FACTOID # 27: If you're itching to live in a trailer park, hitch up your home and head to South Carolina, where a whopping 18% of residences are mobile homes.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Strategic bombing
? This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims.
Please help Wikipedia by adding references. See the talk page for details.
The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdam's medieval architecture. Up to 900 people were killed by this bombing
The city heart of Rotterdam after being terror bombed by Germany in 1940, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of Rotterdam's medieval architecture. Up to 900 people were killed by this bombing

Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war. It is a systematically organized and executed attack from the air. It is different from the tactical event of strategic bombing, which involves strategic bomber aircraft, cruise missiles, or fighter-bomber aircraft attacking targets determined during the organization of the strategic bombing campaign. Image File history File links Circle-question. ... Image File history File links Broom_icon. ... Image File history File links Rotterdam. ... Image File history File links Rotterdam. ... The city heart of Rotterdam after the bombing, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of the Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... Church of the Intercession on the Nerl(1165) - an archetypal example of early Russian architecture. ... Military stratagem in the Battle of Waterloo. ... Total war is a military conflict in which nations mobilize all available resources in order to destroy another nations ability to engage in war. ... In the military sciences, a military campaign encompasses related military operations, usually conducted by a defense or fighting force, directed at gaining a particular desired state of affairs, usually within geographical and temporal limitations. ... The term nation-state, while often used interchangeably with the terms unitary state and independent state, refers properly to the parallel occurence of a state and a nation. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... A ground attack aircraft is an aircraft that is designed to operate very close to the ground, supporting infantry and tanks directly in battle. ...


The distinction between tactical and strategic bombing can be easily blurred. Strategic bombing missions usually attack targets such as factories, railroads, oil refineries and cities, while tactical bombing missions attack targets such as troop concentrations, command and control facilities, airfields, and ammunition dumps. The act of traveling to the target and dropping bombs, even if part of a strategic bombing campaign, is a tactical event. Strategic bombers tend to be large, long-range aircraft; tactical bombers are mostly relatively small. However, the distinction does not lie in the aircraft type used or the assigned target, it lies in the purpose of the attack. Tactical bombing aims to defeat individual enemy military forces. Historically, strategic bombing aims to undermine a nation-state's ability to wage war or it's political will to fight as a part of a total war strategy. Military tactics (Greek: Taktikē, the art of organizing an army) are the collective name for methods for engaging and defeating an enemy in battle. ... A strategy is a long term plan of action designed to achieve a particular goal, most often winning. Strategy is differentiated from tactics or immediate actions with resources at hand. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... View of Shell Oil Refinery in Martinez, California. ... Look up city, City in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Tactical bombing uses aircraft to attack troops and military equipment in the battle zone. ... The Massive Ordnance Air Blast (MOAB) bomb produced in the United States. ...

Contents

Methods used to deliver ordnance

There are three basic methods used to deliver ordnance onto targets in a strategic bombing campaign. The first is carpet bombing using strategic bombers. The second is the use of more precise ordnance, precision-guided munitions such as so called smart bombs, delivered from cruise missiles or aircraft. The third method involves the use of large nuclear weapons, used in a method similar to carpet bombing. Although the use of nuclear weapons falls into the category of strategic bombing, perhaps as the ultimate form thereof, the term is usually used in reference to conventional bombing from aircraft or cruise missiles. The phrase carpet bombing refers to the use of large numbers of unguided gravity bombs, often with a high proportion of incendiary bombs, to attempt the complete destruction of a target region, either to destroy personnel and materiel, or as a means to demoralize the enemy (see terror bombing). ... BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ...


Area attack by multiple bombers is based upon detailed calculations of the intended Damage Expectancy or "DE" directed by the Air Tasking Order (ATO) used in a military campaign. To achieve a particular DE, planners select a bomb type based on that particular weapon's kill mechanism - blast/fragmentation, for example. Then planners calculate the Single Sortie Probability of Damage or "SSPD" and extrapolate from there, adding sorties until the probability of damage meets the needed DE. As weapons have grown more precise, the need for mass formations has decreased as one bomb can now accomplish the mission. In fact, one B-52 can now drop a single bomb from many miles away that can be programmed to strike a target as small as a window or doorway from a carefully chosen direction and at a pre-selected angle. This focuses the blast in a given direction and dramatically reduces the risk of collateral damage to buildings and unintended civilian casuatlties.


Carpet bombing by multiple modern strategic bombers like the B-52 can be likened to an hour during the Somme bottled into a thirty second time period. However, even with smaller bombers as in World War II, this delivery method generally has proven rather ineffective due to the imprecise nature of the attack. The intended mass civilian casualties, as they are to cause terror and disillusionment, draw adverse longer-term attention to the morality of carpet bombing. The Boeing B-52 Stratofortress is a long-range, jet strategic bomber flown by the United States Air Force (USAF) since 1954. ... Combatants British Empire United Kingdom Australia Canada New Zealand Newfoundland South Africa France German Empire Commanders Douglas Haig Joseph Joffre Max von Gallwitz Fritz von Below Strength 13 British and 11 French divisions (initial) 51 British and 48 French divisions (final) 10½ divisions (initial) 50 divisions (final) Casualties 419,654... Collateral damage is a U.S. Military term for unintended or incidental damage during a military operation. ...


Use of smart weapons is generally preferred for two reasons. First, it is more humane. Due to the greater accuracy (the smaller CEP) of precision weapons, there is less risk of civilian casualties. The second reason is the increased damage associated with the precision weapons. Carpet bombing can destroy an entire block, but miss the vital components of a factory. Precision weapons can attack the precise components of designated targets, increasing the likelihood of a successful attack. In the military science of ballistics, Circular Error Probability or circular error probable (CEP) is a simple measure of a weapon systems precision. ...


History and origins

World War One

Strategic bombing was first used in World War I, though it was not understood in its present form. From quite early in World War I, aircraft were used to drop improvised explosive packages on the enemy. Within a year or so, specialized aircraft and dedicated bomber squadrons were in service on both sides. This was tactical bombing: it had the aim of directly harming enemy troops, strongpoints, or equipment, usually within a relatively small distance of the front line. Eventually, during World War I, attention turned to the possibility of causing indirect harm to the enemy by systematically attacking vital rear-area resources. “The Great War ” redirects here. ... The B-17 Flying Fortress is one of the most recognizable and famous bombers of World War II. A bomber is a military aircraft designed to attack ground targets, primarily by dropping bombs. ...


The first ever aerial bombardment of civilians was on January 19, 1915, in which two German Zeppelins dropped 24 fifty-kilogram high-explosive bombs and ineffective three-kilogram incendiaries on the Eastern England towns of Great Yarmouth, Sheringham, King's Lynn, and the surrounding villages. In all, four people were killed, sixteen injured, and monetary damage was estimated at £7,740. January 19 is the 19th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... This is an article about Zeppelin airships. ... Great Yarmouth, often known to locals simply as Yarmouth, is an English coastal town in the county of Norfolk. ... Sheringham from the mound Sheringham is a seaside town (population 7143[1]) in Norfolk, England, west of Cromer. ... Kings Lynn as viewed from across the River Great Ouse Kings Lynn is a town and port in the English county of Norfolk. ...


There were a further nineteen raids in 1915, in which 37 tons of bombs were dropped, killing 181 people and injuring 455. Raids continued in 1916. London was accidentally bombed in May, and, in July, the Kaiser allowed directed raids against urban centres. There were 23 airship raids in 1916 in which 125 tons of ordnance were dropped, killing 293 people and injuring 691. Gradually British air defences improved. In 1917 and 1918 there were only eleven Zeppelin raids against England, and the final raid occurred on 5 August 1918, which resulted in the death of KK Peter Strasser, commander of the German Naval Airship Department. By the end of the war, 51 raids had been undertaken, in which 5,806 bombs were dropped, killing 557 people and injuring 1,358. The Zeppelin raids were complemented by the Gotha bomber, which was the first heavier than air bomber to be used for strategic bombing. It has been argued that the raids were effective far beyond material damage in diverting and hampering wartime production, and diverting twelve squadrons and over 10,000 men to air defences. is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1918 (MCMXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar (see link for calendar) or a common year starting on Wednesday of the Julian calendar. ... Portrait of Peter Strasser in 1914, commander of the Luftschiffer German Airforce Peter Strasser (April 1, 1876 - August 6, 1918) Chief Commander of Germanys Luftschiffer airforce during World War I. He was the main leader of the Zeppelins command and in charge, operating bombing campaigns from 1915 to 1918. ... The Gotha G were a series of heavy bombers used by the Luftstreitkräfte (Imperial Air Service) during the First World War. ...


The French army on 15 June 1915 attacked the German town of Karlsruhe killing 29 civilians and wounding 58. Further raids followed until 1918. is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1915 (MCMXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday[1] of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Karlsruhe (population 285,812 in 2006) is a city in the south west of Germany, in the Bundesland Baden-Württemberg, located near the French-German border. ...


In contrast, the British launched their own form of strategic bombing: at the start of the war there were attacks by bombers of the RNAS against the Zeppelin production area and its hangars. In late 1915 the order was given for attacks on German industrial targets and the 41st Wing was formed from units of the RNAS and RFC. The RNAS took to strategic bombing in bigger way than the RFC who were focussed on supporting the infantry actions of the Western Front. At first the RNAS attacked the German submarines in their moorings then steelworks further in targeting the origin of the submarines themselves. The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of World War I. When the Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was founded on April 13, 1912 it was intended to encompass all military flying. ...


In early 1918 they operated their "round the clock" bombing raid; with lighter bombs attacking the town of Trier by day and large HP O/400s attacking by night. In April 1918, the Independent Force, RAF was created, an expanded bombing group that by the end of the war had aircraft that could reach Berlin but were never used. Trier (French: ; Luxembourgish Tréier) is a city in Germany on the banks of the Moselle River. ... The Handley Page Type O was an early bomber aircraft used by Britain during World War I. At the time, it was the largest aircraft that had been built in the UK and one of the largest in the world. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ...


Following the war, the concept of strategic bombing developed. The calculations which were performed on the number of dead to the weight of bombs dropped would have a profound effect on the attitudes of the British authorities and population in the interwar years, because as bombers became larger it was fully expected that deaths from aerial bombardment would approach those anticipated in the Cold War from the use of nuclear weapons. The fear of aerial attack on such a scale was one of the fundamental driving forces of British appeasement in the 1930s. For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ...


Period between world wars

Among notable uses of aerial bombing between the two world wars was the bombing of Guernica in 1937 during the Spanish Civil War. The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ...


In the period between the two world wars, military thinkers from several nations advocated strategic bombing as the logical and obvious way to employ aircraft. Domestic political considerations saw to it that the British worked harder on the concept than most. The British Royal Flying Corps and Royal Naval Air Service of the Great War had been merged in 1917 to create a separate air force, which spent much of the following two decades fighting for survival in an environment of severe government spending constraints. Royal Air Force leaders, in particular Air Chief Marshal Hugh Trenchard, believed that the key to retaining their independence from the senior services was to lay stress on what they saw as the unique ability of a modern air force to win wars by unaided strategic bombing. As the speed and altitude of bombers increased in proportion to fighter aircraft, the prevailing strategic understanding became "the bomber will always get through." Although anti-aircraft guns and fighter aircraft had proved effective in the Great War, it was accepted that there was little warring nations could do to prevent massive civilian casualties from strategic bombing. High civilian morale and retaliation in kind were seen as the only answers. The Royal Flying Corps (RFC) was the over-land air arm of the British military during most of World War I. // Formed by Royal Warrant on 13 May 1912, the RFC superseded the Air Battalion of the Royal Engineers. ... Personnel of No 1 Squadron RNAS in late 1914 The Royal Naval Air Service (RNAS) was the air arm of the Royal Navy until near the end of World War I, when it merged with the British Armys Royal Flying Corps (RFC) to form the Royal Air Force. ... Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard (February 3, 1873 - February 10, 1956) was the British Chief of the Air Staff during World War I, and was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force (RAF). ...


In Europe, the air power prophet General Giulio Douhet asserted that the basic principle of strategic bombing was the offensive and that there was no defence against carpet bombing and poison gas attacks. Douhet's apocalyptic predictions found fertile soil in France, Germany and the United States, where excerpts from his book The Command of the Air (1921) were published. These visions of cities laid waste by bombing also gripped the popular imagination and found expression in novels such as Douhet's The War of 19-- (1930) and H.G. Wells's The Shape of Things to Come (1933) (filmed by Alexander Korda as Things to Come (1936)). General Giulio Douhet (30 May 1869 - 15 February 1930) was an Italian air power theorist. ... The phrase carpet bombing refers to the use of large numbers of unguided gravity bombs, often with a high proportion of incendiary bombs, to attempt the complete destruction of a target region, either to destroy personnel and materiel, or as a means to demoralize the enemy (see terror bombing). ... Early detection of chemical agents Sociopolitical climate of chemical warfare While the study of chemicals and their military uses was widespread in China, the use of toxic materials has historically been viewed with mixed emotions and some disdain in the West (especially when the enemy were doing it). ... A novel (from French nouvelle Italian novella, new) is an extended, generally fictional narrative, typically in prose. ... H. G. Wells at the door of his house at Sandgate Herbert George Wells (September 21, 1866 - August 13, 1946) was an English writer best known for his science fiction novels such as The War of the Worlds and The Time Machine. ... The Shape of Things to Come is a work of science fiction by H. G. Wells, published in 1933, which speculates on future events from 1933 until the year 2106. ... Sir Alexander Korda (September 16, 1893 - January 23, 1956) was a film director and producer, a leading figure in the British film industry and the founder of London Films. ... Things to Come is a 1936 British science fiction film, produced by Alexander Korda and directed by William Cameron Menzies. ...


Pre-war planners, on the whole, vastly over-estimated the damage that a handful of bombers could do, and underestimated the resilience of civilian populations. The speed and altitude of modern bombers, and the difficulty of hitting a target while under attack from improved ground fire and fighters was not understood. Jingoistic national pride played a major role: for example, at a time when Germany was still disarmed and France was Britain's only European rival, Trenchard boasted that "the French in a bombing duel would probably squeal before we did". Partly because a repeat of the bloody stalemate of trench warfare was rendered impossible with the advent of modern armor, the expectation was that any new war would be brief and very savage. A British Cabinet planning document in 1938 predicted that, if war with Germany broke out, 35% of British homes would be hit by bombs in the first three weeks. (This type of expectation should be kept in mind when considering the conduct of the European leaders who appeased Hitler in the late 1930s) Trench warfare is a form of war in which both opposing armies have static lines of defence. ... Appeasement is a policy of accepting the imposed conditions of an aggressor in lieu of armed resistance, usually at the sacrifice of principles. ... Adolf Hitler Adolf Hitler (April 20, 1889 – April 30, 1945, standard German pronunciation in the IPA) was the Führer (leader) of the National Socialist German Workers Party (Nazi Party) and of Nazi Germany from 1933 to 1945. ...


World War II

1943 USAAF raid on ball bearing works at Schweinfurt, Germany
1943 USAAF raid on ball bearing works at Schweinfurt, Germany

The strategic bombing conducted in World War II was unlike anything the world had seen before. The campaigns conducted in Europe, and at the end of the war over Japan, could involve thousands of aircraft dropping tens of thousands of tonnes of munitions over a single city. Strategic Bombing during World War II was unlike anything the world had previously witnessed. ... 1943 United States Army Air Force strategic bombing raid on the ball bearing works at Schweinfurt, Germany. ... 1943 United States Army Air Force strategic bombing raid on the ball bearing works at Schweinfurt, Germany. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was a part of the U.S. Army during World War II. The direct precursor to the U.S. Air Force, the USAAF formally existed between 1941 and 1947. ... A 4 point angular contact ball bearing A ball bearing is a common type of rolling-element bearing, a kind of bearing. ... Schweinfurt is a city in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km North-East of Würzburg. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... World map showing the location of Europe. ... A tonne or metric ton (symbol t), sometimes referred to as a metric tonne, is a measurement of mass equal to 1,000 kilograms. ... Materiel (from the French for material) is the equipment and supplies in Military and commercial supply chain management. ...


The campaigns were conducted in Europe, China and Japan. The Germans and Japanese made use of twin-engined bombers with a payload of approximately one ton and never developed larger craft to any extent. By comparison the British and Americans who started with similarly sized bombers and a few larger designs in 1939 developed their force into one based upon much larger four-engine bombers for their strategic campaigns. The payload carried by these planes ranged from 2.7 tonnes for the B-17 Flying Fortress through to 9 tonnes for the B-29 Superfortress and up to the 'Special B' Avro Lancaster carrying a 22,000 lb (9,979 kg) Grand Slam bomb. The Boeing B-17 Flying Fortress is an American four-engine heavy bomber aircraft developed for the US Army Air Corps (USAAC). ... The Boeing B-29 Superfortress was a four-engine heavy bomber propeller aircraft flown by the United States Army Air Forces in World War II and other military organizations afterwards. ... The Avro Lancaster was a British four-engine Second World War bomber aircraft made initially by Avro for the British Royal Air Force (RAF). ... A British 22,000 lb (10,000 kg) Grand Slam bomb The Grand Slam (Earth Quake bomb), was a very large freefall bomb developed by the British aeronautical engineer Barnes Wallis (who also made the bouncing bomb) in late 1944. ...


During the first year of the war in Europe, strategic bombing was developed through trial and error. The Luftwaffe had been attacking both civilian and military targets from the very first day of the war when Germany invaded Poland on 1 September 1939. A strategic bombing campaign was launched to force Great Britain to a Peace agreement after the proposed plan of the invasion of Great Britain was dropped. Initially the raids took place in daylight, then changed to night bombing attacks when losses became unsustainable. The British Royal Air Force also bombed Germany at night for the same reasons. The United States Army Air Forces adopted a policy of daylight bombing for greater accuracy, as for example, during the Schweinfurt raids. That however entailed much higher American losses until fighter escorts became available. The two most well known examples of strategic bombing in the European war theatre were the bombing of Coventry by the Germans on 14 November 1940, killing 568 civilians and the Allied bombing of Dresden on 13 February 1945 which killed up to 40,000 civilians. The Deutsche Luftwaffe or   (German: air force, literally Air Weapon IPA: ) is the commonly used term for the German air force. ... Polish Defensive War of 1939 Conflict World War II Date 1 September - 6 October 1939 Place Poland Result Decisive German and Soviet victory The Polish September Campaign or Defensive War of 1939 (Polish: Wojna obronna 1939 roku) was the conquest of Poland by the armies of Nazi Germany, the Soviet... September 1 is the 244th day of the year (245th in leap years). ... Year 1939 (MCMXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... The United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) was a part of the U.S. Army during World War II. The direct precursor to the U.S. Air Force, the USAAF formally existed between 1941 and 1947. ... Schweinfurt is a city in the Unterfranken region of Bavaria in Germany on the right bank of the canalized Main, which is here spanned by several bridges, 27 km North-East of Würzburg. ... The Bombing of Coventry was a massive raid launched by the Luftwaffe which saw Britains major armaments production centre decimated. ... is the 318th day of the year (319th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The bombing of Dresden in World War II by the Allies remains controversial after more than 50 years. ... is the 44th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar). ...


Strategic bombing was a way of demonstrating a war within Europe even while the Allied ground forces were no closer to fighting Germans on occupied soil than North Africa. Between them the Allied air forces were able to bomb around the clock. The USAAF with well defended aircraft by day in precision raids against specific targets such as industrial sites and the British with their less protected bombers crossing under cover of night into Germany and massing by the hundreds over the cities.


Strategic bombing in Europe never reached the decisive completeness that the American bombing campaign in Japan achieved, helped in part by the fragility of Japanese housing which was particularly vulnerable to the use of incendiary bombs. The destruction of German infrastructure became apparent, but the Allied campaign against Germany only really succeeded when the Allies began targeting oil refineries towards the end of the war. At the same time strategic bombing of Germany was a morale boosting action in the period before land war resumed on the Western front. This building is public housing provided by the government of Tokyo. ... Incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, or white phosphorus. ...


In the Pacific theatre, organized strategic bombing of China on a large scale by the Japanese seldom occurred, perhaps with exception of Chongqing. The Japanese army in most places advanced quickly enough to the extent that a strategic bombing campaign was unnecessary. In those places where it was required, the smaller Japanese bombers (in comparison to the ones the British and Americans were using) did not carry a bomb load sufficient to inflict the sort of damage that was occurring daily at that point in the war in Europe, or later in Japan. The Pacific Theater of Operations (PTO) is the term used in the United States for all military activity in the Pacific Ocean and the countries bordering it, in World War II. Pacific War is a more common name, around the world, for the broader conflict between the Allies and Japan... The Bombing of Chongqing (February 18, 1938 - August 23, 1943) was a Japanese strategic bombing campaign against the Chinese provisional capital of Chongqing that lasted 5 1/2 years. ...


The development of the B-29 by the Americans gave the United States a bomber with sufficient range to reach the Japanese main islands. The capture of the Japanese island of Iwo Jima further enhanced the capabilities the Americans possessed in their strategic bombing campaign. Conventional bombs and incendiary bombs were used against Japan. Ultimately however, it was the atomic bombs dropped on Hiroshima and Nagasaki which were to determine the end of the war. For other uses, see Iwo Jima (disambiguation). ... Incendiary bombs are bombs designed to start fires or destroy sensitive equipment using materials such as napalm, thermite, or white phosphorus. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 km (11 mi) above the epicenter. ... Citizens of Hiroshima walk by the A-Bomb Dome, the closest building to have survived the citys atomic bombing. ...


Cold War

Nuclear weapons defined the tactics of strategic bombing during the Cold War. The age of the massive strategic bombing campaign had come to an end. It was replaced with more precise attacks using improved sighting and weapon arming technology. Strategic bombing by the great powers also became politically unfeasible. The political fallout resulting from the destruction broadcast on the evening news ended more than one strategic bombing campaign. The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... In the context of international relations and diplomacy, power (sometimes clarified as international power, national power, or state power) is the ability of one state to influence or control other states. ... The Norwich Evening News is a daily newspaper for Norwich city and the surrounding suburbs and outlying towns, and is published by Archant. ...


In the Vietnam war, strategic bombing of North Vietnam in Operation Rolling Thunder could have been more extensive, but the fear of the Johnson Administration of an entry by China into the war caused them to restrict the selection of targets. The aim of the bombing campaigns was to demoralize the North Vietnamese, damage their economy and reduce their capacity to support the war in the hope they would negotiate peace, but the raids failed to have those effects. The Nixon Administration continued this sort of limited strategic bombing during the two Operation Linebacker campaigns. Images such as Kim Phuc Phan Thi (although this incident was the result of a close air support mission rather than a strategic bombing mission) disturbed the American public enough to demand a stop to the bombardments. Combatants United States (U.S.) Republic of Vietnam (RVN) Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV) Commanders Joseph H. Moore William W. Momyer George S. Brown Phung The Tai (Air Defense) Nguyen Van Tien (Air Force) Casualties U.S. Air Force, 381 KIA or MIA/222 POWs (23 died in captivity, 1... Lyndon Baines Johnson (August 27, 1908–January 22, 1973), often referred to as LBJ, was an American politician. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Combatants United States Republic of Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam Commanders John W. Vogt, Jr. ... Kim Phúc Phan Thị Kim Phúc known as Kim Phuc (born 1963) was the subject of a famous photo from the Vietnam war. ... An Apache attack helicopter provides close air support to United States Army soldiers patrolling the Tigris River southeast of Baghdad, Iraq during the Iraq War. ...


Due to this, and the ineffectiveness of carpet bombing, partly because of a lack of identifiable targets, new precision weapons were developed. The new weapons allowed for more effective and more efficient bombing with reduced civilian casualties. High civilian casualties had always been the hallmark of strategic bombing, but later in the Cold War, this began to change. The phrase carpet bombing refers to the use of large numbers of unguided gravity bombs, often with a high proportion of incendiary bombs, to attempt the complete destruction of a target region, either to destroy personnel and materiel, or as a means to demoralize the enemy (see terror bombing). ... In times of armed conflict a civilian is any person who is not a combatant. ... A hallmark is an official marking made by a trusted party, guardians of the craft or nowadays by an assay office, on items made of precious metals (platinum, gold and silver) that guarantees a certain purity of the metal. ...


The Israeli Air Force used strategic bombing during its brief but intense wars with its neighbors during the Six Day and Yom Kippur wars. Strategic bombing was entering a new phase of high intensity, specifically targeting factories which took years and millions of dollars to build. The Israeli Air Force (IAF; Hebrew: זרוע האויר והחלל, Zroa HaAvir VeHaḤalal, Air and Space Division, commonly known as חיל האוויר Hel HaAvir) is the air force of the Israel Defense Forces. ... The 1967 Arab-Israeli War, also known as the Six-Day War or June War, was fought between Israel and its Arab neighbors Egypt, Jordan, and Syria. ... Combatants  Israel  Egypt,  Syria,  Jordan  Iraq Commanders Moshe Dayan, David Elazar, Ariel Sharon, Shmuel Gonen, Benjamin Peled, Israel Tal, Rehavam Zeevi, Aharon Yariv, Yitzhak Hofi, Rafael Eitan, Abraham Adan, Yanush Ben Gal Saad El Shazly, Ahmad Ismail Ali, Hosni Mubarak, Mohammed Aly Fahmy, Anwar Sadat, Abdel Ghani el-Gammasy, Abdul... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Eventually, a single mission could be considered to constitute a strategic bombing. The Israeli bombing of the Iraqi nuclear reactor at Osirak was one such event. The single mission put an end to Iraqi ability to produce nuclear weapons for at least seven years. The fusing of the tactical, strategic, and grand strategic in strategic bombing was becoming complete. Core of a small nuclear reactor used for research. ... The reactor after the Israeli raid. ... Grand strategy is military strategy considered at the level of the movement and use of an entire nation state or empires resources. ...


Post Cold War

Strategic bombing in the post Cold War era was defined by American advances in and use of smart munitions. Beginning in the First Gulf War, and then more markedly in the Kosovo War and the initial phases of the 2003 Invasion of Iraq, strategic bombing campaigns were marked by the heavy use of precision weaponry. This led to fewer civilian casualties associated with previous conflicts, though not a complete end to civilian death or injury. BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia Egypt United Kingdom & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ...


Strategic bombing took on a more personal role, as strikes against individual leaders were considered, and approved, in the case of Saddam Hussein, or disapproved, in the case of Slobodan Milošević. The idea of destroying, or not destroying a high-value personal target was not new. In World War II, the United States chose to use nuclear bombs against cities where the Japanese emperor did not reside. There were even rumors during the Kosovo War that strikes against one of Milošević's residences were held back due to a historical impressionist painting that was at the location. Cruise missiles and ballistic missiles (such as the scud) have replaced strategic bombers to an extent. Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... “MiloÅ¡ević” redirects here. ... His Imperial Majesty, Emperor Akihito of Japan The Emperor of Japan (天皇, tennō) is Japans titular head of state and the head of the Japanese imperial family. ... Impressionism was a 19th century art movement that began as a loose association of Paris-based artists, who began exhibiting their art publicly in the 1860s. ... A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which uses a lifting wing and most often a jet propulsion system to allow sustained flight. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... For other uses, see Scud (disambiguation). ...


Technological advances

With the advent of precision-guided munitions, many feel that strategic bombing has become a viable military strategy. Exactly how precise so called precision munitions are, is also open to question. However, others predict that 21st century warfare will be often asymmetrical, and therefore valid strategic targets will not exist. BOLT-117 laser guided bomb Precision-guided munitions (smart munitions or smart bombs) are self-guiding weapons intended to maximize damage to the target while minimizing collateral damage. Because the damage effects of an explosive weapon scale as a power law with distance, quite modest improvements in accuracy (and hence... Asymmetric warfare is a military term to describe warfare in which the two belligerents are mismatched in their military capabilities or accustomed methods of engagement such that the militarily diasadvantaged power must press its special advantages or effectively exploit its enemys particular weaknesses if they are to have any...


Strategic bombing events

Among the most controversial instances of strategic bombing are:

Mandates in the Middle east and Africa. ... It has been suggested that Martyrs of the Spanish Civil War be merged into this article or section. ... The bombing of Guernica was an aerial attack on April 26, 1937, during the Spanish Civil War by planes of the German Luftwaffe Condor Legion and subordinate Italian Fascists from the Corpo Truppe Volontarie expeditionary force organized as Aviazione Legionaria. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The city heart of Rotterdam after the bombing, the ruin of the (now restored) Laurens Kerk is the only building that reminds people of the Rotterdams medieval architecture. ... Heinkel He 111 German bomber over the Surrey Docks, Southwark, London (German propaganda photomontage). ... This article is about strategic bombing raids on Berlin. ... The bombing of Dresden, led by the British Royal Air Force (RAF) and involving the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) between February 13 and February 15, 1945, remains one of the more controversial Allied actions of World War II. Historian Frederick Taylor says: The destruction of Dresden has an... The large port city of Hamburg was very heavily bombed many times by the Royal Air Force (RAF) and the United States Army Air Forces (USAAF) during World War II. During one of the attacks in July 1943 a firestorm was created that caused many thousands of casualties. ... B-29 bombers were used to drop hundreds of thousands of tons of explosives onto Japanese cities during the war. ... The Fat Man mushroom cloud resulting from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rises 18 km (11 mi, 60,000 ft) into the air from the hypocenter. ... Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... The Ho Chi Minh trail was a logistical system that ran from the Democratic Republic of Vietnam (DRV or North Vietnam) to the Republic of Vietnam (RVN or South Vietnam) through the neighboring countries of Laos and Cambodia. ... Hanoi (Vietnamese: Hà Ná»™i, Hán Tá»±: 河内)  , estimated population 3,145,300 (2005), is the capital of Vietnam. ... Combatants United States Saudi Arabia Egypt United Kingdom & US-led Coalition Republic of Iraq Commanders Norman Schwarzkopf Khalid bin Sultan Saddam Hussein Strength 883,863 360,000 Casualties 240 killed in action, 776 wounded, 30 taken prisoner At least 183,000 victims of the Gulf War syndrome Est. ... This does not cite any references or sources. ... Combatants NATO Republika Srpska Casualties 1 Mirage aircraft Undisclosed The NATO campaign against the Army of Republika Srpska (code-named Operation Deliberate Force, by NATO) was a sustained air campaign conducted by NATO to undermine the military capability of Bosnian Serb Army who threatened or attacked UN-designated safe areas... The term Kosovo War or Kosovo Conflict is often used to describe two sequential and at times parallel armed conflicts (a civil war followed by an international war) in the southern Serbian province called Kosovo (officially Kosovo and Metohia), part of the former Federal Republic of Yugoslavia. ... NATO 2002 Summit in Prague. ... Anthem Serbia() on the European continent() Capital (and largest city) Belgrade Official languages Serbian 1 Recognised regional languages Hungarian, Croatian, Slovak, Romanian, Rusyn 2 Albanian 3 Government Semi-presidential republic  -  President Boris Tadić  -  Prime Minister Vojislav KoÅ¡tunica Establishment  -  Formation 9th century   -  First unified state c. ... On May 12, the flag at the United States Consulate General in Hong Kong was lowered in respect and sorrow for the Chinese people for a day as the plane carrying the bodies of victims of the embassy bombing came home to Beijing. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... “TV” redirects here. ... Location of Belgrade within Serbia Coordinates: Country Serbia District City of Belgrade Municipalities 17 Government  - Mayor Nenad Bogdanović (DS) (since 2004)  - Ruling parties DS/DSS/G17+ Area  - City 3,222. ... The subject of this article is the 2003 invasion of Iraq. ... Experiment with a laser (US Military) In physics, a laser is a device that emits light through a specific mechanism for which the term laser is an acronym: Light Amplification by Stimulated Emission of Radiation. ... Over fifty GPS satellites such as this NAVSTAR have been launched since 1978. ... Saddam Hussein Abd al-Majid al-Tikriti (28 April 1937 – 30 December 2006) was the fifth President of Iraq and Chairman of the Iraqi Revolutionary Command Council from 1979 until his overthrow by US forces in 2003. ... Asymmetric warfare originally referred to war between two or more actors, or groups of actors, whose relative power differed by a significant amount. ...

Pioneers of strategic bombing

General of the Air Force Henry Harley Hap Arnold GCB (June 25, 1886 – January 15, 1950) was an aviation pioneer and Chief of the United States Army Air Corps (from 1938), Commanding General of the U.S. Army Air Forces (from 1941 until 1945) and the first and only General... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... General Giulio Douhet (30 May 1869 - 15 February 1930) was an Italian air power theorist. ... Insignia applied with a decal on the tail of the Règia Aeronautica aircraft (reconstruction). ... Marshal of the Royal Air Force Sir Arthur Travers Harris, 1st Baronet GCB OBE AFC RAF (April 13, 1892 - April 5, 1984), commonly known as Bomber Harris by the press, and often within the RAF as Butcher Harris[1], was commander of RAF Bomber Command and later a Marshal of... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ... Curtis Emerson LeMay (November 15, 1906 – October 1, 1990) was a General in the United States Air Force and the vice presidential running mate of independent candidate George C. Wallace in 1968. ... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... For other people with the same name, see Billy Mitchell (disambiguation). ... 1. ... Carl Tooey Spaatz (June 28, 1891 – July 14, 1974) was an American general in World War II. Carl Andrew Spatz (Spaatz added the second a in 1937 at the request of his wife and daughters to clarify the pronunciation of the name) was born on June 28, 1891, in Boyertown... The United States Air Force (USAF) is the aerial warfare branch of the United States armed forces and one of the seven uniformed services. ... Hugh Montague Trenchard, 1st Viscount Trenchard (February 3, 1873 - February 10, 1956) was the British Chief of the Air Staff during World War I, and was instrumental in establishing the Royal Air Force (RAF). ... The Royal Air Force (RAF) is the air force branch of the British Armed Forces. ...

See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Strategic_bombing

  Results from FactBites:
 
Strategic bombing - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2971 words)
Strategic bombing is a military strategy used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war.
Strategic bombing in Europe never reached the decisive completeness that the American bombing campaign in Japan achieved, helped in part by the fragility of Japanese housing which was particularly vulnerable to the use of incendiary bombs.
Strategic bombing took on a more personal role, as strikes against individual leaders were considered, and approved, in the case of Saddam Hussein, or disapproved, in the case of Slobodan Milošević.
Strategic bombing - definition of Strategic bombing in Encyclopedia (2068 words)
Strategic bombing is a military strategem used in a total war style campaign that attempts to destroy the economic ability of a nation-state to wage war.
In the Vietnam war, strategic bombing in Operation Rolling Thunder was supposed to be non-stop, but the lack of political will by the Johnson Administration meant that the campaign was never as effective as it could have been.
Strategic bombing took on a more personal role, as strikes against individual leaders were considered, and approved, in the case of Saddam Hussein or disapproved, in the case of Slobodan Milosevic.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m