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Encyclopedia > Strategic Arms Limitation Talks

The Strategic Arms Limitation Treaties refers to two rounds of bilateral talks and corresponding international treaties between the Soviet Union and United States, the Cold War superpowers, on the issue of armament control. There were two rounds of talks and agreements: SALT I and SALT II. SALT II later became START. Negotiations started in Helsinki, Finland, in 1969 between the United States and the Soviet Union to limit the countries' stock of nuclear weapons. The treaties resulting from these negotiations are called SALT I and SALT II. These treaties have led to START (Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty). START I (a 1991 agreement between the United States and the Soviet Union) and START II (a 1993 agreement between the United States and Russia) placed specific caps on each side's stock of nuclear weapons. Bilateralism is a term referring to trade or political relations between two states. ... A treaty is a binding agreement under international law concluded by subjects of international law, namely states and international organizations. ... For other uses, see Cold War (disambiguation). ... Military assets such as the USS Nimitz are one means of power projection on a global scale—a hallmark of a superpower Soviet space station Mir was the worlds most advanced space station until ISS. Global recognition of the Soviet Unions early leadership in space technology represented the... The term arms race in its original usage describes a competition between two or more parties for military supremacy. ... Nickname: Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Lord Mayor Jussi Pajunen  - Mayor Pekka Korpinen  - Mayor Ilkka-Christian Björklund  - Mayor Pekka Sauri  - Mayor Paula Kokkonen Area  - City 187. ... START, officially the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, is a treaty, originally signed by the United States and the Soviet Union, that barred its signatories from deploying more than 6,000 warheads atop a total of 1,600 ICBMs, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and bombers. ... START II, the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty was signed by George H. W. Bush and Boris Yeltsin in January 1993, which banned the use of MIRVs and hence often cited as De-MIRV-ing Agreement. ...

Contents

SALT I

SALT I is the common name for the Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty Agreement, but also known as Strategic Arms Limitation Treaty. SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled. French M45 SLBM and M51 SLBM Submarine-launched ballistic missiles or SLBMs are ballistic missiles delivering nuclear weapons that are launched from submarines. ... A Minuteman III ICBM test launch from Vandenberg AFB, California, United States. ...


The strategic nuclear forces of the Soviet Union and the United States were changing in character in the late 1960s. The Soviet program was for the continued deployment of heavy land-based missiles and new ballistic missile submarines; the Soviet Union had been deploying around 200 more missiles every year since 1968. The U.S.'s total number of missiles had been static since 1967 at 1054 ICBMs and 656 SLBMs but there was an increasing number of missiles with multiple independently targetable reentry vehicle (MIRV) warheads being deployed. One clause of the treaty required both countries to limit the sites protected by an anti-ballistic missile (ABM) system to one. The Soviet Union had deployed such a system around Moscow in 1966 and the United States announced an ABM program to protect twelve ICBM sites in 1967. Diagram of V-2, the first ballistic missile. ... Alvin in 1978, a year after first exploring hydrothermal vents. ... The MIRVed U.S. Peacekeeper missile, with the re-entry vehicles highlighted in red. ... An anti-ballistic missile (ABM) is a missile designed to counter ballistic missiles. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ...

Leonid Brezhnev and Gerald Ford are signing joint communiqué on the SALT treaty in Vladivostok, November 23, 1974.
Leonid Brezhnev and Gerald Ford are signing joint communiqué on the SALT treaty in Vladivostok, November 23, 1974.

Negotiations lasted from November 17, 1969 until May 1972 in a series of meetings beginning in Helsinki, with the U.S. delegation headed by Gerard C. Smith, director of the Arms Control and Disarmament Agency. Further sessions alternated between Vienna and Helsinki. After a long deadlock, the first results of SALT I came in May 1971, when agreement was reached over ABM systems. Further discussion brought the negotiations to an end on May 26, 1972 in Moscow when Richard Nixon and Leonid Brezhnev signed the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty and the Interim Agreement Between The United States of America and The Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on Certain Measures With Respect to the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms. A number of agreed statements were also made. This helped improve relationships between the USA and the Soviet Union. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixel Image in higher resolution (3527 × 2400 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 544 pixel Image in higher resolution (3527 × 2400 pixel, file size: 1. ... Communiqu is the second album by British rock band Dire Straits, released in 1979 (see 1979 in music). ... Vladivostok (Russian: ) is the administrative center of Primorsky Krai, Russia, situated close to the Russo-Sino border and North Korea. ... November 23 is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar, with 38 days remaining. ... 1974 (MCMLXXIV) was a common year starting on Tuesday. ... 17 November is also the name of a Marxist group in Greece, coinciding with the anniversary of the Athens Polytechnic uprising. ... For the Stargate SG-1 episode, see 1969 (Stargate SG-1). ... Nickname: Location of Helsinki in Northern Europe Coordinates: Country Finland Province Southern Finland Region Uusimaa Sub-region Helsinki Charter 1550 Capital city 1812 Government  - Lord Mayor Jussi Pajunen  - Mayor Pekka Korpinen  - Mayor Ilkka-Christian Björklund  - Mayor Pekka Sauri  - Mayor Paula Kokkonen Area  - City 187. ... Gerard Coad Smith (May 4, 1914 - July 4, 1994) was the chief U.S. delegate to the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (START) in 1969 and the first U.S. Chairman of the Trilateral Commission. ... Scud Missile The U.S. Arms Control and Disarmament Agency (ACDA) was established as an independent agency by the Arms Control and Disarmament Act (75 Stat. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... May 26 is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1972 (MCMLXXII) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... Position of Moscow in Europe Coordinates: Country District Subdivision Russia Central Federal District Federal City Government  - Mayor Yuriy Luzhkov Area  - City 1,081 km²  (417. ... Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913 – April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev Russian: ; January 1, 1907 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, at first in partnership with others. ... The Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM treaty or ABMT) was a treaty between the United States of America and the Union of Soviet Socialist Republics on the limitation of the anti-ballistic missile (ABM) systems used in defending areas against missile-delivered nuclear weapons. ...


SALT II

Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter sign SALT II treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna.
Leonid Brezhnev and Jimmy Carter sign SALT II treaty, June 18, 1979, in Vienna.

SALT II was a second round of talks from 1972 to 1979 between the U.S. and Soviet Union, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons. It was a continuation of progress made during the SALT I talks. President Jimmy Carter and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) treaty, June 16, 1979, in Washington, D.C. Photo Credit: Bill Fitz-Patrick File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... President Jimmy Carter and Soviet General Secretary Leonid Brezhnev sign the Strategic Arms Limitation Talks (SALT II) treaty, June 16, 1979, in Washington, D.C. Photo Credit: Bill Fitz-Patrick File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev Russian: ; January 1, 1907 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, at first in partnership with others. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter. ...


An agreement to limit strategic launchers was reached in Vienna on June 18, 1979, and was signed by Leonid Brezhnev and President of the United States Jimmy Carter. Six months after the signing, the Soviet Union deployed troops in Afghanistan, and as such the treaty was never ratified by the United States Senate. Its terms were, nonetheless, honored by both sides. Vienna (German: , see also other names) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... June 18 is the 169th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (170th in leap years), with 196 days remaining. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... Leonid Ilyich Brezhnev Russian: ; January 1, 1907 [O.S. December 19, 1906] – November 10, 1982) was the effective ruler of the Soviet Union from 1964 to 1982, at first in partnership with others. ... The presidential seal was first used in 1880 by President Rutherford B. Hayes and last modified in 1959 by adding the 50th star for Hawaii. ... James Earl Jimmy Carter, Jr. ... Ratification is the act of giving official sanction to a formal document such as a treaty or constitution. ... Seal of the U.S. Senate Federal courts Supreme Court Chief Justice Associate Justices Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures State Courts Counties, Cities, and Towns Other countries Politics Portal      Senate composition following 2006 elections The United States Senate is...


Subsequent discussions took place under Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty (START) and the Comprehensive Test Ban Treaty. START, officially the STrategic Arms Reduction Treaty was a nuclear weapons limitation treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union. ... START, officially the STrategic Arms Reduction Treaty was a nuclear weapons limitation treaty between the United States and the Soviet Union. ... Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina...


See also

START, officially the Strategic Arms Reduction Treaty, is a treaty, originally signed by the United States and the Soviet Union, that barred its signatories from deploying more than 6,000 warheads atop a total of 1,600 ICBMs, submarine-launched ballistic missiles, and bombers. ... Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty Opened for signature July 1, 1968 in New York Entered into force March 5, 1970 Conditions for entry into force Ratification by the United Kingdom, the Soviet Union, the United States, and 40 other signatory states. ... Comprehensive Nuclear Test-Ban Treaty Opened for signature September 10, 1996[1] in New York Entered into force Not yet in force Conditions for entry into force The treaty will enter into force 180 days after it is ratified by all of the following 44 (Annex 2) countries: Algeria, Argentina... The Nuclear Non-Proliferation Treaty (NPT) is a treaty, opened for signature on July 1, 1968, restricting the possession of nuclear weapons. ... The Treaty on the Limitation of Underground Nuclear Weapon Tests, also known as the Threshold Test Ban Treaty (TTBT), was signed in July 1974. ... U.S. President Reagan and Soviet General Secretary Gorbachev signing the INF Treaty, 1987. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Britain.tv Wikipedia - SALT II (678 words)
SALT I froze the number of strategic ballistic missile launchers at existing levels, and provided for the addition of new submarine-launched ballistic missile (SLBM) launchers only after the same number of older intercontinental ballistic missile (ICBM) and SLBM launchers had been dismantled.
SALT II was a second round of talks from 1972 to 1979 between the U.S. and Soviet Union, which sought to curtail the manufacture of strategic nuclear weapons.
An agreement to limit strategic launchers was reached in Vienna on June 18, 1979, and was signed by Leonid Brezhnev and President Jimmy Carter.
Strategic Arms Limitation Talks - Printer-friendly - MSN Encarta (952 words)
The negotiations known as SALT I began in November 1969 and ended in January 1972, with agreement on two documents: the Anti-Ballistic Missile Treaty (ABM Treaty) and the Interim Agreement on the Limitation of Strategic Offensive Arms.
SALT II The second round of negotiations, called SALT II, resulted in the Vladivostok Accord of November 1974 and the SALT II Treaty, signed on June 18, 1979.
The SALT II Treaty met with stiff resistance when it was presented to the U.S. Senate for ratification, and in January 1980 the Senate debate was postponed at the request of President Jimmy Carter in retaliation for Soviet intervention in Afghanistan.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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