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Encyclopedia > Strategic nuclear weapons
The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter.
The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter.
Nuclear weapons
One of the first nuclear bombs.
History of nuclear weapons
Nuclear warfare
Nuclear arms race
Weapon design / testing
Nuclear explosion
Delivery systems
Nuclear espionage
Proliferation
States
Nuclear weapons states

US · Russia · UK · France
China · India · Pakistan
Israel · North Korea Image File history File links LinkFA-star. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1060x1449, 251 KB) This is a picture of the bombing of Nagasaki by an atomic bomb. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1060x1449, 251 KB) This is a picture of the bombing of Nagasaki by an atomic bomb. ... The atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan on August 9, 1945 A mushroom cloud is a distinctive mushroom-shaped cloud of smoke, flame, or debris resulting from a very large explosion. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The hypocenter or hypocentre (literally: below the center from the Greek υπόκεντρον), also known as the focus, is the location inside the Earth where an earthquake originates. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2005. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... Nuclear espionage is the purposeful giving of state secrets regarding nuclear weapons to other states without authorization (espionage). ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of states with nuclear weapons. ... The United States was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ...

A nuclear weapon is a weapon which derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fission or fusion. As a result, even a nuclear weapon with a relatively small yield is significantly more powerful than the largest conventional explosives, and a single weapon is capable of destroying an entire city. The bayonet, still used in war as both knife and spearpoint. ... In nuclear physics, a nuclear reaction is a process in which two nuclei or nuclear particles collide, to produce different products than the initial products. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ...


In the history of warfare, nuclear weapons have been used only twice, both during the closing days of World War II. The first event occurred on the morning of August 6, 1945, when the United States dropped a uranium gun-type device code-named "Little Boy" on the Japanese city of Hiroshima. The second event occurred three days later when a plutonium implosion-type device code-named "Fat Man" was dropped on the city of Nagasaki. The use of these weapons, which resulted in the immediate deaths of around 100,000 to 200,000 individuals and even more over time, was and remains controversial — critics charged that they were unnecessary acts of mass killing, while others claimed that they ultimately reduced casualties on both sides by hastening the end of the war. This topic has seen increased debate recently in the wake of increased terrorism involving killings of civilians by both state and non-state players, with parties claiming that the end justifies the means (see Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki for a full discussion). The history of warfare is the history of war and its evolution and development over time. ... This article is becoming very long. ... August 6 is the 218th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (219th in leap years), with 147 days remaining. ... 1945 (MCMVL) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... A postwar Little Boy casing mockup. ... Hiroshima City Hall Mayor Tadatoshi Akiba Address 〒730-8586 Hiroshima-shi, Naka-ku, Kokutaiji 1-6-34 Phone number 082-245-2111 Official website: Hiroshima City , // The city of Hiroshima ) is the capital of Hiroshima Prefecture, and the largest city in the Chugoku region of western Honshu, the largest of... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A post-war Fat Man model. ... Nagasaki City Hall Mayor {{{Mayor}}} Address 〒850-8685 Nagasaki-shi, Sakura-machi 2-22 Phone number 095-825-5151 Official website: www1. ... A mass murder (massacre) involves the murder of large numbers of people either by a state or an individual. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ...


Since the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombings, nuclear weapons have been detonated on over two thousand occasions for testing and demonstration purposes. The only countries known to have detonated such weapons are (chronologically) the United States, Soviet Union, United Kingdom, France, People's Republic of China, India, Pakistan, and North Korea. Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ...


Various other countries may hold nuclear weapons but have never publicly admitted possession, or their claims to possession have not been verified. For example, Israel has modern airborne delivery systems and appears to have an extensive nuclear program with hundreds of warheads (see Israel and weapons of mass destruction), though it officially maintains a policy of "ambiguity" with respect to its actual possession of nuclear weapons. On October 8, 2006, North Korea claimed to have conducted an underground test of a nuclear weapon[1]. Within approximately one hour of North Korea's televised statement regarding a nuclear test, Pentagon officials indicated that, while the North Korean claim could not yet be verified with complete certainty, seismic evidence supported the North Korean claim. Iran currently stands accused by a number of governments of attempting to develop nuclear capabilities, though its government claims that its acknowledged nuclear activities, such as uranium enrichment, are for peaceful purposes. South Africa also secretly developed a small nuclear arsenal, but disassembled it in the early 1990s. (For more information see List of countries with nuclear weapons.) Israel is widely believed to possess a substantial arsenal of nuclear weapons and intermediate-range ballistic missiles to deliver them. ... October 8 is the 281st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (282nd in leap years). ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ...


Apart from their use as weapons, nuclear explosives have been tested and used for various non-military uses. A nuclear explosive is an explosive device that derives its energy from nuclear reactions. ... Chagan (nuclear test) in Soviet Union 1965 was used to create a dam on Semipalatinsk river Peaceful nuclear explosions (PNEs) are nuclear explosions conducted for non-military purposes, such as activities related to economic development including the creation of canals. ...

Contents


Types of nuclear weapons

The two basic fission weapon designs.
The two basic fission weapon designs.
Main article: Nuclear weapon design

There are two basic types of nuclear weapons. The first are weapons which produce their explosive energy through nuclear fission reactions alone. These are known colloquially as atomic bombs, A-bombs or The bomb. In fission weapons, a mass of fissile material (enriched uranium or plutonium) is assembled into a supercritical mass—the amount of material needed to start an exponentially growing nuclear chain reaction—either by shooting one piece of subcritical material into another, or by compressing a subcritical mass with chemical explosives, at which points neutrons are injected and the reaction begins. A major challenge in all nuclear weapon designs is ensuring that a significant fraction of the fuel is consumed before the weapon destroys itself. The amount of energy released by fission bombs can range between the equivalent of less than a ton of TNT upwards to around 500,000 tons (500 kilotons) of TNT. Image File history File links Fission_bomb_assembly_methods. ... Image File history File links Fission_bomb_assembly_methods. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... This article or section should include material from Fissile material In nuclear engineering, a fissile material is one that is capable of sustaining a chain reaction of nuclear fission. ... // Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... San Francisco Critical Mass, April 29, 2005 Critical Mass is a bike ride typically held on the last Friday of every month in cities around the world where bicyclists and, less frequently, skateboarders, roller bladers, roller skaters and other self-propelled commuters take to the streets en masse. ... In mathematics, a quantity that grows exponentially is one whose growth rate is always proportional to its current size. ... Albert Einsteins letter to President Roosevelt in 1939 about his concern, about (Nuclear chain reactions) Click for closeup of letter A nuclear chain reaction occurs when on average more than one nuclear reaction is caused by another nuclear reaction, thus leading to an exponential increase in the number of... Preparing C-4 explosive This article is concerned solely with chemical explosives. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Trinitrotoluene (TNT) is an explosive. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ... TNT is a three-letter abbreviation with multiple meanings, including: // Chemicals Trinitrotoluene, the chemical explosive usually known as TNT. Alkyl nitrites, TNT is a UK brand for this medicinal and recreational drug. ...


The second basic type of nuclear weapon produces a large amount of its energy through nuclear fusion reactions, and can be over a thousand times more powerful than fission bombs. These are known as hydrogen bombs, H-bombs, thermonuclear bombs, or fusion bombs. Only six countries— United States, Russia, United Kingdom, People's Republic of China, France, and possibly India—are known to possess hydrogen bombs. Hydrogen bombs work by utilizing the Teller-Ulam design, in which a fission bomb is detonated in a specially manufactured compartment adjacent to a fusion fuel. The gamma and X-rays of the fission explosion compress and heat a capsule of tritium, deuterium, or lithium deuteride starting a fusion reaction. Neutrons emitted by this fusion reaction can induce a final fission stage in a depleted uranium tamper surrounding the fusion fuel, increasing the yield considerably as well as the amount of nuclear fallout. Each of these components is known as a "stage", with the fission bomb as the "primary" and the fusion capsule as the "secondary". By chaining together numerous stages with increasing amounts of fusion fuel, thermonuclear weapons can be made to an almost arbitrary yield; the largest ever detonated (the Tsar Bomba of the USSR) released an energy equivalent to over 50 million tons (megatons) of TNT, though most modern weapons are nowhere near that large. The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... The basics of the Teller-Ulam configuration: a fission bomb uses radiation to compress and heat a separate section of fusion fuel. ... This article is about electromagnetic radiation. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... Tritium (symbol T or 3H) is a radioactive isotope of hydrogen. ... Deuterium, also called heavy hydrogen, is a stable isotope of hydrogen with a natural abundance in the oceans of one atom in 6400 of hydrogen (see VSMOW; the abundance changes slightly from one kind of natural water to another). ... Lithium hydride (LiH) (also known as Lithium deuteride, when the deuterium isotope of hydrogen is used for the hydrogen component) is a compound of lithium and hydrogen. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium that has a reduced proportion of the isotope Uranium-235. ... Map of hypothetical fallout dispersal after a large-scale nuclear attack against the United States. ... Tsar Bomba casing on display at Arzamas-16 Site of detonation Tsar Bomba (Russian: , literally Emperor-bomb) is the Western name for the largest, most powerful nuclear explosive ever detonated. ... A megaton or megatonne is a unit of mass equal to 1,000,000 metric tons, i. ...


There are other types of nuclear weapons as well. For example, a boosted fission weapon is a fission bomb which increases its explosive yield through a small amount of fusion reactions, but it is not a hydrogen bomb. Some weapons are designed for special purposes; a neutron bomb is a nuclear weapon that yields a relatively small explosion but a relatively large amount of prompt radiation; these could theoretically be used to cause massive casualties while leaving infrastructure mostly intact. The detonation of a nuclear weapon is accompanied by a blast of neutron radiation. Surrounding a nuclear weapon with suitable materials (such as cobalt or gold) creates a weapon known as a salted bomb. This device can produce exceptionally large quantities of radioactive contamination. Most variety in nuclear weapon design is in different yields of nuclear weapons for different types of purposes, and in manipulating design elements to attempt to make weapons extremely small. Boosted fission weapons are a type of nuclear bomb that uses a small amount of fusion fuel to increase the rate, and thus yield, of a fission reaction. ... A neutron bomb is a type of tactical nuclear weapon developed specifically to release a relatively large portion of its energy as energetic neutron radiation to harm biological tissues and electronic devices that are otherwise relatively protected from the heat blast. ... Radiation in Physics is the process of emitting energy in the form of waves or particles. ... Neutron radiation consists of free neutrons. ... General Name, Symbol, Number cobalt, Co, 27 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 9, 4, d Appearance metallic with gray tinge Atomic mass 58. ... General Name, Symbol, Number gold, Au, 79 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 6, d Appearance metallic yellow Atomic mass 196. ... The radiation warning symbol (trefoil). ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ...


Nuclear strategy

The United States' Peacekeeper missile was a MIRVed delivery system. Each missile could contain up to ten nuclear warheads (shown in red), each of which could be aimed at a different target. These were developed to make missile defense very difficult for an enemy country.
The United States' Peacekeeper missile was a MIRVed delivery system. Each missile could contain up to ten nuclear warheads (shown in red), each of which could be aimed at a different target. These were developed to make missile defense very difficult for an enemy country.
Main article: Nuclear warfare

Nuclear warfare strategy is a way for either fighting or avoiding a nuclear war. The policy of trying to ward off a potential attack by a nuclear weapon from another country by threatening nuclear retaliation is known as the strategy of nuclear deterrence. The goal in deterrence is to always maintain a second strike status (the ability to respond to a nuclear attack against your country with a nuclear attack of your own) and potentially to strive for first strike status (the ability to completely destroy an enemy's nuclear forces before they could retaliate). During the Cold War, policy and military theorists in nuclear-enabled countries worked out models of what sorts of policies could prevent one from ever being attacked by a nuclear weapon. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x665, 71 KB) Schematic drawing of a U.S. MX Missile (Peacekeeper) with W87 warheads indicated. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (800x665, 71 KB) Schematic drawing of a U.S. MX Missile (Peacekeeper) with W87 warheads indicated. ... Test launch of a Peacekeeper ICBM by the 576 Flight Test Squadron, Vandenberg AFB, CA (USAF) The LG-118A Peacekeeper was a land-based ICBM deployed by the United States starting in 1986. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Missile Defense is a term referring to systems, weapon programs, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception and destruction of attacking missiles. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... Deterrence theory is a defensive strategy developed after World War II and used throughout the Cold War. ... In nuclear strategy, first strike capability is a countrys ability to defeat another nuclear power by destroying its arsenal to the point where the attacking country can survive the weakened retaliation. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between a worldwide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. ...


Different forms of nuclear weapons delivery (see below) allow for different types of nuclear strategy, primarily by making it difficult to defend against them and difficult to launch a pre-emptive strike against them. Sometimes this has meant keeping the weapon locations hidden, such as putting them on submarines or train cars whose locations are very hard for an enemy to track, and other times this means burying them in hardened bunkers. Other responses have included attempts to make it seem likely that the country could survive a nuclear attack, by using missile defense (to destroy the missiles before they land) or by means of civil defense (using early warning systems to evacuate citizens to a safe area before an attack). Note that weapons which are designed to threaten large populations or to generally deter attacks are known as "strategic" weapons. Weapons which are designed to actually be used on a battlefield in military situations are known as "tactical" weapons. Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... German UC-1 class World War I submarine A model of Gunter Priens Unterseeboot 47 (U-47), German WWII Type VII diesel-electric hunter-killer (SSK) submarine Inside of the Argonaute, showing the typical obstructed, tiny space of a post-WWII diesel attack submarine. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... Missile Defense is a term referring to systems, weapon programs, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception and destruction of attacking missiles. ... The old United States Civil Defense logo. ... Battlefield may refer to: the location of a battle, the Battlefield televised documentary series, shown on the Discovery Channel, which explores battles of World War 2, the Battlefield Vietnam televised documentary series, shown on the Military Channel, which gives detail explanations of Vietnam War, (1945-1975), battles. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


There are critics of the very idea of "nuclear strategy" for waging nuclear war who have suggested that a nuclear war between two nuclear powers would result in mutual annihilation. From this point of view, the significance of nuclear weapons is purely to deter war because any nuclear war would immediately escalate out of mutual distrust and fear, resulting in mutual assured destruction This threat of national, if not global, destruction has been a strong motivation for anti-nuclear weapons activism. Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


Critics from the peace movement and within the military establishment have questioned the usefulness of such weapons in the current military climate. The use of (or threat of use of) such weapons would generally be contrary to the rules of international law applicable in armed conflict, according to an Advisory opinion issued by the International Court of Justice in 1996. An advisory opinion, in civil procedure, is an opinion issued by a court that does not have the effect of resolving a specific legal case, but merely advises on the constitutionality or interpretation of a law. ... Peace Palace, seat of the ICJ. The International Court of Justice (known colloquially as the World Court or ICJ; French: Cour internationale de justice) is the principal judicial organ of the United Nations. ...


Perhaps the most controversial idea in nuclear strategy is that nuclear proliferation would be desirable. This view argues that unlike conventional weapons nuclear weapons successfully deter all-out war between states, as they did during the Cold War between the U.S. and the Soviet Union. Political scientist Kenneth Waltz is the most prominent advocate of this argument World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... The Cold War (Russian: Холодная Война Kholodnaya Voina) was the protracted geopolitical, ideological, and economic struggle that emerged after World War II between a worldwide military alliance of capitalist states led by the United States and a rival alliance of communist states led by the Soviet Union. ... Kenneth N. Waltz is one of the most prominent scholars of international relations (IR) alive today. ...


Weapons delivery

The first nuclear weapons were gravity bombs, such as the "Fat Man" weapon dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. These weapons were very large and could only be delivered by a bomber aircraft.
The first nuclear weapons were gravity bombs, such as the "Fat Man" weapon dropped on Nagasaki, Japan. These weapons were very large and could only be delivered by a bomber aircraft.

Nuclear weapons delivery—the technology and systems used to bring a nuclear weapon to its target—is an important aspect of nuclear weapons relating both to nuclear weapon design and nuclear strategy. Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... Image File history File links A picture of a mockup of the Fat Man nuclear device, from http://www. ... A U.S. developed B-61 gravity bomb. ... A post-war Fat Man model. ... Nagasaki City Hall Mayor {{{Mayor}}} Address 〒850-8685 Nagasaki-shi, Sakura-machi 2-22 Phone number 095-825-5151 Official website: www1. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ...


Historically the first method of delivery, and the method used in the two nuclear weapons actually used in warfare, is as a gravity bomb, dropped from bomber aircraft. This method is usually the first developed by countries as it does not place many restrictions on the size of the weapon, and weapon miniaturization is something which requires considerable weapons design knowledge. It does, however, limit the range of attack, the response time to an impending attack, and the number of weapons which can be fielded at any given time. Additionally, specialized delivery systems are usually not necessary; especially with the advent of miniaturization, nuclear bombs can be delivered by both strategic bombers and tactical fighter-bombers, allowing an air force to use its current fleet with little or no modification. This method may still be considered the primary means of nuclear weapons delivery; the majority of U.S. nuclear warheads, for example, are represented in free-fall gravity bombs, namely the B61. For other uses of War, see War (disambiguation). ... A U.S. developed B-61 gravity bomb. ... A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ... Airbus A380 An aircraft is any machine capable of atmospheric flight. ... Boeing B-52 strategic bomber taking off A strategic bomber is a large aircraft designed to drop large amounts of ordnance on a distant target for the purposes of debilitating an enemys capacity to wage war. ... A ground attack aircraft is an aircraft that is designed to operate very close to the ground, supporting infantry and tanks directly in battle. ... The B61 nuclear bomb is the the primary thermonuclear weapon in the U.S. Enduring Stockpile following the end of the Cold War. ...


More preferable from a strategic point of view are nuclear weapons mounted onto a missile, which can use a ballistic trajectory to deliver a warhead over the horizon. While even short range missiles allow for a faster and less vulnerable attack, the development of intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) and submarine-launched ballistic missiles (SLBMs) has allowed some nations to plausibly deliver missiles anywhere on the globe with a high likelihood of success. More advanced systems, such as multiple independently targetable reentry vehicles (MIRVs) allow multiple warheads to be launched at several targets from any one missile, reducing the chance of any successful missile defense. Today, missiles are the most common among systems designed for delivery of nuclear weapons. Making a warhead small enough to fit onto a missile, though, can be a difficult task. A missile (CE pronunciation: ; AmE: ) is, in general, a projectile—that is, something thrown or otherwise propelled. ... Ballistics (gr. ... A Minuteman III missile after a test launch. ... French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... The MIRVed U.S. Peacekeeper missile, with the re-entry vehicles highlighted in red. ... Missile Defense is a term referring to systems, weapon programs, or technology involved in the detection, tracking, interception and destruction of attacking missiles. ...


Tactical weapons (see above) have involved the most variety of delivery types, including not only gravity bombs and missiles but also artillery shells, land mines, and nuclear depth charges and torpedoes for anti-submarine warfare. An atomic mortar was also tested at one time by the United States. Small, two-man portable tactical weapons (somewhat misleadingly referred to as suitcase bombs), such as the Special Atomic Demolition Munition, have been developed, although the difficulty to combine sufficient yield with portability limits their military utility. A 155 mm artillery shell fired by a United States 11th Marine regiment M-198 howitzer Historically, artillery refers to any engine used for the discharge of projectiles during war. ... Various anti-tank and anti-personnel land mines A land mine is a type of self-contained explosive device which is placed onto or into the ground, exploding when triggered by a vehicle, a person, or an animal. ... Depth Charge used by U.S. Navy later in World War II The depth charge is the oldest anti-submarine weapon. ... A modern torpedo, historically called a locomotive torpedo, is a self-propelled projectile that (after being launched above or below the water surface) operates underwater and is designed to detonate on contact or in proximity to a target. ... Anti-submarine warfare is a term referring to warfare directed against submarines. ... US soldier loading a M224 60-mm mortar. ... Suitcase with hypothetical nuclear weapon mock-up inside A suitcase bomb is a bomb which uses a suitcase as its delivery method. ... H-912 transport container for Mk-54 SADM The Special Atomic Demolition Munition (SADM) was a United States Navy and Marines project that was demonstrated as feasible in the mid-to-late 1960s, but was never used. ...


History

The aftermath of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.
The aftermath of the atomic bombing of Hiroshima.
Main article: History of nuclear weapons

The first nuclear weapons were created in the United States, by an international team including many displaced émigré scientists from central Europe with assistance from the United Kingdom and Canada, during World War II as part of the top-secret Manhattan Project. While the first weapons were developed primarily out of fear that Nazi Germany would develop them first, they were eventually used against the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki in August 1945. The Soviet Union developed and tested their first nuclear weapon in 1949, based partially on information obtained from Soviet espionage in the United States. Both the U.S. and USSR would go on to develop weapons powered by nuclear fusion (hydrogen bombs) by the mid-1950s. With the invention of reliable rocketry during the 1960s, it became possible for nuclear weapons to be delivered anywhere in the world on a very short notice, and the two Cold War superpowers adopted a strategy of deterrence to maintain a shaky peace. Source: http://www. ... Source: http://www. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... This article is becoming very long. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the development of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, at the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... Nazi Germany, or the Third Reich, commonly refers to Germany in the years 1933–1945, when it was under the firm control of the totalitarian and fascist ideology of the Nazi Party, with the Führer Adolf Hitler as dictator. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... 1950 (MCML) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... A rocket is a vehicle, missile or aircraft which obtains thrust by the reaction to the ejection of fast moving exhaust from within a rocket engine. ...

U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2005.
U.S. and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2005.

Nuclear weapons were symbols of military and national power, and nuclear testing was often used both to test new designs as well as to send political messages. Other nations also developed nuclear weapons during this time, including the United Kingdom, France, and China. These five members of the "nuclear club" agreed to attempt to limit the spread of nuclear proliferation to other nations, though at least three other countries (India, South Africa, Pakistan, and most likely Israel) developed nuclear arms during this time. At the end of the Cold War in the early 1990s, the Russian Federation inherited the weapons of the former USSR, and along with the U.S., pledged to reduce their stockpile for increased international safety. Nuclear proliferation has continued, though, with Pakistan testing their first weapons in 1998, and North Korea claiming to have developed nuclear weapons in 2004. In January 2005, Pakistani metallurgist Abdul Qadeer Khan confessed to selling nuclear technology and information of nuclear weapons to Iran, Libya, and North Korea in a massive, international proliferation ring. Image File history File links US_and_USSR_nuclear_stockpiles. ... Image File history File links US_and_USSR_nuclear_stockpiles. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan Dr. Abdul Qadeer Khan (b. ...


Nuclear weapons have been at the heart of many national and international political disputes and have played a major part in popular culture since their dramatic public debut in the 1940s and have usually symbolized the ultimate ability of mankind to utilize the strength of nature for destruction. The 1957 photograph of Miss Atomic Bomb, a Las Vegas showgirl with a mushroom cloud dress, has often been used as representative of Cold War kitsch and a symbol of the effects of nuclear weapons on American popular culture. ...


There have been (at least) four major false alarms, the most recent in 1995, that almost resulted in the U.S. or USSR/Russia launching its weapons in retaliation for a supposed attack.[2] Additionally, during the Cold War the U.S. and USSR came close to nuclear warfare several times, most notably during the Cuban Missile Crisis. As of 2005, there are estimated to be at least 29,000 nuclear weapons held by at least seven countries, 96 percent of them in the possession of the United States and Russia. Drink a niggas bucket of cum. ... 2005 is a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On October 9th, 2006 at 0136 GMT North Korea announced the testing of a nuclear weapon underground in the city of Hwaderi near Kilju city. Although after the announcement, it can not be confirmed as of this time.


Media

Enewetak atomic detonations. ...

See also

Weapons of
mass destruction
WMD world map
By type
Biological weapons
Chemical weapons
Nuclear weapons
Radiological weapons
By country
Algeria Argentina
Brazil Australia
Canada P.R. China
France Germany
India Iran
Iraq Israel
Italy Japan
Netherlands North Korea
Pakistan Poland
Russia South Africa
ROC (Taiwan) United Kingdom
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A weapon of mass destruction or (WMD) is a term used to describe munitions with the capacity to indiscriminately kill large numbers of human beings. ... Image File history File links WMD_world_map. ... Biological warfare, also known as germ warfare, is the use of any organism (bacteria, virus or other disease-causing organism) or toxin found in nature, as a weapon of war. ... Chemical warfare is warfare (and associated military operations) using the toxic properties of chemical substances to kill, injure or incapacitate an enemy. ... A radiological weapon (or radiological dispersion device, RDD) is any weapon that is designed to spread radioactive contamination, either to kill, or to deny the use of an area (a modern version of salting the earth) and consists of a device (such as a nuclear or conventional explosive) which spreads... The Peoples Republic of China is estimated to have an arsenal of about 400 nuclear weapons stockpiled as of 1999, although this number is questionable because the Chinese government releases little information regarding nuclear weapons other than stating that China possesses the smallest nuclear arsenal amongst the five nuclear... The Republic of China on Taiwan denies having chemical or nuclear weapons. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... // The explosive yield of a nuclear weapon is the amount of energy discharged when the weapon is detonated, expressed usually in the equivalent mass of trinitrotoluene (TNT), either in kilotons (thousands of tons of TNT) or megatons (million of tons of TNT), but sometimes also in terajoules (1 kiloton of... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... The Manhattan Project resulted in the development of the first nuclear weapons, and the first-ever nuclear detonation, at the Trinity test of July 16, 1945. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... November 1951 nuclear test at Nevada Test Site. ... Andrei Sakharov (left) with Igor Kurchatov (right) The Soviet project to develop an atomic bomb began during World War II in the Soviet Union. ... Stanislav Yefgrafovich Petrov (Russian: Станислав Евграфович Петров) (born c. ... The German experimental nuclear pile at Haigerloch The German nuclear energy project was an endeavor by scientists during World War II in Nazi Germany to develop nuclear energy and an atomic bomb for practical use. ... It has been suggested that Japanese development of nuclear energy be merged into this article or section. ... Pathways from airborne radioactive contamination to man // This article covers notable accidents involving nuclear devices and radioactive materials. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction between radiation and matter. ... Military strategem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... The old United States Civil Defense logo. ... Nuclear strategy involves the development of doctrines and strategies for the production and use of nuclear weapons. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ... Fractional Orbital Bombardment System (FOBS) was a Soviet ICBM in the 1960s that after launch would go into a low Earth orbit and would then de-orbit for an attack. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina, Australia... Nuclear disarmament is the proposed undeployment and dismantling of nuclear weapons particularly those the United States and the Soviet Union (later Russia) targeted on each other. ... The Advisory Opinion of the International Court of Justice of 8 July 1996 provides one of the few authoritative judicial decisions concerning the legality under international law of the use (or the threatened use) of nuclear weapons. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ... The United States was the first country in the world to successfully develop nuclear weapons, and is the only country to have used them in war against another nation. ... The United Kingdom was the third country to test an independently developed nuclear weapon in October 1952. ... This is a list of nuclear weapons ordered by state and then type within the states. ... The 1957 photograph of Miss Atomic Bomb, a Las Vegas showgirl with a mushroom cloud dress, has often been used as representative of Cold War kitsch and a symbol of the effects of nuclear weapons on American popular culture. ... Nuclear winter is a hypothetical global climate condition that is predicted to be a possible outcome of a large-scale nuclear war. ... A Nuclear summer is a hypothetical scenario resulting from a nuclear war that would follow a nuclear winter. ...

References

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  1. ^ N. Korea Reports 1st Nuclear Arms Test
  2. ^ Forden, Geoffrey. False Alarms on the Nuclear Front. Nova Online. Retrieved on 2006-03-05.
  • Bethe, Hans Albrecht. The Road from Los Alamos. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1991. ISBN 0-671-74012-1
  • DeVolpi, Alexander, Minkov, Vladimir E., Simonenko, Vadim A., and Stanford, George S. Nuclear Shadowboxing: Contemporary Threats from Cold War Weaponry. Fidlar Doubleday, 2004.
  • Glasstone, Samuel and Dolan, Philip J. The Effects of Nuclear Weapons (third edition). Washington, D.C.: U.S. Government Printing Office, 1977. Available online (PDF).
  • NATO Handbook on the Medical Aspects of NBC Defensive Operations (Part I - Nuclear). Departments of the Army, Navy, and Air Force: Washington, D.C., 1996.
  • Hansen, Chuck. U.S. Nuclear Weapons: The Secret History. Arlington, TX: Aerofax, 1988.
  • Hansen, Chuck. The Swords of Armageddon: U.S. nuclear weapons development since 1945. Sunnyvale, CA: Chukelea Publications, 1995. [1]
  • Holloway, David. "Stalin and the Bomb". New Haven: Yale University Press, 1994. ISBN 0-300-06056-4
  • The Manhattan Engineer District, "The Atomic Bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki"
  • Smyth, Henry DeWolf. Atomic Energy for Military Purposes. Princeton, NJ: Princeton University Press, 1945. (Smyth Report – the first declassified report by the US government on nuclear weapons)
  • The Effects of Nuclear War. Office of Technology Assessment, May 1979.
  • Rhodes, Richard. Dark Sun: The Making of the Hydrogen Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1995. ISBN 0-684-82414-0
  • _________. The Making of the Atomic Bomb. New York: Simon and Schuster, 1986 ISBN 0-684-81378-5
  • Weart, Spencer R. Nuclear Fear: A History of Images. Cambridge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1988.

Image File history File links Nuclear_Weapon. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... December 1 is the 335th (in leap years the 336th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Image File history File links Sound-icon. ... 2006 (MMVI) is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 5 is the 64th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (65th in leap years). ... Hans Bethe in 1945. ... Henry DeWolf Smyth (May 1, 1898 – September 11, 1986) was an American physicist, diplomat, and a bureaucrat who played a number of key roles in the early development of nuclear energy. ... The Smyth Report was the common name given to an administrative history written by physicist Henry DeWolf Smyth about the Allied World War II effort to develop the atomic bomb, the Manhattan Project. ... Richard Rhodes (born July 4, 1937) is an American author of fiction and verity, including the Pulitzer Prize-winning The Making of the Atomic Bomb in 1986, and most recently, John James Audubon: the Making of an American in 2004. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Nuclear weapons
Wikinews
Wikinews has news related to:
Nuclear proliferation
General
Historical
Effects
  • Nuclear weapon simulator for several major US cities
  • Fallout Calculator for various regions
  • Example Scenarios - Two scenarios of a nuclear explosion on two United States Cities
  • Effects of Nuclear weaponsThese tables describe the effects of various nuclear blast sizes. All figures are for 15-mph winds. Thermal burns represent injuries to an unprotected person. The legend describes the data.
Issues
  • "The Nuclear Weapons Debate" - OneWorld.net's Perspectives Magazine, May 2005
  • "Nuclear Power and Nuclear Weapons: Making the Connections" – an article about the connections between nuclear power and nuclear weapons development by an anti-nuclear group.
  • Nuclear War Survival Skills is a public domain text about civil defense.
  • IPPNW: International Physicians for the Prevention of Nuclear WarNobel Peace Prize-winning organization with information about the medical consequences of nuclear weapons, war and militarization.
  • Bulletin of the Atomic Scientists – Magazine founded in 1945 by Manhattan Project scientists. Covers nuclear weapons proliferation and many other global security issues. See this page for comprehensive data on nuclear weapons worldwide.
  • 50 Facts About U.S. Nuclear Weapons – Largest, smallest, number, cost, etc.
  • Nuclear Files.org covers the history of nuclear weapons and explores the political, legal and ethical challenges of the Nuclear Age.
  • Union of Concerned Scientists – Nuclear Policy, weapons, testing, technical issues, and arms control.
v·d·e
Nuclear Technology
Nuclear engineering Nuclear physics | Nuclear fission | Nuclear fusion | Radiation | Ionizing radiation | Atomic nucleus | Nuclear reactor | Nuclear safety
Nuclear material Nuclear fuel | Fertile material | Thorium | Uranium | Enriched uranium | Depleted uranium | Plutonium
Nuclear power Nuclear power plant | Radioactive waste | Fusion power | Future energy development | Inertial fusion power plant | Pressurized water reactor | Boiling water reactor | Generation IV reactor | Fast breeder reactor | Fast neutron reactor | Magnox reactor | Advanced gas-cooled reactor | Gas cooled fast reactor | Molten salt reactor | Liquid metal cooled reactor | Lead cooled fast reactor | Sodium-cooled fast reactor | Supercritical water reactor | Very high temperature reactor | Pebble bed reactor | Integral Fast Reactor | Nuclear propulsion | Nuclear thermal rocket | Radioisotope thermoelectric generator
Nuclear medicine PET | Radiation therapy | Tomotherapy | Proton therapy | Brachytherapy
Nuclear weapons History of nuclear weapons | Nuclear warfare | Nuclear arms race | Nuclear weapon design | Effects of nuclear explosions | Nuclear testing | Nuclear delivery | Nuclear proliferation | List of countries with nuclear weapons | List of nuclear tests

Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Wikimedia Commons logo by Reid Beels The Wikimedia Commons (also called Commons or Wikicommons) is a repository of free content images, sound and other multimedia files. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... The Nobel Peace Prize Medal featuring a portrait of Alfred Nobel Lester B. Pearson after accepting the Nobel Peace Prize The Nobel Peace Prize is one of five Nobel Prizes bequested by the Swedish industrialist and inventor Alfred Nobel. ... A residential smoke detector is for most people the most familiar piece of nuclear technology Nuclear technology is technology that involves the reactions of atomic nuclei. ... Nuclear engineering is the practical application of the atomic nucleus gleaned from principles of nuclear physics and the interaction between radiation and matter. ... Nuclear physics is the branch of physics concerned with the nucleus of the atom. ... An induced nuclear fission event. ... The deuterium-tritium (D-T) fusion reaction is considered the most promising for producing fusion power. ... Radiation in Physics is the process of emitting energy in the form of waves or particles. ... Ionizing radiation has many practical uses, but it is also dangerous to human health. ... A semi-accurate depiction of the helium atom. ... Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... Nuclear safety is a term which underscores and understates the danger implicit in the use of nuclear materials, and may be used to describe measures taken to prevent nuclear and radiation accidents. ... Nuclear materail consists of materials used in nuclear systems. ... Nuclear fuel is any material that can be consumed to derive nuclear energy, by analogy to chemical fuel that is burned to derive energy. ... Fertile material is a term used to describe nuclides which generally themselves do not undergo induced fission (fissionable by thermal neutrons) but from which fissile material is generated by neutron absorption and subsequent nuclei conversions. ... General Name, Symbol, Number thorium, Th, 90 Chemical series Actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass 232. ... General Name, Symbol, Number uranium, U, 92 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery gray metallic; corrodes to a spalling black oxide coat in air Atomic mass 238. ... // Enriched uranium is uranium whose uranium-235 content has been increased through the process of isotope separation. ... Depleted uranium (DU) is uranium that has a reduced proportion of the isotope Uranium-235. ... General Name, Symbol, Number plutonium, Pu, 94 Chemical series actinides Group, Period, Block n/a, 7, f Appearance silvery white Atomic mass (244) g/mol Electron configuration [Rn] 5f6 7s2 Electrons per shell 2, 8, 18, 32, 24, 8, 2 Physical properties Phase solid Density (near r. ... A nuclear power station. ... A nuclear power station. ... Radioactive waste is waste material containing radioactive chemical elements that does not have a practical purpose. ... The Sun is a natural fusion reactor. ... Energy development is the ongoing effort to provide abundant and accessible energy, through knowledge, skills and constructions. ... An Inertial fusion power plant is intended to industrially produce electric power by use of inertial confinement fusion techniques. ... A pressurised water reactor (PWR) is a type of nuclear power reactor that uses ordinary light water for both coolant and for neutron moderation. ... A boiling water reactor (BWR) is a light water reactor design used in some nuclear power stations. ... Generation IV reactors (Gen IV) are a set of theoretical nuclear reactor designs currently being researched. ... // The fast breeder or fast breeder reactor (FBR) is a fast neutron reactor designed to breed fuel by producing more fissile material than it consumes. ... A fast neutron reactor or simply a fast reactor is a category of nuclear reactor in which the fission chain reaction is sustained by fast neutrons. ... Schematic diagram of a Magnox nuclear reactor showing gas flow. ... Schematic diagram of the Advanced Gas-cooled Reactor. ... The Gas-Cooled Fast Reactor (GFR) system is a Generation IV reactor that features a fast-neutron spectrum and closed fuel cycle for efficient conversion of fertile uranium and management of actinides. ... A molten salt reactor is a type of nuclear reactor where the working fluid is a molten salt. ... A Liquid metal cooled nuclear reactor is nuclear reactor where the primary coolant is a liquid molten metal. ... The Lead-cooled Fast Reactor is a Generation IV reactor that features a fast-spectrum lead or lead/bismuth eutectic liquid metal-cooled reactor with a closed fuel cycle. ... The Sodium-cooled fast reactor is a sodium cooled reactor that uses fast neutrons. ... Supercritical water reactor scheme. ... Very high temperature reactor scheme. ... The pebble bed reactor (PBR) or pebble bed modular reactor (PBMR) is an advanced nuclear reactor design. ... The Integral Fast Reactor or Advanced Liquid-Metal Reactor was a design for a nuclear reactor with a specialized nuclear fuel cycle. ... Nuclear propulsion can include a wide variety of methods, the commonality of which is the use of some form of nuclear reaction as their primary power source. ... In a nuclear thermal rocket a working fluid, usually hydrogen, is heated in a high temperature nuclear reactor, and then expands through a rocket nozzle to create thrust. ... // A radioisotope thermoelectric generator (RTG) is a simple electrical generator which obtains its power from radioactive decay. ... Nuclear medicine is a branch of medicine and medical imaging that uses unsealed radioactive substances in diagnosis and therapy. ... Image of a typical positron emission tomography (PET) facility Positron emission tomography (PET) is a nuclear medicine medical imaging technique which produces a three dimensional image or map of functional processes in the body. ... Clinac 2100 C accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Radiosurgery is a medical procedure which allows non-invasive brain surgery, i. ... Proton therapy is a kind of external beam radiotherapy where protons are directed to a tumor site. ... Brachytherapy for prostate cancer is administered using seeds, small radioactive rods implanted directly into the tumour. ... A nuclear fireball lights up the night in a United States nuclear test. ... The Titan II ICBM carried a 9 Mt W53 warhead, making it one of the most powerful nuclear weapons fielded by the United States during the Cold War. ... US and USSR/Russian nuclear weapons stockpiles, 1945-2005. ... The first nuclear weapons, though large, cumbersome and inefficient, provided the basic design building blocks of all future weapons. ... A 23 kiloton tower shot called BADGER, fired on April 18, 1953 at the Nevada Test Site, as part of the Operation Upshot-Knothole nuclear test series. ... Preparation for an underground nuclear test at the Nevada Test Site in the 1980s. ... // Nuclear weapons delivery is the technology and systems used to place a nuclear weapon at the position of detonation, on or near its intended target. ... World map with nuclear weapons development status represented by color. ... This is a list of countries with nuclear weapons. ... The following is a list of nuclear test series designations, organized first by country and then by date. ...


 
 

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