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Encyclopedia > Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde
Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde

Title page of the first London edition (1886)
Author Robert Louis Stevenson
Country Scotland
Language English
Publisher Longmans, Green & co.
Publication date January 1886

Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde[1] is a novella written by the Scottish author Robert Louis Stevenson and first published in 1886. It is about a London lawyer who investigates strange occurrences between his old friend, Dr Henry Jekyll[2], and the misanthropic Edward Hyde. The work is known for its vivid portrayal of the psychopathology of a split personality; in mainstream culture the very phrase "Jekyll and Hyde" has come to mean a person who may show a distinctly different character, or profoundly different behaviour, from one situation to the next, as if almost another person, possibly because of the rare disorder "multiple personality disorder" (more recently renamed "Dissociative Identity Disorder"). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (636x972, 185 KB) Title page of the first London edition of Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (1886). ... Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer, and a representative of neo-romanticism in English literature. ... For other uses, see Country (disambiguation). ... This article is about the country. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... A publisher is a person or entity which engages in the act of publishing. ... Longman is a firm of English publishers. ... See also: 1885 in literature, other events of 1886, 1887 in literature, list of years in literature. ... Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde may refer to: In literature: Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde, an 1886 novella by Robert Louis Stevenson. ... A novella is a narrative work of prose fiction somewhat longer than a short story but shorter than a novel. ... This article is about the country. ... Robert Louis (Balfour) Stevenson (November 13, 1850–December 3, 1894), was a Scottish novelist, poet and travel writer, and a representative of neo-romanticism in English literature. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Psychopathology is a term which refers to either the study of mental illness or mental distress, or the manifestation of behaviors and experiences which may be indicative of mental illness or psychological impairment. ... Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), as defined by the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), is a mental condition whereby a single individual evidences two or more distinct identities or personalities, each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment. ... Overview In psychiatry, Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID) is the current name of the condition formerly listed in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders as Multiple Personality Disorder (MPD) and Multiple Personality Syndrome. ... Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID), as defined by the American Psychiatric Associations Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM-IV-TR), is a mental condition whereby a single individual evidences two or more distinct identities or personalities, each with its own pattern of perceiving and interacting with the environment. ...


Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde was an immediate success and one of Stevenson's best-selling works. Stage adaptations began in Boston and London within a year of its publication and it has gone on to inspire scores of major film and stage performances. Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ...

Contents

History

Stevenson had long been interested in the idea of the duality of human nature and how to incorporate the interplay of good and evil into a story. While still a teenager, he developed a script for a play on Deacon Brodie, which he later reworked with the help of W. E. Henley and saw produced for the first time in 1882.[3] In the late 1884 he wrote the short story "Markheim," which he revised in 1885 for publication in a Christmas annual. One night in late September or early October of 1885, possibly while he was still revising "Markheim," Stevenson had a dream, and on wakening had the intuition for two or three scenes that would appear in the story. "In the small hours of one morning," says Mrs Stevenson, "I was awakened by cries of horror from Louis. Thinking he had a nightmare, I woke him. He said angrily, 'Why did you wake me? I was dreaming a fine bogey tale.' I had awakened him at the first transformation scene ..." Look up duality in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Bouguereaus LInnocence (Innocence). Both the child and the lamb represent fragility and peacefulness, as seen in religious art. ... Deacon William Brodie (1741–1788) was a Scottish cabinet-maker and Edinburgh city councillor, who maintained a secret life as a burglar, partly for the thrill, and partly to fund his gambling. ... William Ernest Henley (August 23, 1849 - July 11, 1903) was a British poet, critic and editor. ... A short story by Robert Louis Stevenson, it features a man named Markheim, who kills a money lender and plans to invest the money of which he stripped the cadaver. ... An annual publication, more often called simply an annual, is a book or a magazine, comic book or comic strip published yearly. ... Look up Intuition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The current usage of the term nightmare refers to a dream which causes the sleeper a strong unpleasant emotional response. ...


Lloyd Osbourne, Stevenson's stepson, remembers, "I don't believe that there was ever such a literary feat before as the writing of Dr. Jekyll. I remember the first reading as if it were yesterday. Louis came downstairs in a fever; read nearly half the book aloud; and then, while we were still gasping, he was away again, and busy writing. I doubt if the first draft took so long as three days." Lloyd Osbourne (April 7, 1868 – 1947) was a U.S. author. ...


As was the custom, Mrs Stevenson would read the draft and offer her criticisms in the margins. Louis was confined to bed at the time from a haemorrhage, and she left her comments with the manuscript and Louis in the bedroom. She said in effect the story was really an allegory, but Louis was writing it just as a story. After a while Louis called her back into the bedroom and pointed to a pile of ashes: he had burnt the manuscript in fear that he would try to salvage it, and in the process forcing himself to start over from scratch writing an allegorical story as she had suggested. Scholars debate if he really burnt his manuscript or not. Other scholars suggest her criticism was not about allegory, but about inappropriate sexual content. Whatever the case, there is no direct factual evidence for the burning of the manuscript, but it remains an integral part of the history of the novella. Hemorrhage (alternate spelling is Haemorrhage) is the medical term meaning bleeding. ... A manuscript (Latin manu scriptus, written by hand), strictly speaking, is any written document that is put down by hand, in contrast to being printed or reproduced some other way. ... Allegory of Music by Filippino Lippi. ... An allegory (from Greek αλλος, allos, other, and αγορευειν, agoreuein, to speak in public) is a figurative representation conveying a meaning other than and in addition to the literal. ... Human sexuality is the expression of sexual feelings. ...


Stevenson re-wrote the story again in three days. According to Osbourne, "The mere physical feat was tremendous; and instead of harming him, it roused and cheered him inexpressibly." He refined and continued to work on it for 4 to 6 weeks afterward.


Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde was initially sold as a paperback for one shilling in the UK and one dollar in the U.S. Initially stores would not stock it until a review appeared in The Times, on 25 January 1886, giving it a favourable reception. Within the next six months close to forty thousand copies were sold. By 1901 it was estimated to have sold over 250,000 copies. Its success was probably due more to the "moral instincts of the public" than perception of its artistic merits, being widely read by those who never otherwise read fiction, quoted in pulpit sermons and in religious papers[citation needed]. For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... The Times is a national newspaper published daily in the United Kingdom (and the Kingdom of Great Britain before the United Kingdom existed) since 1788 when it was known as The Daily Universal Register. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia, Kom Ombo, ambulance Ambo (band). ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by...

Richard Mansfield was mostly known for his dual role depicted in this double exposure. The stage adaptation opened in London in 1887, a year after the publication of the novella. Picture 1895.
Richard Mansfield was mostly known for his dual role depicted in this double exposure. The stage adaptation opened in London in 1887, a year after the publication of the novella. Picture 1895.

Image File history File links Jekyll-mansfield. ... Image File history File links Jekyll-mansfield. ... Mansfield was well known as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ...

Summary

On their weekly walk, an eminently sensible, trustworthy lawyer named Mr. Utterson listens as his cousin Enfield tells a gruesome tale of assault. The tale describes a sinister figure named Mr. Hyde who tramples a young girl, disappears into a door on the street, and reemerges to pay off her relatives with a check signed by a respectable gentleman. Since both Utterson and Enfield disapprove of gossip, they agree to speak no further of the matter. It happens, however, that one of Utterson’s clients and close friends, Dr. Jekyll, has written a will transferring all of his property to this same Mr. Hyde. Soon, Utterson begins having dreams in which a faceless figure stalks through a nightmarish version of London.


Puzzled, the lawyer visits Jekyll and their mutual friend Dr. Lanyon to try to learn more. Lanyon reports that he no longer sees much of Jekyll, since they had a dispute over the course of Jekyll’s research, which Lanyon calls “unscientific balderdash.” Curious, Utterson stakes out a building that Hyde visits—which, it turns out, is a laboratory attached to the back of Jekyll’s home. Encountering Hyde, Utterson is amazed by how undefinably ugly the man seems, as if deformed, though Utterson cannot say exactly how. Much to Utterson’s surprise, Hyde willingly offers Utterson his address. Jekyll tells Utterson not to concern himself with the matter of Hyde.


A year passes uneventfully. Then, one night, a servant girl witnesses Hyde brutally beat to death an old man named Sir Danvers Carew, a member of Parliament and a client of Utterson. The police contact Utterson, and Utterson suspects Hyde as the murderer. He leads the officers to Hyde’s apartment, feeling a sense of foreboding amid the eerie weather—the morning is dark and wreathed in fog. When they arrive at the apartment, the murderer has vanished, and police searches prove futile. Shortly thereafter, Utterson again visits Jekyll, who now claims to have ended all relations with Hyde; he shows Utterson a note, allegedly written to Jekyll by Hyde, apologizing for the trouble he has caused him and saying goodbye. That night, however, Utterson’s clerk points out that Hyde’s handwriting bears a remarkable similarity to Jekyll’s own.


For a few months, Jekyll acts especially friendly and sociable, as if a weight has been lifted from his shoulders. But then Jekyll suddenly begins to refuse visitors, and Lanyon dies from some kind of shock he received in connection with Jekyll. Before dying, however, Lanyon gives Utterson a letter, with instructions that he not open it until after Jekyll’s death. Meanwhile, Utterson goes out walking with Enfield, and they see Jekyll at a window of his laboratory; the three men begin to converse, but a look of horror comes over Jekyll’s face, and he slams the window and disappears. Soon afterward, Jekyll’s butler, Mr. Poole, visits Utterson in a state of desperation: Jekyll has secluded himself in his laboratory for several weeks, and now the voice that comes from the room sounds nothing like the doctor’s. Utterson and Poole travel to Jekyll’s house through empty, windswept, sinister streets; once there, they find the servants huddled together in fear. After arguing for a time, the two of them resolve to break into Jekyll’s laboratory. Inside, they find the body of Hyde, wearing Jekyll’s clothes and apparently dead by suicide—and a letter from Jekyll to Utterson promising to explain everything.


Utterson takes the document home, where first he reads Lanyon’s letter; it reveals that Lanyon’s deterioration and eventual death were caused by the shock of seeing Mr. Hyde take a potion and metamorphose into Dr. Jekyll. The second letter constitutes a testament by Jekyll. It explains how Jekyll, seeking to separate his good side from his darker impulses, discovered a way to transform himself periodically into a deformed monster free of conscience—Mr. Hyde. At first, Jekyll reports, he delighted in becoming Hyde and rejoiced in the moral freedom that the creature possessed. Eventually, however, he found that he was turning into Hyde involuntarily in his sleep, even without taking the potion. At this point, Jekyll resolved to cease becoming Hyde. One night, however, the urge gripped him too strongly, and after the transformation he immediately rushed out and violently killed Sir Danvers Carew. Horrified, Jekyll tried more adamantly to stop the transformations, and for a time he proved successful; one day, however, while sitting in a park, he suddenly turned into Hyde, the first time that an involuntary metamorphosis had happened while he was awake.


The letter continues describing Jekyll’s cry for help. Far from his laboratory and hunted by the police as a murderer, Hyde needed Lanyon’s help to get his potions and become Jekyll again—but when he undertook the transformation in Lanyon’s presence, the shock of the sight instigated Lanyon’s deterioration and death. Meanwhile, Jekyll returned to his home, only to find himself ever more helpless and trapped as the transformations increased in frequency and necessitated even larger doses of potion in order to reverse themselves. It was the onset of one of these spontaneous metamorphoses that caused Jekyll to slam his laboratory window shut in the middle of his conversation with Enfield and Utterson. Eventually, the potion began to run out, and Jekyll was unable to find a key ingredient to make more. His ability to change back from Hyde into Jekyll slowly vanished. Jekyll writes that even as he composes his letter he knows that he will soon become Hyde permanently, and he wonders if Hyde will face execution for his crimes or choose to kill himself. Jekyll notes that, in any case, the end of his letter marks the end of the life of Dr. Jekyll. With these words, both the document and the novel come to a close.


Characters

Dr. Henry Jekyll/Edward Hyde

Noted doctor who has covered up a secret life full of bad deeds. Because of this, he feels as if he is always fighting within himself between the goodness and the evil. Is transformed into the cruel, remorseless, uninhibited Hyde after drinking a potion of his own making; Hyde is really the evil side of his nature brought to the fore.


Dr. Hastie Lanyon

A former friend of Jekyll's, who disagrees with his scientific principles. Is the first person to whom Hyde's identity is revealed.


Mr. Gabriel Utterson

The phlegmatic lawyer who the narrator follows in his quest to discover the identity of Hyde.


Analysis

This novel represents a concept in Western culture, that of the inner conflict of humanity's sense of good and evil [4]. It has also been noted as "one of the best guidebooks of the Victorian era because of its piercing description of the fundamental dichotomy of the 19th century outward respectability and inward lust" as it had a tendency for social hypocrisy[5]. For this articles equivalent regarding the East, see Eastern culture. ... The Victorian era of the United Kingdom marked the height of the British Industrial Revolution and the apex of the British Empire. ...


Various direct influences have been suggested for Stevenson's interest in the mental condition that separates the sinful from moral self. Among them are the Biblical text of Romans (7:20 "Now if I do that I would not, it is no more I that do it, but sin that dwelleth in me."); the split life in the 1780s of Edinburgh city councillor Deacon William Brodie, master craftsman by day, burglar by night; and James Hogg's novel The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner (1824), in which a young man falls under the spell of the devil. The Bible (From Greek βιβλια—biblia, meaning books, which in turn is derived from βυβλος—byblos meaning papyrus, from the ancient Phoenician city of Byblos which exported papyrus) is the sacred scripture of Christianity. ... The Epistle to the Romans is one of the letters of the New Testament canon of the Christian Bible. ... For other uses, see Edinburgh (disambiguation). ... Deacon William Brodie (1741–1788) was a Scottish cabinet-maker and Edinburgh city councillor, who maintained a secret life as a burglar, partly for the thrill, and partly to fund his gambling. ... For the Texas Governor, see Jim Hogg James Hogg James Hogg (1770 - November 21, 1835) was a Scottish poet and novelist who wrote in both Scots and English. ... The Private Memoirs and Confessions of a Justified Sinner was published by the Scottish author James Hogg in 1824. ...


Literary genres which critics have applied as a framework for interpreting the novel include religious allegory, fable, detective story, sensation fiction, science fiction, doppelgänger literature, Scottish devil tales and gothic novel. A literary genre is one of the divisions of literature into genres according to particular criteria such as literary technique, tone, or content. ... For other uses, see Fable (disambiguation). ... Detective Story is a 1951 film which tells the story of one day in the lives of the various people who populate a police detectives squad. ... The sensation novel was a literary genre of fiction popular in Great Britain in the 1860s and 1870s. ... Science fiction is a form of speculative fiction principally dealing with the impact of imagined science and technology, or both, upon society and persons as individuals. ... For other uses, see Doppelgänger (disambiguation). ... This is an overview of the Devil. ... Strawberry Hill, an English villa in the Gothic revival style, built by seminal Gothic writer Horace Walpole The gothic novel was a literary genre that belonged to Romanticism and began in the United Kingdom with The Castle of Otranto (1764) by Horace Walpole. ...


Stevenson never says exactly what Hyde takes pleasure in on his nightly forays, saying generally that it is something of an evil and lustful nature; thus it is in the context of the times, abhorrent to Victorian religious morality. Hyde may have simply been revelling in activities that were not appropriate to a man of Jekyll's statue. However scientists in the closing decades of the 19th century, within a post-Darwinian perspective, were also beginning to examine various biological influences on human morality, including drug and alcohol addiction, homosexuality, multiple personality disorder, and regressive animality.[6]


Jekyll's inner division has been viewed by some critics as analogous to schisms existing in British society. Divisions include the social divisions of class, the internal divisions within the Scottish identity, the political divisions between Ireland and England, and the divisions between religious and secular forces.[citation needed] Social class refers to the hierarchical distinctions between individuals or groups in societies or cultures. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... This article concerns secularity, that is, being secular, in various senses. ...


The novel can be seen as an expression of the dualist tendency in Scottish culture, a forerunner to what G. Gregory Smith termed the 'Caledonian Antisyzygy' (the combination of opposites) which influenced the 20th Scottish cultural renaissance led by Hugh MacDiarmid. The London depicted in the novel resembles more closely the Old Town of Edinburgh which Stevenson frequented in his youth, itself a doppelganger to the city's respectable, classically ordered New Town. Scottish critics have also read it as a metaphor of the opposing forces of Scottish Presbyterianism and Scotland's atheistic Enlightenment. The term Caledonian Antisyzygy was first coined by G. Gregory Smith in his 1919 book Scottish Literature: Character and Influence in which he wrote: the literature [of Scotland] is the literature of a small country. ... Hugh MacDiarmid was the pen name of Christopher Murray Grieve (August 11, 1892, Langholm - September 9, 1978), perhaps the most important Scottish poet of the 20th century. ...


In the arts

Poster from the 1880s
Poster from the 1880s

There have been dozens of major stage and film adaptations, and countless references in popular culture. The very phrase "Jekyll and Hyde" has become shorthand to mean wild or controversial and polar behaviour. Most adaptations of the work omit the reader-identification figure of Utterson, instead telling the story from Jekyll and Hyde's viewpoint, thus eliminating the mystery aspect of the tale about who Hyde is; indeed there have been no major adaptations to date that stay close to Stevenson's original work, almost all introducing some form of romantic element. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2077 pixel, file size: 9. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 541 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2077 pixel, file size: 9. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about motion pictures. ... For other uses, see Culture (disambiguation). ... This article primarily discusses philosophical ideologies in relation to the subject of romantic love. ...


For a complete list of derivative works see "Derivative works of Robert Louis Stevenson (by Richard Dury). There have been over 123 film versions, not including stage, radio etc. This is not an inclusive list, but includes major and notable adaptations listed in chronological order:

  • 1887, stage play, opened in Boston. Thomas Russell Sullivan's Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. This was the first serious theatrical rendering, it went on to tour Britain and ran for 20 years. It became forever linked with Richard Mansfield's performance, who continued playing the part up until his death in 1907. Sullivan re-worked the plot to center around a domestic love interest.
  • 1920, movie USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Directed by J. Charles Haydon.
  • 1920, movie Germany, Der Januskopf (literally, "The Janus-Head," Janus being a Roman God usually depicted with two faces). Directed by F.W. Murnau. An unauthorized version of Stevenson's story, disguised by changing the names to Dr Warren and Mr O'Connor. (Murnau more famously filmed an unauthorized version of Dracula in 1922's Nosferatu.) The dual roles were essayed by Conrad Veidt. The film is now lost.
  • 1931, movie USA, Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Directed by Rouben Mamoulian. Widely viewed as the classic film version, known for its skilled acting, powerful visual symbolism, and innovative special effects. Follows the Sullivan plot. Fredric March won the Academy Award for his deft portrayal and the technical secret of the amazing transformation scenes wasn't revealed until after the director's death decades later. "This is when JEEK-ull (IPA: /ˈdʒiːkəl/) became JEK-ull (/ˈdʒɛkəl/), the movie pronunciation."[7]

Tracy did a very diffrent from March's exaggerated Hyde. The Hyde in this version is not an ape-man, but the pure evil in man. Tracy also donned a very simpler, but effective makeup, relying on black hair, pointy eyebrows and big teeth. Allthough Tracy's preformance was neglected by critics upon the films original release, many consider Tracy to be even better than March. Mansfield was well known as Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... For other uses, see Love (disambiguation). ... Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... The Thanhouser Company (later the Thanhouser Film Corporation) was a motion picture studio founded in New Rochelle, New York in 1909 by Edwin Thanhouser. ... Henderson was believed to have been responsible for recognizing the talents of Rudolph Valentino Lucius J. Henderson (1861, Aldo, Illinois - 18 February 1947, New York City was an American silent film director of the early silent period involved in over 70 film productions. ... James Cruze (born March 27, 1884 near Ogden, Utah - died August 3, 1942, in Hollywood, California) was a silent film actor. ... Florence M.L. La Badie (born possibly April 27, 1888 - October 13, 1917) was the daughter of Joseph E. La Badie and his wife Amanda from Montreal, Quebec, Canada. ... See also Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ... A silent film is a film which has no accompanying soundtrack. ... This article is about John Barrymore, Sr. ... The Picture of Dorian Gray is the only published novel written by Oscar Wilde, and first came out as the lead story in Lippincotts Monthly Magazine on June 20, 1890. ... See also Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... The Head of Janus (Der Januskopf) was a 1920 silent film directed by F. W. Murnau. ... F W Murnau Friedrich Wilhelm Murnau (December 28, 1888 – March 11, 1931) was one of the most influential directors of the silent film era. ... This article is about the novel. ... This article is about the 1922 silent film. ... Conrad Veidt in The Spy in Black (1939). ... Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... Rouben Mamoulian (October 8, 1897 – December 4, 1987) was an American film and theatre director. ... Fredric March (August 31, 1897 – April 14, 1975) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American actor. ... Academy Award The Academy Awards, popularly known as the Oscars, are the most prominent and most watched film awards ceremony in the world. ... Dr. Jekyll and Mr. ... Victor Fleming (February 23, 1883 - January 6, 1949) (sometimes Vic Fleming) was an American film director. ... Spencer Tracy (April 5, 1900 – June 10, 1967) was a two-time Academy Award-winning American film and stage actor who appeared in 74 films from 1930 to 1967. ...   (pronounced in Swedish, but usually IPA: in English) (August 29, 1915 – August 29, 1982) was a three-time Academy Award, two-time Emmy Award, one-time BAFTA, honorary César Award, four-time Golden Globe, two-time David di Donatello, two-time Silver Ribbon, one-time NSFC, two-time NBR... Lana Turner (February 8, 1921 – June 29, 1995) was an Academy award-nominated American film actress. ...

  • 1959, made-for-TV movie France, The Testament of Dr. Cordelier. Directed by Jean Renoir. A quite original modern adaptation of Stevenson's novel, it stars Jean-Louis Barrault, Teddy Bilis, and Michel Vitold.
  • 1960, movie UK, The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll (released in the US as House of Fright and Jekyll's Inferno). Directed by Terence Fisher. A lurid love triangle and explicit scenes of snakes, opium dens, rape, murder and bodies crashing through glass roofs. Notable in that an aged and ineffectual Dr Jekyll becomes handsome and virile (but evil) Mr Hyde.
  • 1963, movie USA, The Nutty Professor. Directed by Jerry Lewis. This screwball comedy retains a thin plot connection to the original work. Its enduring popularity has given it a significant role in the cultural visibility of the Jekyll and Hyde motif. Lewis re-works the Victorian polarised identity theme to the mid-20th century American dilemma of masculinity.
  • 1968, TV U.S. and Canada, "Robert Louis Stevenson's The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde". Starring Jack Palance, directed by Charles Jarrott and produced by Dan Curtis of Dark Shadows fame. Shown in two-parts on CBC in Canada and as one two hour movie on ABC in the USA. Nominated for several Emmy awards, it follows Hyde on a series of sexual conquests and hack and slash murders, finally shot by "Devlin" (as Utterson is renamed).
  • 1981, TV UK, with David Hemmings in the dual role and directed by Alastair Reid. This version gives a twist to the usual ending when Jekyll's body turns into Mr Hyde upon his death.
  • 1989, movie U.S., Edge Of Sanity, a low-budget remake with Anthony Perkins as a Jekyll whose experiments with synthetic cocaine transform him into Hyde, who is also Jack The Ripper.
  • 1989, TV UK, with Laura Dern and Anthony Andrews in the dual role. This version, adapted by Babylon 5 creator J. Michael Straczynski, was similar to Hammer's 1960 version in that Mr Hyde is the more physically attractive of the two; Dr Jekyll is depicted as a shy, mousy asocial scientist & Hyde is a handsome sociopath.
  • 1990, TV U.S., Jekyll & Hyde, a four-hour, two-part, made-for-television film starring Michael Caine in the title roles, added a final twist by having Jekyll impregnate his sweetheart (played by Cheryl Ladd) with a baby that is revealed to look just like Hyde.
  • 1991, Stage play, opened in London. Written by David Edgar for the Royal Shakespeare Company. The play is notable for its fidelity to the book's plot, though it invents a sister for Jekyll.
  • 1995, movie U.S., Dr. Jekyll and Ms. Hyde, in which a descendant of Dr. Jekyll creates a variant of his ancestor's potion that turns him into a woman.
  • 1997, Musical U.S. Jekyll & Hyde. Music by Frank Wildhorn, book and lyrics by Leslie Bricusse. Originally conceived for the stage by Steve Cuden and Frank Wildhorn. This musical features the song "This Is The Moment" and attracted a devoted cult following.
  • 2002, TV Movie UK Dr Jekyll And Mr Hyde starring John Hannah as both characters, with body language and wardrobe the only distinction between the appearance of the two. The narrative is chronologically disjointed, beginning with the end of the story then returning to the beginning via narrated flashbacks with the occasional brief glimpse of the reading of Jekyll's confession by Utterson
  • 2006, Canadian film Jekyll + Hyde Directed by Nick Stillwell. Starring Bryan Fisher as Henry "j" Jekyll and Bree Turner as Utterson. Two medical students set out to create a new drug derived from ecstacy that would enhance and change their personalities. Distributed in Canada by MAPLE PICTURES.
  • 2007, TV serial UK, Jekyll. A 6 part BBC serial, aired from June 16th 2007, starring James Nesbitt as Tom Jackman, a modern Jekyll whose Hyde wreaks havoc amongst modern day London. Jackman's transformation into Hyde is triggered by an as yet unknown cause, but it is not from a potion as it is in the book. Hyde is also credited as a completely new personality rather than the dark side of Jackman, with Hyde calling Jackman 'daddy'. The serial is not an adaptation of Stevenson's book, but rather a continuation taking place in the present day: the original book and both Dr Jekyll and Stevenson are prominently featured within the story.

Hyde and Hare is a 1955 Looney Tunes Bugs Bunny cartoon, directed by Friz Freleng. ... Isadore Friz Freleng (August 21, 1906[1]–May 26, 1995) was an animator, cartoonist, director, and producer best known for his work on the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of cartoons from Warner Bros. ... Bugs Bunny is an animated rabbit/hare who appears in the Looney Tunes and Merrie Melodies series of animated films produced by Warner Bros. ... Jean Renoir Jean Renoir (September 15, 1894 – February 12, 1979), born in the Montmartre Quarter of Paris, France was a film director. ... Jean-Louis Barrault (September 8, 1910 – January 22, 1994 in Le Vésinet) was a French actor, director and mime artist, training that served him well when he portrayed the 19th-century mime Jean-Gaspard Deburau (Baptiste Debureau) in Marcel Carnés 1945 film Les Enfants du Paradis (Children of... The Two Faces of Dr. Jekyll is a 1960 horror film by Hammer Film Productions. ... Terence Fisher (February 23, 1904 - June 18, 1980), was a film director who worked for Hammer Films. ... For other uses, see Snake (disambiguation). ... This article is about the drug. ... The Nutty Professor, starring Jerry Lewis, was filmed from October 9-December 17, 1962. ... For other persons named Jerry Lewis, see Jerry Lewis (disambiguation). ... The screwball comedy has proven to be one of the most elusive of the film genres. ... Manliness redirects here. ... Jack Palance (February 18, 1919 - November 10, 2006) was an Academy Award-winning American film actor. ... Charles Jarrott is an award-winning director. ... Dan Curtis (born August 12, 1928) is a director and producer of television and film, probably best known for the afternoon TV series Dark Shadows, which originally aired from 1966 to 1971 and has aired in syndication for the last thirty years. ... 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References

  1. ^ Stevenson published the book as Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde (without "The"), for reasons unknown, but it has been supposed to increase the "strangeness" of the case (Richard Drury (2005)). Later publishers added "The" to make it grammatically correct, but it was not the author's original intent. The story is often known today simply as Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde or even Jekyll and Hyde.
  2. ^ (IPA: [ˈdʒiːkəl]) is the correct Scots pronunciation of the name, but (IPA: [ˈdʒɛkəl]) remains an accepted and common pronunciation.
  3. ^ Swearingen, Roger G. The Prose Writings of Robert Louis Stevenson. London: Macmillan, 1980. (ISBN) p. 37.
  4. ^ Nightmare: Birth of Victorian Horror (TV series) Jekyll and Hyde (1996)
  5. ^ Nightmare: Birth of Victorian Horror (TV series) Jekyll and Hyde (1996)
  6. ^ For an overview of contemporary theories, see Lisa Butler, "“that damned old business of the war in the members”: The Discourse of (In)Temperance in Robert Louis Stevenson’s The Strange Case of Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde", in Romanticism on the Net, Issue 44, November 2006
  7. ^ Nightmare: Birth of Victorian Horror (TV series) Jekyll and Hyde (1996)
  • Richard Dury. The Robert Louis Stevenson website.
  • Richard Dury, ed. (2005). The Annotated Dr Jekyll and Mr Hyde. ISBN 88-7544-030-1, over 80 pages of introduction material, extensive annotation notes, 40 pages of derivative works and extensive bibliography.
  • Paul M. Gahlinger, M.D., Ph.D. (2001). Illegal Drugs: A Complete Guide to their History, Chemistry, Use, and Abuse. Sagebrush Medical Guide. Pg 41. ISBN 0-9703130-1-2.
  • Kathrine Linehan, ed. (2003). Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde. Norton Critical Edition, contains extensive annotations, contextual essays and criticisms. ISBN 0-393-97465-0
  • Warlock was Dr Jekyll prototype BBC News
  • Borinskikh L.I. (1990c). ‘The method to reveal a character in the works of R.L.Stevenson [The Strange Case of Dr. Jekyll and Mr. Hyde]’/. In *** (ed.) The Problem of character in literature. Tchelyabinsk: Tchelyabinsk State University. Pp. 31-32. [in Russian, German and Hindi].

For other uses, see Author (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Anglic language of Scotland. ... Paul M. Gahlinger, M.D., Ph. ... Annotation is extra information associated with a particular point in a document or other piece of information. ... For other uses, see Essay (disambiguation). ... A critic (derived from the ancient Greek word krites meaning a judge) is a person who offers a value judgement or an interpretation. ...

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