level. The stratosphere is situated between about 10 km (6 miles) and 50 km (31 miles) altitude above the surface at moderate latitudes, while at the poles it starts at about 8 km (5 miles) altitude. For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... The Stratosphere Las Vegas is a hotel and casino located on the Las Vegas Strip in Las Vegas, Nevada, owned by American Casino & Entertainment Properties which is a wholly owned subsidiary of American Real Estate Partners. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ... Air redirects here. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... The mesosphere (from the Greek words mesos = middle and sphaira = ball) is the layer of the Earths atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere. ... Stratification is the building up of layers of deposits, and can have several variations of meaning: Social stratification, is the dividing of a society into levels based on wealth or power. ... The tropopause is between the troposphere and the stratosphere. ... In the physical sciences, atmospheric thermodynamics is the study of heat and energy transformations in the earth’s atmospheric system. ... In meteorology, the equilibrium level (EL), or level of neutral buoyancy (LNB), is the height at which a rising parcel of air is at a temperature of equal warmth to it. ... Altitude is the elevation of an object from a known level or datum. ...


The stratosphere is layered in temperature because it is heated from above by absorption of ultraviolet radiation from the Sun. Within this layer, temperature increases as altitude increases (see temperature inversion); the top of the stratosphere has a temperature of about 270 K (−3°C or 26.6°F), just slightly below the freezing point of water. This top is called the stratopause, above which temperature again decreases with height. The vertical stratification, with warmer layers above and cooler layers below, makes the stratosphere dynamically stable: there is no regular convection and associated turbulence in this part of the atmosphere. The heating is caused by an ozone layer that absorbs solar ultraviolet radiation, heating the upper layers of the stratosphere. The base of the stratosphere occurs where heating by conduction from above and heating by convection from below (through the troposphere) balance out; hence, the stratosphere begins at lower altitudes near the poles due to the lower ground temperature there. For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... Sol redirects here. ... Smoke rising in Lochcarron is stopped by an overlying layer of warmer air. ... For other uses, see Kelvin (disambiguation). ... The degree Celsius (°C) is a unit of temperature named after the Swedish astronomer Anders Celsius (1701–1744), who first proposed a similar system in 1742. ... Fahrenheit is a temperature scale named after the German physicist Gabriel Fahrenheit (1686–1736), who proposed it in 1724. ... The stratopause is the level of the atmosphere which is the boundary between the stratosphere and the mesosphere. ... Atmospheric stratification is the division of the atmosphere into distinct layers, each with specific properties such as temperature or humidity. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... Note: Ultraviolet is also the name of a 1998 UK television miniseries about vampires. ... Heat conduction or thermal conduction is the spontaneous transfer of thermal energy through matter, from a region of higher temperature to a region of lower temperature, and acts to equalize temperature differences. ... For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...


Commercial airliners typically cruise at an altitude near 10 km in temperate latitudes, in the lower reaches of the stratosphere. They do this to stay above any hard weather. This is to avoid atmospheric turbulence from the convection in the troposphere. Turbulence experienced in the cruise phase of flight is often caused by convective overshoot from the troposphere below. Similarly, most gliders soar on thermal plumes that rise through the troposphere above warm patches of ground; these plumes end at the base of the stratosphere, setting a limit to how high gliders can fly in most parts of the world. (Some gliders do fly higher, using ridge lift from mountain ranges to lift them into the stratosphere.) An Airbus A340 airliner operated by Air Jamaica An airliner is a large fixed-wing aircraft with the primary function of transporting paying passengers. ... In fluid dynamics, turbulence or turbulent flow is a flow regime characterized by chaotic, stochastic property changes. ... Convection in the most general terms refers to the movement of currents within fluids (i. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... Convective overshoot is the phenomenon of convection carrying material beyond an unstable region of convection, into a stratified, stable region. ... Gliders are un-powered heavier-than-air aircraft. ... A modern glider crossing the finish line of a competition at high speed. ... Plume of the Space Shuttle Atlantis after launch. ... A modern glider crossing the finish line of a competition at high speed. ...


The stratosphere is a region of intense interactions among radiative, dynamical, and chemical processes, in which horizontal mixing of gaseous components proceeds much more rapidly than vertical mixing. An interesting feature of stratospheric circulation is the quasi-Biennial Oscillation (QBO) in the tropical latitudes, which is driven by gravity waves that are convectively generated in the troposphere. The QBO induces a secondary circulation that is important for the global stratospheric transport of tracers such as ozone or water vapor. The Lorenz attractor is an example of a non-linear dynamical system. ... The QBO (quasi-biennial oscillation) is a quasi-periodic oscillation of the equatorial zonal wind between easterlies and westerlies in the tropical stratosphere with a mean period of 28 months. ... Ocean wave Wave clouds over Theresa, Wisconsin, USA Atmospheric gravity waves as seen from space. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... A secondary circulation is a circulation induced in a rotating system. ... For other uses, see Ozone (disambiguation). ... Water vapor or water vapour (see spelling differences), also aqueous vapor, is the gas phase of water. ...


In northern hemispheric winter, sudden stratospheric warmings can often be observed which are caused by the absorption of Rossby waves in the stratosphere. A sudden stratospheric warming is an event where the polar vortex of westerly winds in the Northern winter hemisphere abruptly (i. ... Rossby (or planetary) waves are large-scale motions in the ocean or atmosphere whose restoring force is the variation in Coriolis effect with latitude. ...


See also

Léon Philippe Teisserenc de Bort (November 5, 1855 in Paris, France – January 2, 1913 in Cannes, France) was a French meteorologist who became famous for his discovery of the stratosphere. ... The German Paris Gun, also known as Williams Gun, was the largest rail artillery gun of the Great War. ... SR-71 redirects here. ... For other uses, see Concorde (disambiguation). ... The Lockheed U-2, nicknamed Dragon Lady, is a single-engine, high-altitude aircraft flown by the United States Air Force and previously flown by the Central Intelligence Agency. ... The Northrop Grumman (formerly Ryan Aeronautical) RQ-4 Global Hawk (known as Tier II+ during development) is an unmanned aerial vehicle (UAV) used by the US Air Force as a surveillance aircraft. ... A twinjet is an aircraft powered by jet engines. ... In aeronautics, the service ceiling is the maximum density altitude where the best rate of climb airspeed will produce a 100 feet per minute climb(twin engine) and 50 feet(single engine) at maximum weight while in a clean configuration with maximum continuous power. ... Le Grand Saut is a project led by Frenchman Michel Fournier, to break the world record of the altitude for free fall the velocity for free fall the longest for free fall the altitude for balloon flight the first human to break the sound barrier by free fall by ascending... Air redirects here. ... Atmosphere diagram showing the mesosphere and other layers. ... The mesosphere (from the Greek words mesos = middle and sphaira = ball) is the layer of the Earths atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere. ... The thermosphere is the layer of the earths atmosphere directly above the mesosphere and directly below the exosphere. ... [fAgot png|thumb|200px|right|Atmosphere diagram showing the exosphere and other layers. ... The tropopause is between the troposphere and the stratosphere. ... The stratopause is the level of the atmosphere which is the boundary between the stratosphere and the mesosphere. ... The mesosphere (from the Greek words mesos = middle and sfaira = ball) is the layer of the Earths atmosphere that is directly above the stratosphere and directly below the thermosphere. ... The Thermopause is the atmospheric boundary of Earths energy system, located at the top of the thermosphere. ... The exosphere (from the Greek words exo = out(side) and sphaira = ball) is the uppermost layer of the atmosphere. ... The ozone layer is a layer in Earths atmosphere which contains relatively high concentrations of ozone (O3). ... The turbopause marks the altitude in the Earths atmosphere below which turbulent mixing dominates. ... Relationship of the atmosphere and ionosphere The ionosphere is the uppermost part of the atmosphere, distinguished because it is ionized by solar radiation. ...

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