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Encyclopedia > Strategic Defense Initiative

The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposal by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983[1] to use ground and space-based systems to protect the United States from attack by strategic nuclear ballistic missiles. The initiative focused on strategic defense rather than the prior strategic offense doctrine of mutual assured destruction (MAD). Image File history File links Sdilogo. ... Reagan redirects here. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


Though it was never fully developed or deployed, the research and technologies of SDI paved the way for some anti-ballistic missile systems of today. The Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was set up in 1984 within the United States Department of Defense to oversee the Strategic Defense Initiative. It gained the popular name Star Wars after the 1977 movie by George Lucas. Under the administration of President Bill Clinton in 1993, its name was changed to the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and its emphasis was shifted from national missile defense to theater missile defense; from global to regional coverage. BMDO was renamed to the Missile Defense Agency in 2002. This article covers defense efforts under the SDIO. An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... This article is about the year. ... The United States Department of Defense (DOD or DoD) is the federal department charged with coordinating and supervising all agencies and functions of the government relating directly to national security and the military. ... This article is about the series. ... George Walton Lucas, Jr. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... Year 1993 (MCMXCIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full 1993 Gregorian calendar). ... The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (or BMDO) was an agency of the United States Department of Defense. ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ...

Contents

Strategic missile defense before SDI

SDI was not the first U.S. defensive system against nuclear ballistic missiles. In the 1960s, The Sentinel Program was designed and developed to provide a limited defensive capability, but was never deployed. Sentinel technology was later used in the Safeguard Program, briefly deployed to defend one U.S. location. In the 1970s the Soviet Union deployed a missile defense system, still operational today, which defends Moscow, Russia and nearby missile sites. A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... The MSR overlooks missile launchers at the Stanley R. Mickelsen Safeguard complex in Nekoma, North Dakota. ... Saint Basils Cathedral Moscow (Russian/Cyrillic: Москва́, pronounciation: Moskva), capital of Russia, located on the river Moskva, and encompassing 878. ...


SDI is unique from the earlier U.S. and Soviet missile defense efforts. It envisioned using space-oriented basing of defensive systems as opposed to solely ground-launched interceptors. It also initially had the ambitious goal of providing a near total defense against a massive sophisticated ICBM attack, as opposed to previous systems, which were limited in defensive capacity and geographic coverage. A Minuteman III missile soars after a test launch. ...


Initial impetus

In the fall of 1979, at Reagan's request, Lieutenant General Daniel O. Graham conceived a concept he called the High Frontier, an idea of strategic defense using ground- and space-based weapons theoretically possible because of emerging technologies. It was designed to replace the doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction, a doctrine that Reagan and his aides described as a suicide pact.[2] Daniel O. Graham was a U.S. Army officer. ... A suicide pact describes the suicides of two or more individuals in an agreed-upon plan. ...


The initial focus of the strategic defense initiative was a nuclear explosion-powered X-ray laser designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by a scientist named Peter L. Hagelstein who worked with a team called O Group, doing much of the work in the late 1970s and early 1980s. O Group was headed by physicist Lowell Wood, a protégé and friend of Edward Teller, the "father of the hydrogen bomb". The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... Professor Peter L. Hagelstein is a principal investigator in the Research Laboratory of Electronics (RLE) at the Massachusetts Institute of Technology (MIT). ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ...


Ronald Reagan was told of Hagelstein's breakthrough by Teller in 1983, which prompted Reagan's March 23, 1983, "Star Wars" speech. Reagan announced, "I call upon the scientific community who gave us nuclear weapons to turn their great talents to the cause of mankind and world peace: to give us the means of rendering these nuclear weapons impotent and obsolete." This speech, along with Reagan's Evil Empire speech on March 8, 1983, in Florida, ushered in the last phase of the Cold War, bringing the nuclear standoff with the Soviet Union to its most critical point before the collapse of the Soviet Union later that decade. is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... The term evil empire was applied to the former Soviet Union (USSR) by U.S. President Ronald Reagan, American conservatives, and other Americans, particularly hawks. ... is the 67th day of the year (68th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ...


The concept for the space-based portion was to use lasers to shoot down incoming Soviet intercontinental ballistic missiles (ICBMs) armed with nuclear warheads. Nobel Prize-winning physicist Hans Bethe went to Livermore in February of 1983 for a two-day briefing on the X-ray laser, and "Although impressed with its scientific novelty, Bethe went away highly skeptical it would contribute anything to the nation's defense."[3] Soviet redirects here. ... ICBM redirects here. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, in 1945 lifted nuclear fallout some 18 km (60,000 feet) above the epicenter. ... Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ...


Project and proposals

Reagan delivering the March 23, 1983 speech initiating SDI.
Reagan delivering the March 23, 1983 speech initiating SDI.

In 1984, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was established to oversee the program, which was headed by Lt. General James Alan Abrahamson, USAF, a past Director of the NASA Space Shuttle program.[1] Research and development initiated by the SDIO created significant technological advances in computer systems, component miniaturization, sensors and missile systems that form the basis for current systems. Image File history File links C13571-8a. ... Image File history File links C13571-8a. ... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... Lieutenant General James Alan Abrahamson was director of the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, Office of the Secretary of Defense, Washington, D.C. He was responsible to the president and the secretary of defense for managing, directing and selecting key research and development programs designed to counter the threat posed by... This article is about the NASA Space Shuttle program. ...


Initially, the program focused on large scale systems designed to defeat a Soviet offensive strike. However, as the threat diminished, the program shifted towards smaller systems designed to defeat limited or accidental launches.


By 1987, the SDIO had developed a national missile defense concept called the Strategic Defense System Phase I Architecture. This concept consisted of ground and space based sensors and weapons, as well as a central battle management system.[4] The ground-based systems operational today trace their roots back to this concept. Nose of Lockheed boost vehicle protruding from silo 64kg Kill Vehicle (EKV) Sea based X band platform arriving in Pearl Harbor, January 2006 In 2002, National Missile Defense (NMD) was changed to Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD), to differentiate it from other missile defense programs, such as space-based and...


In his 1991 State of the Union Address George H. W. Bush shifted the focus of SDI from defense of North America against large scale strikes to a system focusing on theater missile defense called Global Protection Against Limited Strikes (GPALS).[5] State of the Union redirects here. ... George Herbert Walker Bush (born June 12, 1924) was the 41st President of the United States, serving from 1989 to 1993. ...


In 1993, the Clinton administration further shifted the focus to ground-based interceptor missiles and theater scale systems, forming the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO) and closing the SDIO. Ballistic missile defense has been revived by the George W. Bush administration as the National Missile Defense and Ground-based Midcourse Defense. William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (or BMDO) was an agency of the United States Department of Defense. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the forty-third and current President of the United States of America, originally inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ...


Ground-based programs

Extended Range Interceptor (ERINT) launch from White Sands Missile Range.
Extended Range Interceptor (ERINT) launch from White Sands Missile Range.

Image File history File links ERINT.jpg Caption Extended Range Interceptor (ERINT) launch Source http://www. ... Image File history File links ERINT.jpg Caption Extended Range Interceptor (ERINT) launch Source http://www. ...

Extended Range Interceptor (ERINT)

The Extended Range Interceptor (ERINT) program was part of SDI's Theater Missile Defense Program and was an extension of the Flexible Lightweight Agile Guided Experiment (FLAGE), which included developing hit-to-kill technology and demonstrating the guidance accuracy of a small, agile, radar-homing vehicle.


FLAGE scored a direct hit against a MGM-52 Lance missile in flight, at White Sands Missile Range in 1987. ERINT was a prototype missile similar to the FLAGE, but it used a new solid-propellant rocket motor that allowed it to fly faster and higher than FLAGE. The MGM-52 Lance was a mobile field artillery tactical surface-to-surface missile system used to provide both nuclear and conventional fire support to the United States Army. ... White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), formerly known as the White Sands Proving Grounds, is located in Otero County, New Mexico, mostly in the Tularosa Basin, a valley between the Organ Mountains, San Andres Mountains and the Sacramento Mountains of the U.S. state of New Mexico, it includes the northern...


Under BMDO, ERINT was later chosen as the Patriot Advanced Capability-3 (PAC-3) missile.[6] Four Patriot missiles like the one shown here can be fired from this mobile launcher between loadings. ...


Homing Overlay Experiment (HOE)

4 m (13 ft) diameter web deployed by Homing Overlay Experiment
4 m (13 ft) diameter web deployed by Homing Overlay Experiment

The Homing Overlay Experiment (HOE) was the first system tested by the Army that employed hit-to-kill; four test launches were conducted in 1983 and 1984. The first three tests failed due to guidance and sensor problems. Although the fourth test apparently succeeded, it was later discovered by a Government Accountability Office investigation that the "successful" test had been rigged by Pentagon officials. In order to make it more likely to succeed, officials heated the nose of the incoming missile before it was launched, providing a stronger signal for the infrared sensors to home in on. In addition, they changed the configuration of the test to assure that the HOE missile approached the target missile from the side, an easier test than the head-on trajectories that had been used in the first three tests.[7] Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2400x1900, 950 KB) Caption Homing overlay experiment open web Source http://www. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2400x1900, 950 KB) Caption Homing overlay experiment open web Source http://www. ... General Accounting Office headquarters, Washington, D.C. The Government Accountability Office (GAO) is the non-partisan audit, evaluation, and investigative arm of Congress, and an agency in the Legislative Branch of the United States Government. ... Image of a small dog taken in mid-infrared (thermal) light (false color) A thermographic camera, sometimes called a FLIR (forward looking infrared), or an infrared camera less specifically, is a device that forms an image using infrared radiation, similar to a common camera that forms an image using visible...


The HOE technology was later used by the SDIO and expanded into the Exoatmospheric Reentry-vehicle Interception System (ERIS) program.[8]


Exoatmospheric Reentry-vehicle Interception System (ERIS)

Developed by Lockheed as part of the ground-based interceptor portion of SDI, the Exoatmospheric Reentry-vehicle Interception System (ERIS) began in 1985, with at least two tests occurring in the early 1990s. This system was never deployed, but the technology of the system was used in the Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD) system and the Ground Based Interceptor currently deployed as part of the Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD) system.[9] The Lockheed SR-71 was remarkably advanced for its time and remains unsurpassed in many areas of performance. ... THAAD missile launcher Terminal High Altitude Area Defense (THAAD), formerly Theater High Altitude Area Defense, is a United States Army project to develop a system to shoot down short- and medium-range ballistic missiles over a theater or region by ramming them with interceptor missiles. ... Nose of Lockheed boost vehicle protruding from silo 64kg Kill Vehicle (EKV) Sea based X band platform arriving in Pearl Harbor, January 2006 In 2002, National Missile Defense (NMD) was changed to Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD), to differentiate it from other missile defense programs, such as space-based and...


Directed-energy weapon (DEW) programs

See also: Directed-energy weapon

A directed-energy weapon (DEW) is a type of weapon which emits energy in an aimed direction without the means of a projectile. ...

X-ray laser

An artist's concept of a Space Laser Satellite Defense System, 1984. (Not any one system specifically, just generalized concept artwork)
An artist's concept of a Space Laser Satellite Defense System, 1984. (Not any one system specifically, just generalized concept artwork)

An early focus of the project was toward a curtain of X-ray lasers powered by nuclear explosions. The curtain was to be deployed using a series of missiles launched from submarines or, later on, satellites, during the critical seconds following a Soviet attack. The satellites would be powered by built-in nuclear warheads--in theory, the energy from the warhead detonation would be used to pump a series of laser emitters in the missiles or satellites in order to produce an impenetrable barrier to incoming warheads. However, on March 26, 1983,[10] the first test, known as the Cabra event, was performed in an underground shaft and resulted in marginally positive readings that could be dismissed as being caused by a faulty detector. Since a nuclear explosion was used as the power source, the detector was destroyed during the experiment and the results therefore could not be confirmed. Technical criticism[11] based upon unclassified calculations suggested that the X-ray laser would be of at best marginal use for missile defense.[12] Such critics often cite the X-ray laser system as being the primary focus of SDI, with its apparent failure being a main reason to oppose the program. However, the laser was never more than one of the many systems being researched for ballistic missile defense. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x1861, 922 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Strategic Defense Initiative Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3000x1861, 922 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Strategic Defense Initiative Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... In the NATO phonetic alphabet, X-ray represents the letter X. An X-ray picture (radiograph) taken by Röntgen An X-ray is a form of electromagnetic radiation with a wavelength approximately in the range of 5 pm to 10 nanometers (corresponding to frequencies in the range 30 PHz... For other uses, see Laser (disambiguation). ... It has been suggested that Nuclear explosive be merged into this article or section. ... For other uses, see Submarine (disambiguation). ... This article is about artificial satellites. ...


Despite the apparent failure of the Cabra test, the long term legacy of the X-ray laser program is the knowledge gained while conducting the research. A parallel developmental program advanced laboratory X-ray lasers[13] for biological imaging and the creation of 3D holograms of living organisms. Other spin-offs include research on advanced materials like SEAgel and Aerogel, the Electron-Beam Ion Trap facility for physics research, and enhanced techniques for early detection of breast cancer.[14] SEAgel (Safe Emulsion Agar gel) is a high-tech foam whose purpose is to serve as a type of insulator. ... A 2. ... Breast cancer is cancer of breast tissue. ...


Chemical laser

SeaLite Beam Director, commonly used as the output for the MIRACL.
SeaLite Beam Director, commonly used as the output for the MIRACL.
See also: Chemical laser

Beginning in 1985, the Air Force tested an SDIO-funded deuterium fluoride laser known as Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser (MIRACL) at White Sands Missile Range. During a simulation, the laser successfully destroyed a Titan missile booster in 1985 and it was successfully tested on target drones simulating cruise missiles for the US Navy. After the SDIO closed, the MIRACL was tested on an old Air Force satellite for potential use as an Anti-satellite weapon, with mixed results. The technology was also used to develop the Tactical High Energy Laser, (THEL) which is being tested to shoot down artillery shells.[15] Image File history File links Slbd_front. ... Image File history File links Slbd_front. ... A chemical laser is a laser that obtains its energy from a chemical reaction. ... USAF redirects here. ... Hydrogen fluoride laser is an infrared chemical laser. ... MIRACL, or Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser, is the only successful directed energy weapon developed by the SDI program. ... White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), formerly known as the White Sands Proving Grounds, is located in Otero County, New Mexico, mostly in the Tularosa Basin, a valley between the Organ Mountains, San Andres Mountains and the Sacramento Mountains of the U.S. state of New Mexico, it includes the northern... --69. ... THEL/ACTD The Tactical High-Energy Laser, or THEL, is a laser developed for military use, also known as the Nautilus laser system. ...


Neutral Particle Beam

In July 1989, the Beam Experiments Aboard a Rocket (BEAR) program launched a sounding rocket containing a neutral particle beam (NPB) accelerator. The experiment successfully demonstrated that a particle beam would operate and propagate as predicted outside the atmosphere and that there are no unexpected side-effects when firing the beam in space. After the rocket was recovered, the particle beam was still operational.[16] According to the BMDO, the research on neutral particle beam accelerators, which was originally funded by the SDIO, could eventually be used to reduce the half-life of nuclear waste products using accelerator-driven transmutation technology.[17] A particle beam is an accelerated stream of charged particles or atoms (often moving at very near the speed of light) which may be directed by magnets and focused by electrostatic lenses, although they may also be self-focusing (see Pinch). ... Half-Life For a quantity subject to exponential decay, the half-life is the time required for the quantity to fall to half of its initial value. ... A subcritical reactor is a nuclear fission reactor that produces fission without achieving criticality. ...


Laser and mirror experiments

Technicians at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), work on the Low-powered Atmosphere Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite.
Technicians at the Naval Research Laboratory (NRL), work on the Low-powered Atmosphere Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite.

The High Precision Tracking Experiment (HPTE), launched with the Space Shuttle Discovery on STS-51-G, was tested June 21, 1985 when a Hawaii-based low-power laser successfully tracked the experiment and bounced the laser off of the HPTE mirror. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2350x3000, 3408 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Strategic Defense Initiative ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2350x3000, 3408 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Strategic Defense Initiative ... Space Shuttle Discovery (Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-103) is one of the three currently operational spacecraft in the Space Shuttle fleet of NASA, the space agency of the United States. ... STS 51-G was the eighteenth flight of a Space Shuttle and the fifth flight of Discovery. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ...


The Relay mirror experiment (RME), launched in February 1990, demonstrated critical technologies for space-based relay mirrors that would be used with an SDI directed-energy weapon system. The experiment validated stabilization, tracking, and pointing concepts and proved that a laser could be relayed from the ground to a 60 cm mirror on an orbiting satellite and back to another ground station with a high degree of accuracy and for extended durations.[18] A directed-energy weapon (DEW) is a type of weapon which emits energy in an aimed direction without the means of a projectile. ... A centimetre (American spelling centimeter, symbol cm) is a unit of length that is equal to one hundredth of a metre, the current SI base unit of length. ...


Launched on the same rocket as the RME, the Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE) satellite was built by the United States Naval Research Laboratory (NRL) to explore atmospheric distortion of lasers and real-time adaptive compensation for that distortion. The LACE satellite also included several other experiments to help develop and improve SDI sensors, including target discrimination using background radiation and tracking ballistic missiles using Ultra-Violet Plume Imaging (UVPI).[19] LACE was also used to evaluate ground-based adaptive optics, a technique now used in civilian telescopes to remove atmospheric distortions. Bust of Thomas Edison at the front gate of the Naval Research Laboratory. ... A deformable mirror can be used to correct wavefront errors in an astronomical telescope. ...


Hypervelocity Rail Gun (CHECMATE)

Research into hypervelocity rail gun technology was done to build an information base about rail guns so that SDI planners would know how to apply the technology to the proposed defense system. The SDI rail gun investigation, called the Compact High Energy Capacitor Module Advanced Technology Experiment (CHECMATE), had been able to fire two projectiles per day during the initiative. This represented a significant improvement over previous efforts, which were only able to achieve about one shot per month. Hypervelocity rail guns are, at least conceptually, an attractive alternative to a space-based defense system because of their envisioned ability to quickly shoot at many targets. Also, since only the projectile leaves the gun, a railgun system can potentially fire many times before needing to be resupplied. Hypervelocity is usually refered to a very high velocity, such as over 10,000 feet per second. ... A prototype railgun This article is about an electromagnetic projectile launcher. ...


A hypervelocity rail gun works very much like a particle accelerator insofar as it converts electrical potential energy into kinetic energy imparted to the projectile. A conductive pellet (the projectile) is attracted down the rails by electric current flowing through a rail. Through the magnetic forces that this system achieves, a force is exerted on the projectile moving it down the rail. Railguns can generate muzzle-velocities in excess of 24 miles per second. At this velocity, even a rifle-bullet sized projectile will penetrate the front armor of a main battle tank, let alone a thinly protected missile guidance system. Atom Smasher redirects here. ... The cars of a roller coaster reach their maximum kinetic energy when at the bottom of their path. ... En [ [ ciencia ] ] y [ [ ingeniería ] ], los conductores son los materiales de los cuales contenga las cargas movibles [ [ electricidad ] ]. Cuando una diferencia potencial eléctrica se impresiona a través de puntos separados en un conductor, las cargas móviles dentro del conductor se fuerzan para moverse, y una corriente eléctrica entre esos puntos aparece... This box:      Electric current is the flow (movement) of electric charge. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ...


Rail guns face a host of technical challenges before they will be ready for battlefield deployment. First, the rails guiding the projectile must carry very high amperage and voltage. Each firing of the railgun produces tremendous current flow (almost half a million amperes) through the rails, causing rapid erosion of the rail's surfaces (through ohmic heating, and even vaporization of the rail-surface.) Early prototypes were essentially single-use weapons, requiring complete replacement of the rails after each firing. Another challenge with the rail gun system is projectile survivability. The projectiles experience acceleration force in excess of 100,000 gs. In order to be effective, the fired projectile must first survive the mechanical stress of firing, then the subsequent impact with the target. In-flight guidance, if implemented, would require the onboard guidance system to be built to the same standard of sturdiness as the main mass of the projectile. In electricity, current is the rate of flow of charges, usually through a metal wire or some other electrical conductor. ... International safety symbol Caution, risk of electric shock (ISO 3864), colloquially known as high voltage symbol. ... In physics, the ampere (symbol: A, often informally abbreviated to amp) is the SI base unit used to measure electrical currents. ... In electronics, and in physics more broadly, Joule heating or ohmic heating refers to the increase in temperature of a conductor as a result of resistance to an electrical current flowing through it. ... The term g force or gee force refers to the symbol g, the force of acceleration due to gravity at the earths surface. ...


In addition to being considered for destroying ballistic missile threats, rail guns were also being planned for service in space platform (sensor and battle station) defense. This potential role reflected defense planner expectations that the rail guns of the future would be capable of not only rapid fire, but also of multiple firings (on the order of tens to hundreds of shots). [20]


Space-based programs

Space-Based Interceptor (SBI)

Groups of interceptors were to be housed in orbital modules. Successful hover testing was completed in 1988 and demonstrated successful integration of the sensor and propulsion systems in the prototype SBI. It also demonstrated the ability of the seeker to shift its aiming point from a rocket's hot plume to its cool body, a first for infrared ABM seekers. Final hover testing occurred in 1992 using miniaturized components similar to what would have actually been used in an operational interceptor. These prototypes eventually evolved into the Brilliant Pebbles program.[21] In field artillery, the accuracy of direct fire depends on the use of aiming points, or APs or GAPs (gun aiming points). ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ...


Brilliant Pebbles

Brilliant Pebbles concept artwork.
Brilliant Pebbles concept artwork.

Brilliant Pebbles was a non-nuclear system of satellite-based, watermelon-sized[22] mini-missiles designed to use a high-velocity kinetic warhead.[23] It was designed to operate in conjunction with the Brilliant Eyes sensor system and would have detected and destroyed missiles without any external guidance. The project was conceived in November 1986.[24] Image File history File links Brilliant_pebbles. ... Image File history File links Brilliant_pebbles. ... A projectile is any object sent through space by the application of a force. ...


John H. Nuckolls, director of Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory from 1988 to 1994, described the system as “The crowning achievement of the Strategic Defense Initiative”. The technologies developed for SDI were used in numerous later projects. For example, the sensors and cameras that were developed for Brilliant Pebbles became components of the Clementine mission and SDI technologies may also have a role in future missile defense efforts.[25] Clementine was a joint space project between the Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (BMDO, previously the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization, or SDIO) and NASA. The objective of the mission was to test sensors and spacecraft components under extended exposure to the space environment and to make scientific observations of the Moon...


Though regarded as one of the most capable SDI systems, the Brilliant Pebbles program was canceled in 1994 by the BMDO.[26] However, it is being reevaluated for possible future use by the MDA.[citation needed] The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (or BMDO) was an agency of the United States Department of Defense. ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ...


Sensor programs

Delta 183 launch vehicle lifts off, carrying the SDI sensor experiment "Delta Star", on March 24, 1989.
Delta 183 launch vehicle lifts off, carrying the SDI sensor experiment "Delta Star", on March 24, 1989.

SDIO sensor research encompassed visible light, ultraviolet, infrared, and radar technologies, and eventually led to the Clementine mission though that mission occurred just after the program transitioned to the BMDO. Like other parts of SDI, the sensor system initially was very large-scale, but after the Soviet threat diminished it was cut back. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1890x2800, 1308 KB) Extended information SDIO markings and Wooden Stake spacecraft markings indicate this is the Delta 183 launch vehicle carrying the Delta Star spacecraft. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1890x2800, 1308 KB) Extended information SDIO markings and Wooden Stake spacecraft markings indicate this is the Delta 183 launch vehicle carrying the Delta Star spacecraft. ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... The optical spectrum (light or visible spectrum) is the portion of the electromagnetic spectrum that is visible to the human eye. ... For other uses, see Ultraviolet (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Infrared (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Radar (disambiguation). ... The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (or BMDO) was an agency of the United States Department of Defense. ...


Boost Surveillance and Tracking System (BSTS)

BSTS was part of the SDIO in the late '80s, and was designed to assist detection of missile launches, especially during the boost phase. However, once the SDI program shifted toward theater missile defense in the early '90s, the system left SDIO control and was transferred to the Air Force.[27] USAF redirects here. ...


Space Surveillance and Tracking System (SSTS)

SSTS was a system originally designed for tracking ballistic missiles during their mid-course phase. It was designed to work in conjunction with BSTS, but was later scaled down in favor of the Brilliant Eyes program.[21]


Brilliant Eyes

Brilliant Eyes was a simpler derivative of the SSTS that focused on theater ballistic missiles rather than ICBMs and was meant to operate in conjunction with the Brilliant Pebbles system.


Brilliant Eyes was renamed Space and Missile Tracking System (SMTS) and scaled back further under BMDO, and in the late 1990s it became the low earth orbit component of the Air Force's Space Based Infrared System (SBIRS).[28]


Other sensor experiments

The Delta 183 program used a satellite known as Delta Star to test several sensor related technologies. Delta Star carried an infrared imager, a long-wave infrared imager, an ensemble of imagers and photometers covering several visible and ultraviolet bands as well as a laser detector and ranging device. The satellite observed several ballistic missile launches including some releasing liquid propellant as a countermeasure to detection. Data from the experiments led to advances in sensor technologies.[29]


Countermeasures

An artist's concept of a ground / space-based hybrid laser weapon, 1984.
An artist's concept of a ground / space-based hybrid laser weapon, 1984.

In war-fighting, countermeasures can have a variety of meanings: Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2416x1906, 1133 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Strategic Defense Initiative ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (2416x1906, 1133 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Strategic Defense Initiative ... RNAFs F-16, firing countermeasures (flares) during a solo display at Radom Air Show 2005 A countermeasure is a system (usually for a military application) designed to prevent sensor-based weapons from acquiring and/or destroying a target. ...

  1. The immediate tactical action to reduce vulnerability, such as chaff, decoys, and maneuvering.
  2. Counter strategies which exploit a weakness of an opposing system, such as adding more MIRV warheads which are less expensive than the interceptors fired against them.
  3. Defense suppression. That is, attacking elements of the defensive system.

Countermeasures of various types have long been a key part of warfighting strategy. However, with SDI they attained a special prominence due to the system cost, scenario of a massive sophisticated attack, strategic consequences of a less-than-perfect defense, outer spacebasing of many proposed weapons systems, and political debate. Modern US Navy RR-129 and RR-124 chaff countermeasures and containers Chaff, originally called Window by the British, and Düppel by the WWII era German Luftwaffe, is a radar countermeasure in which aircraft or other targets spread a cloud of small, thin pieces of aluminium, metallised glass fibre... For other uses, see Decoy (disambiguation). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...


Whereas the current U.S. NMD system is designed around a relatively limited and unsophisticated attack, SDI planned for a massive attack by a sophisticated opponent. This raised significant issues about economic and technical costs associated with defending against anti-ballistic missile defense countermeasures used by the attacking side. A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... Anti-ballistic missile defense countermeasures are tactical or strategic actions taken by an attacker to overwhelm, destroy, or evade anti-ballistic missile defenses. ...


For example, if it had been much cheaper to add attacking warheads than to add defenses, an attacker of similar economic power could have simply outproduced the defender. This requirement of being "cost effective at the margin" was first formulated by Paul Nitze in November, 1985.[30] Paul Nitze Paul Henry Nitze (January 16, 1907 – October 19, 2004) was a high-ranking United States government official who helped shape Cold War defense policy over the course of numerous presidential administrations. ...


In addition, SDI envisioned many space-based systems in fixed orbits, ground-based sensors, command, control and communications facilities, etc. In theory, an advanced opponent could have targeted those, in turn requiring self-defense capability or increased numbers to compensate for attrition.


A sophisticated attacker having the technology to use decoys, shielding, maneuvering warheads, defense suppression, or other countermeasures would have multiplied the difficulty and cost of intercepting the real warheads. SDI design and operational planning had to factor in these countermeasures and the associated cost.


Controversy and criticism

SDI wasn't just lasers; in this Kinetic Energy Weapon test, a seven gram Lexan projectile was fired from a light gas gun at a velocity of 23,000 feet per second (7,000 meters per second or 15,682 miles per hour) at this cast aluminum block.
SDI wasn't just lasers; in this Kinetic Energy Weapon test, a seven gram Lexan projectile was fired from a light gas gun at a velocity of 23,000 feet per second (7,000 meters per second or 15,682 miles per hour) at this cast aluminum block.

SDI may have been first dubbed "Star Wars" by opponent Dr. Carol Rosin, a consultant and former spokesperson for Wernher von Braun.[citation needed] However, Missile Defense Agency historians attribute the term to a Washington Post article published March 24, 1983, the day after the Star Wars speech, which quoted Democratic Senator Ted Kennedy describing the proposal as "reckless Star Wars schemes."[31] Some critics used that term derisively, implying it was an impractical science fiction fantasy, but supporters have adopted the usage as well on the grounds that yesterday's science fiction is often tomorrow's engineering. In comments to the media on March 7, 1986, Acting Deputy Director of SDIO, Dr. Gerold Yonas, described the name "Star Wars" as an important tool for Soviet disinformation and asserted that the nickname gave an entirely wrong impression of SDI.[32] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3000x2375, 971 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Strategic Defense Initiative ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (3000x2375, 971 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Strategic Defense Initiative ... For similar products offered by other companies, see polycarbonates. ... The light gas gun is a highly specialized gun designed to generate very high velocities. ... Dr. Carol Rosin is an award-winning educator, author, leading aerospace executive and space and missile defense consultant. ... For other uses of von Braun, see von Braun (disambiguation). ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ... ... is the 83rd day of the year (84th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Jimi Hendrix song, see 1983. ... For other persons named Ted Kennedy, see Ted Kennedy (disambiguation). ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses, see Disinformation (disambiguation). ...


Ashton Carter, a board member at MIT, assessed SDI for Congress in 1984, saying there were a number of difficulties in creating an adequate missile defense shield, with or without lasers. Carter said X-rays have a limited scope because they become diffused through the atmosphere, much like the beam of a flashlight spreading outward in all directions. This means the X-rays needed to be close to the Soviet Union, especially during the critical few minutes of the booster phase, in order for the Soviet missiles to be both detectable to radar and targeted by the lasers themselves. Opponents disagreed, saying advances in technology, such as using very strong laser beams, and by "bleaching" the column of air surrounding the laser beam, could increase the distance that the X-ray would reach to successfully hit its target. Ashton Carter is a United States national security professional. ... Mapúa Institute of Technology (MIT, MapúaTech or simply Mapúa) is a private, non-sectarian, Filipino tertiary institute located in Intramuros, Manila. ...


Physicist Hans Bethe, who worked with Edward Teller on both the atom bomb and the hydrogen bomb at Los Alamos, claimed a laser defense shield was unfeasible. He said that a defensive system was costly and difficult to build yet simple to destroy, and claimed that the Soviets could easily use thousands of decoys to overwhelm it during a nuclear attack. He believed that the only way to stop the threat of nuclear war was through diplomacy and dismissed the idea of a technical solution to the Cold War, saying that a defense shield could be viewed as threatening because it would limit or destroy Soviet offensive capabilities while leaving the American offense intact. In March 1984, Bethe coauthored a 106-page report for the Union of Concerned Scientists that concluded "the X-ray laser offers no prospect of being a useful component in a system for ballistic missile defense."[33] Hans Albrecht Bethe (pronounced bay-tuh; July 2, 1906 – March 6, 2005), was a German-American physicist who won the Nobel Prize in Physics in 1967 for his work on the theory of stellar nucleosynthesis. ... Edward Teller (original Hungarian name Teller Ede) (January 15, 1908 – September 9, 2003) was a Hungarian-born American theoretical physicist, known colloquially as the father of the hydrogen bomb, even though he did not care for the title. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... Nuclear war, or atomic war, is war in which nuclear weapons are used. ... This article is about negotiations. ... The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is an advocacy organization based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. ...


Teller countered that Bethe and the other anti-defense activists could not have it both ways. Bethe, who had helped him usher in the nuclear age, had become opposed to nuclear weapons and afraid of nuclear war. At the same time, Bethe was also opposed to stopping the threat of offensive capabilities through massive defensive programs. Teller testified before Congress that "instead of [Berthe] objecting on scientific and technical grounds, which he thoroughly understands, he now objects on the grounds of politics, on grounds of military feasibility of military deployment, on other grounds of difficult issues which are quite outside the range of his professional cognizance or mine." Nuclear War is a card game designed by Douglas Malewicki, and originally published in 1966. ...


On June 28, 1985, David Lorge Parnas resigned from SDIO's Panel on Computing in Support of Battle Management, arguing in 8 short papers that the software required by the Strategic Defense Initiative could never be made to be trustworthy and that such a system would inevitably be unreliable and constitute a menace to humanity in its own right.[34] David Lorge Parnas (born February 10, 1941) is an early pioneer of software engineering who developed the concept of module design which is the foundation of object oriented programming today. ...

SDI drew criticism from abroad as well. This 1986 Socialist German Workers Youth graffiti in Kassel, West Germany says "Keinen Krieg der Sterne! Stoppt SDI! SDAJ" or (No star wars! Stop SDI! SDAJ.
SDI drew criticism from abroad as well. This 1986 Socialist German Workers Youth graffiti in Kassel, West Germany says "Keinen Krieg der Sterne! Stoppt SDI! SDAJ" or (No star wars! Stop SDI! SDAJ.

Supporters of SDI hail it for contributing to or at least accelerating the fall of the Soviet Union by the strategy of technology, which was a prevalent doctrine at the time. At Reagan and Gorbachev's October 1986 meeting in Iceland, Gorbachev opposed this defensive shield, while Reagan wanted to keep it, and offered to give the technology to the Soviets. Gorbachev said he didn't believe the offer, saying "Excuse me, Mr. President, but I do not take your idea of sharing SDI seriously. You don't want to share even petroleum equipment, automatic machine tools or equipment for dairies, while sharing SDI would be a second American Revolution." Both Reagan and Gorbachev proposed total elimination of all nuclear-armed missiles, but SDI and intermediate-range missiles were sticking points.[35] While SDI was a disagreement, the summit led to the Intermediate-Range Nuclear Forces Treaty, which some have claimed was an outgrowth of Gorbachev's fear of SDI. Opponents of the program say that Mikhail Gorbachev's reforms were the cause of the USSR's collapse and that SDI was an unrealistic and expensive program. Furthermore, some believed that Gorbachev's opposition to SDI was intended to encourage the United States to pursue ABM defense at great economic expense. To quote Gorbachev, "But I think that I am even helping the president [Reagan] with SDI. After all, your people say that if Gorbachev attacks SDI and space weapons so much, it means the idea deserves more respect. They even say that if it were not for me, no one would listen to the idea at all. And some even claim that I want to drag the United States into unnecessary expenditures with this."[35] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 471 pixelsFull resolution (2368 × 1394 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 471 pixelsFull resolution (2368 × 1394 pixel, file size: 1. ... Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterjugend (Socialist German Workers Youth) is a political youth organization in Germany. ... This article is about the city of Kassel in Hessen, Germany. ... Sozialistische Deutsche Arbeiterjugend (Socialist German Workers Youth) is a political youth organization in Germany. ... The Strategy of Technology doctrine involves a country using its advantage in technology to create and deploy weapons of sufficient power and numbers so as to overawe or beggar its opponent(s). ... The Reykjavik Summit was a summit between Ronald Reagan and Mikhail Gorbachev held in Reykjavik on October 11, 1986. ... U.S. President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev signing the INF Treaty, 1987. ... Mikhail Sergeyevich Gorbachev[1] (Russian: , IPA: ; born 2 March 1931) is a Russian politician. ...


Treaty obligations

Another criticism of SDI was that it would require the United States to modify, withdraw from, or violate previously ratified treaties. The Outer Space Treaty of 1967, which requires "States Parties to the Treaty undertake not to place in orbit around the Earth any objects carrying nuclear weapons or any other kinds of weapons of mass destruction, install such weapons on celestial bodies, or station such weapons in outer space in any other manner" and would forbid the US from pre-positioning in Earth orbit any devices powered by nuclear weapons and any devices capable of "mass destruction". Only the nuclear-pumped X-ray laser would have violated this treaty since other SDI systems would not utilize nuclear weapons. The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and its subsequent protocol,[36] which limited missile defenses to one location per country at 100 missiles each, would have been violated by SDI ground-based interceptors. The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty requires "Each of the Parties to the Treaty undertakes to pursue negotiations in good faith on effective measures relating to cessation of the nuclear arms race at an early date and to nuclear disarmament, and on a treaty on general and complete disarmament under strict and effective international control." Many viewed favoring deployment of ABM systems as an escalation rather than cessation of the nuclear arms race, and therefore a violation of this clause. // The Treaty on Principles Governing the Activities of States in the Exploration and Use of Outer Space, including the Moon and Other Celestial Bodies also known as the Outer Space Treaty (the Treaty), was opened for signature in the United States, the United Kingdom, and the Soviet Union (the three... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ...


SDI and MAD

SDI was criticized for potentially disrupting the strategic doctrine of Mutual Assured Destruction. MAD postulated that intentional nuclear attack was inhibited by the certain ensuing mutual self-destruction. Even if a nuclear first strike destroyed many of the opponent's weapons, sufficient nuclear missiles would survive to render a devastating counter-strike against the attacker. The criticism was that SDI could have potentially allowed an attacker to survive the lighter counter-strike, thus encouraging a first strike by the side having SDI. Another destabilizing scenario was countries being tempted to strike first before SDI was deployed, thereby avoiding a disadvantaged nuclear posture. Mutual assured destruction (MAD) is a doctrine of military strategy in which a full-scale use of nuclear weapons by one of two opposing sides would effectively result in the destruction of both the attacker and the defender. ...


Ronald Reagan responded that SDI would be given to the Soviet Union to prevent the imbalance from occurring.[35] How and whether this massive technology transfer would have happened was often debated. A complication of the MAD argument was that MAD only covered intentional nuclear attacks by a rational opponent with similar values, not accidental launches, rogue launches, or launches by non-state entities.


Non-ICBM delivery

Another criticism of SDI was that it would not be effective against non-space faring weapons, namely cruise missiles, bombers, and non-conventional delivery methods such as delivery via commercial ships. This latter method in particular would be attractive to terrorists and rogue states as it would be inexpensive, difficult to trace, and technologically undemanding. A Taurus KEPD 350 cruise missile of the German Luftwaffe A cruise missile is a guided missile which carries an explosive payload and uses a lifting wing and a propulsion system, usually a jet engine, to allow sustained flight; it is essentially a flying bomb. ... For other uses, see Bomber (disambiguation). ...


Timeline

Fiction and popular culture

Because of public awareness of the program and its controversial nature, SDI has been the subject of many fictional and pop culture references. This is not intended to be a complete list of those references.

  • Dale Brown's novel Silver Tower details the adventures on and around a space station that employs an anti-ICBM laser system called Skybolt against a Soviet invasion of Iran; it would reappear in the 2007 novel Strike Force and the 2008 novel Shadow Command.
  • Tom Clancy's novel The Cardinal of the Kremlin is based on part of a race between the USA and USSR to complete laser-based SDI systems.
  • Homer Hickam Jr's novel Back to the Moon used leftover SDI weapons, including the Homing Overlay Experiment, in an attempt to kill the crew of shuttle Columbia.
  • In the Civilization series, there are several references to ICBM defense systems similar to SDI.
  • The comedy movie Real Genius follows college physics prodigies who are unknowingly induced to develop a space-based laser weapon system for the Air Force.
  • In RoboCop, a brief satirical news story mentions how the Ronald Reagan memorial Strategic Defense platform in orbit malfunctioned, destroying a swathe of Southern California in the process.
  • Spies Like Us follows two duped 'spies' who are told to launch a single Soviet missile towards the USA as part of a black operation to demonstrate and justify the expense of SDI.
  • In the 1993 Larry Bond novel Cauldron the GPALS system is depicted as having been deployed with the Brilliant Pebbles weapons included. They are used to destroy all French and German military satellites covering an invasion of Poland in the then-future of 1998.

Dale Brown (b. ... For the member of the Irish folk band The Clancy Brothers, see Tom Clancy (singer) and for the American Celticist, see Thomas Owen Clancy. ... The Cardinal of the Kremlin is a novel by Tom Clancy, featuring his character Jack Ryan. ... Homer Hadley Hickam, Jr. ... Back To The Moon cover art. ... Space Shuttle Columbia (NASA Orbiter Vehicle Designation: OV-102) was the first spaceworthy space shuttle in NASAs orbital fleet. ... For the complete series of games, see Civilization (series). ... Real Genius is a 1985 comedy film starring Val Kilmer and Gabriel Jarret. ... RoboCop is a 1987 science-fiction, action movie and satire of business-driven capitalism, directed by Paul Verhoeven. ... Spies Like Us is the name of a 1985 comedy film directed by John Landis, starring Chevy Chase, Dan Aykroyd, and Donna Dixon. ... A black op is a black operation, a term used in political, military, intelligence, and business circles to refer to operations that are either secret (which may also be called a covert operation) or of questionable ethics or legality. ... Larry Bond (1952 - ) lives with his wife Jeanne and daughters Katie and Julia in Virginia outside Washington DC. He is the designer of the Harpoon and Command at Sea gaming systems and several supplements for the games. ...

See also

The Ballistic Missile Defense Organization (or BMDO) was an agency of the United States Department of Defense. ... A payload launch vehicle carrying a prototype exoatmospheric kill vehicle is launched from Meck Island at the Kwajalein Missile Range on December 3, 2001, for an intercept of a ballistic missile target over the central Pacific Ocean. ... Nose of Lockheed boost vehicle protruding from silo 64kg Kill Vehicle (EKV) Sea based X band platform arriving in Pearl Harbor, January 2006 In 2002, National Missile Defense (NMD) was changed to Ground-Based Midcourse Defense (GMD), to differentiate it from other missile defense programs, such as space-based and... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ... --69. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... A ground-based interceptor, designed to destroy incoming ICBMs, is lowered into its silo at the missile defence complex at Fort Greely, Alaska, July 22, 2004. ...

References

  • Frances Fitzgerald (2001). Way Out There in the Blue: Reagan, Star Wars and the End of the Cold War. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7432-0023-3. 
  • Broad, William J. (1985). Star Warriors: A penetrating look into the lives of the young scientists behind our space age weaponry.. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-7881-5115-0.  (Reprint edition 1993; Diane Pub. Co.)
  1. ^ a b Federation of American Scientists. Missile Defense Milestones. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  2. ^ Daniel O. Graham. Confessions of a Cold Warrior. October 1995. ISBN 0-9644495-2-8.
  3. ^ Broad, William J. (1992). Teller's War: The Top-Secret Story Behind the Star Wars Deception. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0-671-70106-1.  p127.
  4. ^ Missile Defense Agency. History of the Missile Defense Organization. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  5. ^ North Atlantic Treaty Organization. Limited Ballistic Missile Strikes. Accessed April 27, 2006.
  6. ^ White Sands Missile Range. ERINT -- Extended Range Interceptor. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  7. ^ "Successful" Star Wars test was faked, New Scientist, August 6, 1994
  8. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica. SVC / Lockheed HOE. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  9. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica. Lockheed ERIS. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  10. ^ United States Department of Energy. United States Nuclear Tests 1945-1992. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  11. ^ Bloembergen, N., Patel, C. K. N., Avizonis, P., Clem, Ro., and Hertzberg, A., "Report to the APS of the Study Group on Science and Technology of Directed Energy Weapons," Reviews of Modern Physics, No. 3, Part II, July 1987; ISBN 9997342895.
  12. ^ K. Tsipis, "Third-Generation Nuclear Weapons," SIPRI Yearbook of World Armaments and Disarmament 1985 (University Press, 1985).
  13. ^ M. D. Rosen et al., "Exploding Foil Technique for Achieving Soft X-Ray Laser," pp.106-109, and D. L. Matthews et al., "Demonstration of a Soft X-Ray Amplifier," pp.110-113, Physical Review Letters, 54 (14 January 1985).
  14. ^ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Legacy of the X-Ray Laser Program (PDF). November 1994. Accessed April 29, 2006.
  15. ^ Federation of American Scientists. Mid-Infrared Advanced Chemical Laser. Accessed April 8, 2006.
  16. ^ Nunz, G. J.; Los Alamos National Laboratory. BEAR (Beam Experiments Aboard a Rocket) Project. Volume 1: Project Summary. Accessed April 29, 2006.
  17. ^ Missile Defense Agency. BMDO funded research may help reduce the impact of nuclear waste (PDF). Accessed April 29, 2006.
  18. ^ Lieutenant General Malcolm R. O'Neill. Statement of Lieutenant General Malcolm R. O'Neill, USA, Director, BMDO before the Committee on National Security, House of Representatives, April 4, 1995. Accessed March 11, 2006.
  19. ^ Encyclopedia Astronautica. Low-power Atmospheric Compensation Experiment (LACE). Accessed April 29, 2006.
  20. ^ David Pahl, Space Warfare And Strategic Defense, Bison Books, 1987, ISBN 0 86124 378 1
  21. ^ a b Federation of American Scientists. Ballistic Missile Defense. Accessed March 10, 2006.
  22. ^ Claremont Institute. Brilliant Pebbles. Accessed March 11, 2006.
  23. ^ The Heritage Foundation. Brilliant Pebbles. Accessed March 11, 2006.
  24. ^ "Missile Defense Timeline", Missile Defense Agency
  25. ^ Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. Summary of Brilliant Pebbles.Accessed March 11, 2006.
  26. ^ Federation of American Scientists. Ballistic Missile Defense Technology: Is the United States Ready for A Decision to Deploy?. Accessed March 11, 2006.
  27. ^ Federation of American Scientists. Boost Surveillance and Tracking System (BSTS). Accessed March 10, 2006.
  28. ^ Federation of American Scientists. Space and Missile Tracking System. Accessed March 11, 2006.
  29. ^ The Aerospace Corporation. Delta Star: an SDIO Space Experiment. Accessed June 18, 2006.
  30. ^ Marilyn Berger. Paul Nitze, Cold War Arms Expert, Dies at 97.(PDF) New York Times. October 20, 2004.
  31. ^ Sharon Watkins Lang. SMDC/ASTRAT Historical Office. Where do we get "Star Wars"?. The Eagle. March 2007.
  32. ^ Dr. Gerold Yonas. SDI:Prospects and Challenges. March 7, 1986.
  33. ^ Union of Concerned Scientists. Space-Based Missile Defense: A Report by the Union of Concerned Scientists. Cambridge, MA. March 1984.
  34. ^ Parnas, D.L., Software Aspects of Strategic Defense Systems, Communications of the ACM, December 1985, Vol. 28, No. 12, reprinted from American Scientist, Journal of Sigma Xi, Vol. 73, No. 5, pp. 432-440.
  35. ^ a b c CNN. Reagan-Gorbachev Transcripts. Accessed March 25, 2006.
  36. ^ Protocol to the Treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the Limitation of Anti-Ballistic Missile Systems. May 24, 1976.

For other uses, see Journalist (disambiguation). ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Daniel O. Graham was a U.S. Army officer. ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... NATO 2002 Summit The North Atlantic Treaty Organisation (NATO), sometimes called North Atlantic Alliance, Atlantic Alliance or the Western Alliance, is an international organisation for defence collaboration established in 1949, in support of the North Atlantic Treaty signed in Washington, DC, on April 4, 1949. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... White Sands Missile Range (WSMR), formerly known as the White Sands Proving Grounds, is located in Otero County, New Mexico, mostly in the Tularosa Basin, a valley between the Organ Mountains, San Andres Mountains and the Sacramento Mountains of the U.S. state of New Mexico, it includes the northern... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 218th day of the year (219th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Encyclopedia Astronautica is a reference web site on space travel. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopedia Astronautica is a reference web site on space travel. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Department of Energy (DOE) is a Cabinet-level department of the United States government responsible for energy policy and nuclear safety. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... is the 98th day of the year (99th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Los Alamos National Laboratory, aerial view from 1995. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Missile Defense Agency is the section of the United States governments Department of Defense responsible for developing a layered defense against ballistic missiles. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Encyclopedia Astronautica is a reference web site on space travel. ... is the 119th day of the year (120th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Claremont Institute is a conservative think tank based in Claremont, California. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Heritage Foundation is one of the most prominent conservative think tanks in the United States. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Aerial view of the lab and surrounding area, facing NW. The Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) in Livermore, California is a United States Department of Energy (DOE) national laboratory, managed and operated by Lawrence Livermore National Security, LLC (LLNS), a limited liability consortium comprised of Bechtel National, the University of... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... is the 69th day of the year (70th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Federation of American Scientists (FAS)[1] is a non-profit organization formed in 1945 by scientists from the Manhattan Project who felt that scientists, engineers and other innovators had an ethical obligation to bring their knowledge and experience to bear on critical national decisions. ... is the 70th day of the year (71st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... is the 293rd day of the year (294th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... March 2007 is the third month of the year. ... is the 66th day of the year (67th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Union of Concerned Scientists (UCS) is an advocacy organization based in Cambridge, Massachusetts, United States. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... is the 84th day of the year (85th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 144th day of the year (145th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

PBS redirects here. ... Frontline is an hour-long public affairs television program produced at WGBH in Boston, Massachusetts, and distributed through the Public Broadcasting Service network in the United States. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author and lecturer. ... Total Quality Management (TQM) is a management strategy aimed at embedding awareness of quality in all organizational processes. ... Reagan redirects here. ... The Birthplace of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Graham Building, is located in an apartment on the second floor of a late 19th century commercial building in Tampico, Illinois, United States. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Jane Wyman (January 5, 1917[1]– September 10, 2007) was an Oscar, Golden Globe-winning and Emmy-nominated American actress. ... Maureen Elizabeth Reagan Revell (January 4, 1941 – August 8, 2001) was the daughter of former President Ronald Reagan and his first wife, Jane Wyman. ... Michael Reagan (born March 18, 1945) is an American radio host and Republican strategist. ... Patti Davis (born Patricia Ann Reagan on October 21, 1952 in Los Angeles, California) is the daughter of former President of the United States Ronald Reagan and First Lady Nancy Davis. ... Ron Reagan in 2007 Ronald Prescott Reagan (born May 20, 1958, Los Angeles, California, USA), usually known as Ron Reagan, is the son of the late former President of the United States Ronald Reagan and his wife Nancy. ... A Time for Choosing, also known as The Speech, was presented on a number of speaking occasions during the 1964 U.S. presidential election campaign by (later President) Ronald Reagan on behalf of Republican candidate Barry Goldwater. ... Reagan delivers the address, January 20, 1981 The first inaugural address of Ronald Reagan was the 1981 inaugural address delivered by U.S. President Ronald Reagan. ... U.S. President Ronald Reagan speaking in front of the Brandenburg Gate at the Berlin Wall. ... The United States Presidency of Ronald Reagan, also known as the Reagan Administration, lasted from 1981 until 1989 and was conservative, steadfastly anti-communist, employed a foreign policy of “peace through strength,” and favored tax cuts and smaller government. ... Ronald Reagan, the US president from which Reaganomics derives its name Reaganomics (a blend of Reagan and economics, coined by radio broadcaster Paul Harvey) is a term that has been used to both describe and decry free market advocacy economic policies of U.S. President Ronald Reagan, who served from... President Ronald Reagan signs the bill at his California ranch in 1981 The Economic Recovery Tax Act of 1981 (also known as ERTA or the Kemp-Roth Tax Cut) was A bill to amend the Internal Revenue Code of 1954 to encourage economic growth through reductions in individual income tax... President Ronald Reagan signs the Tax Reform Act of 1986 on the South Lawn. ... The major events of the assassination attempt The Reagan assassination attempt occurred on March 30, 1981, just 69 days into the presidency of Ronald Reagan. ... His foreign policy labeled President Reagan as the Great Communicator. ... The Reagan Doctrine was a strategy orchestrated and implemented by the United States to oppose the global influence of the Soviet Union during the final years of the Cold War. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... The Iran-Contra affair was a political scandal which was revealed in 1986 as a result of earlier events during the Reagan administration. ... The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library The Ronald Reagan Presidential Library is the presidential library of Ronald Wilson Reagan, the 40th President of the United States. ... Ronald Reagan A portion of the two-page, handwritten letter Ronald Reagans Alzheimers letter was a hand-written letter authored by former United States President Ronald Reagan in November 1994, disclosing the fact he had recently been diagnosed with having Alzheimers disease and was departing from public... Former United States First Lady Nancy Reagan kisses the casket of her husband, Former U.S. President Ronald Reagan during the week long state funeral honoring him in June of 2004. ... Ronald Reagan (1911–2004) This is a list of honors named for former President of the United States Ronald Reagan. ... The Reagan Diaries is an edited version of diaries written by President Ronald Reagan while in the White House. ... The Ronald Reagan: Bibliography includes major books and articles about President Ronald Reagan and his policies. ... California gubernatorial election, 1966 November 8, 1966 Reagan won about 52 percent of the Bay Area vote, winning Contra Costa, Marin, Napa, San Mateo, Santa Clara, Solano and Sonoma counties. ... California gubernatorial election, 1970 November 3, 1970 References California Elections Page Reagan Heritage Race information Categories: | | | | ... The United States presidential election of 1976 followed the resignation of President Richard M. Nixon in the wake of the Watergate scandal. ... The United States presidential election of 1980 featured a contest between incumbent Democrat Jimmy Carter and his Republican opponent, Ronald Reagan, along with third party candidates, the independent John B. Anderson and Libertarian Ed Clark. ... Presidential electoral votes by state. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Strategic Defense Initiative - MSN Encarta (710 words)
The Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI) was a proposal by U.S. President Ronald Reagan on March 23, 1983 to use ground-based and space-based systems to protect the United States...
Strategic Defense Initiative (SDI), United States military research program for developing an antiballistic missile (ABM) defense system, first proposed by President Ronald Reagan in March 1983.
Secretary of Defense Donald Rumsfeld said such a system was needed to protect the United States from possible attacks by terrorist groups or rogue states.
Strategic Defense Initiative - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3992 words)
It also initially had the ambitious goal of a near total defense against a massive sophisticated ICBM attack, vs previous systems which were limited in defensive capacity and geographic coverage, and oriented toward a lighter attack.
The initial focus of the strategic defense initiative was a nuclear explosion powered X-ray laser designed at Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory by a scientist named Peter Hagelstein who worked with a team called O Group, doing much of the work in the late 1970s and early 1980s.
In 1984, the Strategic Defense Initiative Organization (SDIO) was established to oversee the program, which was headed by Lt. General James Alan Abrahamson, USAF, a past Director of the NASA Space Shuttle program.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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