FACTOID # 21: 15% of Army recruits from South Dakota are Native American, which is roughly the same percentage for female Army recruits in the state.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Strabismus" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Strabismus
Strabismus
Classification & external resources
Strabismus prevents bringing the gaze of both eyes to the same point in space
ICD-10 H49. - H50.
ICD-9 378
OMIM 185100
DiseasesDB 29577
MedlinePlus 001004
MeSH D013285

Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein "to squint," from στραβός strabos "squinting, squint-eyed"[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other.[2] It typically involves a lack of coordination between the extraocular muscles that prevents bringing the gaze of each eye to the same point in space and preventing proper binocular vision, which may adversely affect depth perception. Strabismus can be either a disorder of the brain coordinating the eyes or a disorder of one or more muscles, as in any process that causes a dysfunction of the usual direction and power of the muscle or muscles. A mild case of strabismus. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems 10th Revision (ICD-10) is a coding of diseases and signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or diseases, as classified by the World Health Organization (WHO). ... // H00-H59 - Diseases of the eye and adnexa (H00-H06) Disorders of eyelid, lacrimal system and orbit (H00) Hordeolum and chalazion (H000) Hordeolum and other deep inflammation of eyelid (H001) Chalazion (H01) Other inflammation of eyelid (H010) Blepharitis (H011) Noninfectious dermatoses of eyelid (H02) Other disorders of eyelid (H020) Entropion... // H00-H59 - Diseases of the eye and adnexa (H00-H06) Disorders of eyelid, lacrimal system and orbit (H00) Hordeolum and chalazion (H000) Hordeolum and other deep inflammation of eyelid (H001) Chalazion (H01) Other inflammation of eyelid (H010) Blepharitis (H011) Noninfectious dermatoses of eyelid (H02) Other disorders of eyelid (H020) Entropion... The International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems (most commonly known by the abbreviation ICD) provides codes to classify diseases and a wide variety of signs, symptoms, abnormal findings, complaints, social circumstances and external causes of injury or disease. ... The following is a list of codes for International Statistical Classification of Diseases and Related Health Problems. ... The Mendelian Inheritance in Man project is a database that catalogues all the known diseases with a genetic component, and - when possible - links them to the relevant genes in the human genome. ... The Disease Bold textDatabase is a free website that provides information about the relationships between medical conditions, symptoms, and medications. ... MedlinePlus (medlineplus. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... A human eye Eyes are organs of vision that detect light. ... Categories: Anatomy stubs | Muscular system | Eye ... Binocular vision is vision in which both eyes are used synchronously to produce a single image. ... Depth perception is the visual ability to perceive the world in three dimensions. ...

Contents

Diagnosis

During eye examinations, ophthalmologists, orthoptists, and optometrists typically use a cover test to aid in the diagnosis of strabismus. If the eye being tested is the strabismic eye, then it will fixate on the object after the "good" eye is covered, as long as the vision in this eye is good enough. If the "good" eye is being tested, there will be no change in fixation, as it is already fixated. Depending on the direction that the strabismic eye deviates, the direction of deviation may be assessed. Exotropic is outwards (away from the midline) and esotropic is inwards (towards the nose). Traditional Snellen chart used for visual acuity testing. ... Ophthalmology is the branch of medicine which deals with the diseases of the eye and their treatment. ... Optometrists are primary care practitioners for vision and ocular health concerns. ... A cover test is an objective determination of the presence and amount of ocular deviation. ...


A simple screening test for strabismus is the Hirschberg test. A flashlight is shone in the patient's eye. When the patient is looking at the light, a reflection can be seen on the front surface of the pupil. If the eyes are properly aligned with one another, the reflection will be in the same spot of each eye. Therefore, if strabismus is present, the reflection from the light will not be in the same spot of each eye. Positive Hirschberg sign: the light falls on the centre of the right pupil, but is medial to the centre of the left pupil; therefore, the person in the picture has an exotropia. ...


Laterality

Strabismus may be classified as unilateral, bilateral, or alternating based on whether one eye or both eyes are affected. A unilateral strabismus will consistently have the same eye 'wandering'. Bilateral strabismus is a condition where both eyes are squinting at the same time; either convergently or divergently (both are subtypes of Concomitant strabismus). Finally, an alternating strabismic patient can fixate on a target object with either eye. In this case either eye may be askew while the opposite eye is focused on the target. Optometrists use the cover-uncover test to diagnose various types of tropias, which is a medical term for strabismus.[2]


Onset

Strabismus may also be classified based on time of onset, either congenital or acquired.[2]


Treatment and management

As with other binocular vision disorders, the primary therapeutic goal for those with strabismus is comfortable, single, clear, normal binocular vision at all distances and directions of gaze.[3]


Whereas amblyopia, if minor and detected early, can often be corrected with use of an eyepatch on the dominant eye and/or vision therapy, the use of eyepatches is unlikely to change the angle of strabismus. Advanced strabismus is usually treated with a combination of eyeglasses or prisms, vision therapy, and surgery, depending on the underlying reason for the misalignment. Surgery attempts to align the eyes by shortening, lengthening, or changing the position of one or more of the extraocular eye muscles and is frequently the only way to achieve cosmetic improvement. Glasses affect the position by changing the person's reaction to focusing. Prisms change the way light, and therefore images, strike the eye, simulating a change in the eye position. Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. ... An eyepatch is a small patch, usually of black cloth, that is worn in front of one eye and usually attached around the head by an elastic band or by a string. ... Vision therapy, also known as visual therapy or visual training, is a broadly-defined set of treatment programs related to the improvement of visual health and comfort. ... Glasses, spectacles, or eyeglasses are frames bearing lenses worn in front of the eyes, sometimes for purely aesthetic reasons but normally for vision correction or eye protection. ... If a shaft of light entering a prism is sufficiently narrow, a spectrum results. ... Eye surgery in the middle ages. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Early treatment of strabismus and/or amblyopia in infancy can reduce the chance of developing amblyopia and depth perception problems. Eyes that remain misaligned can still develop visual problems. Although not a cure for strabismus, prism lenses can also be used to provide some comfort for sufferers and to prevent double vision from occurring. A lens. ...


In adults with previously normal alignment, the onset of strabismus usually results in double vision (diplopia). For the adult insect stage, see Imago. ... Diplopia, commonly known as double vision, is the perception of two images from a single object. ...


Alternative treatments

Although the mainstream medical community regards the Bates method with skepticism, [4] advocates continue to make the unsupported [5] assertion that it can reverse strabismus.[6] The Bates method is a program created by ophthalmologist William Horatio Bates, M.D., which aims to correct vision habits with relaxation techniques, exercises and optional activities and games. ...


Prognosis

When strabismus is congenital or develops in infancy, it can cause amblyopia, in which the brain ignores input from the deviated eye. Strabismus can lead to a permanent weakening of vision in the strabismic eye called amblyopia sometimes referred to as lazy eye. The appearance of strabismus may also be a cosmetic problem. One study reported that 85% of adult strabismus patients "reported that they had problems with work, school and sports because of their strabismus." The same study also reported that 70% said strabismus "had a negative effect on their self-image."[7] A congenital disorder is a medical condition or defect that is present at or before birth (for example, congenital heart disease). ... A human infant The word Infant derives from the Latin in-fans, meaning unable to speak. ... Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. ... In animals, the brain or encephalon (Greek for in the head), is the control center of the central nervous system, responsible for behaviour. ... Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. ... Lazy eye is a lay term for amblyopia, impaired vision in one or both eyes without detectable anatomic damage in the eye(s). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Students in Rome, Italy. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Self-concept. ...


Differential diagnosis: pseudostrabismus

Pseudostrabismus is the false appearance of strabismus. It generally occurs in infants and toddlers whose bridge of the nose is wide and flat, causing the appearance of strabismus. With age, the bridge of the child's nose narrows and the folds in the corner of the eyes go away. To detect the difference between pseudostrabismus and strabismus, a Hirschberg test may be used. Pseudostrabismus is the false appearance of crossed eyes. ... Positive Hirschberg sign: the light falls on the centre of the right pupil, but is medial to the centre of the left pupil; therefore, the person in the picture has an exotropia. ...


Pathophysiology

Strabismus can be an indication that a cranial nerve has a lesion. Particularly Cranial Nerve III (Occulomotor), Cranial Nerve IV (Trochlear) or Cranial Nerve VI (Abducens). A strabismus caused by a lesion in either of these nerves results in the lack of innervation to eye muscles and results in a change of eye position. A strabismus may be a sign of increased intracranial pressure, as CN III is particularly vulnerable to damage from brain swelling.


Popular terms

Strabismus is often incorrectly referred to as "lazy eye" (which in fact refers to the associated condition Amblyopia). It is also known as heterotropia, squint, "one eye in York and the other in Cork", "crossed eye", "cockeye", "wandering eye", "weak eye", and "wall eye". Amblyopia, or lazy eye, is a disorder of the eye. ... Strabismus (from Greek: στραβισμός strabismos, from στραβίζειν strabizein to squint, from στραβός strabos squinting, squint-eyed[1]) is a condition in which the eyes are not properly aligned with each other. ... An individual with an small extropic strabismus Strabismus (sometimes called crossed or wandering eye) is a disorder of the eyes involving a lack of coordination between the muscles of the eyes. ...


In Japanese it is referred to as Ron-Pari, which is an amalgamation of the city names of "London" (ロンドン) and "Paris" (パリー). The idea is that one eye is looking towards London while the other is looking towards Paris.


References

  1. ^ http://www.etymonline.com/index.php?term=strabismus
  2. ^ a b c American Optometric Association. Optometric Clinical Practice Guideline: Care of the patient with strabismus: esotropia and exotropia. 1997.
  3. ^ http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/entrez/query.fcgi?cmd=Retrieve&db=PubMed&list_uids=8247489&dopt=Abstract
  4. ^ Robyn E. Bradley. "ADVOCATES SEE ONLY BENEFITS FROM EYE EXERCISES", The Boston Globe (MA), September 23, 2003. 
  5. ^ Rawstron JA, Burley CD, Elder MJ (2005). "A systematic review of the applicability and efficacy of eye exercises.". J Pediatr Ophthalmol Strabismus 42 (2): 82-8. 
  6. ^ http://www.iblindness.org/
  7. ^ http://www.med.wayne.edu/Scribe/scribe00-01/scribesp01/baker-strabismus.htm

See also

An individual diagnosed with Duane syndrome in the left eye. ... Mobius syndrome (also spelled Moebius) is an extremely rare neurological disorder. ... Orthoptics (from the Greek words ortho meaning straight, and optikas meaning vision [1]) is the discipline dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of defective eye coordination, binocular vision, and functional amblyopia by non-pharmaceutical and non-surgical methods, e. ... Pediatric ophthalmology is a sub-speciality of ophthalmology concerned with eye diseases and vision care in children. ... Sixth (abducent) nerve palsy is a disorder associated with dysfunction of cranial nerve VI (the abducens nerve), which is responsible for moving the eye to the side. ... Isolating the inferior rectus muscle Disinserting the medial rectus muscle Strabismus surgery is surgery on the extraocular muscles to correct the misalignment of the eyes. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... Alice, a fictional character based on a real character from the work of Lewis Carroll. ... Vincent Margera, more commonly known as Don Vito, (born July 3, 1956 in Concordville, Pennsylvania) is the uncle of Bam Margera. ... Viva La Bam was a reality television series which starred Bam Margera and his crew. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

  Results from FactBites:
 
Strabismus - Crossed or turned eye (550 words)
Strabismus is a problem caused by one or more improperly functioning eye muscles, resulting in a misalignment of the eyes.
Strabismus is detected with a comprehensive eye exam and special tests used to evaluate the alignment of the eyes such as: the Krimsky test and prism testing.
The appropriate treatment for strabismus is dependent on several factors including the patient's age, the cause of the problem, and the type and degree of the eye turn.
Strabismus: Eye Disorders: Merck Manual Home Edition (866 words)
Strabismus (squint, cross-eyes, wandering eye) is a misalignment or wandering of one eye so that its line of vision is not pointed at the same object as the other eye.
The causes of strabismus are varied and include an imbalance in the pull of muscles that control the position of the eyes or poor vision in one eye.
Strabismus may cause double vision (diplopia) in the older child or amblyopia in the younger child.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m