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Encyclopedia > Storyboard

Storyboards are graphic organizers such as a series of illustrations or images displayed in sequence for the purpose of previsualizing a motion graphic or interactive media sequence, including website interactivity. Illustration by Jessie Willcox Smith. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into image (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Interactive media refers to media of communication that allow for active participation by the recipient, hence interactivity. ...

A storyboard for an 8-minute animated cartoon.

Contents

Image File history File links Storybd. ... Image File history File links Storybd. ... An animated cartoon is a short, hand-drawn (or made with computers or type writers to look similar to something hand-drawn) film for the cinema, television or computer screen, featuring some kind of story or plot (even if it is a very short one). ...

Origins

The storyboarding process, in the form it is known today, was developed at the Walt Disney studio during the early 1930s, after several years of similar processes being in use at Walt Disney and other animation studios. Walt Disney Feature Animation (WDFA) is the animation studio that makes up a key element of The Walt Disney Company. ... Face The 1930s (years from 1930–1939) were described as an abrupt shift to more radical and conservative lifestyles, as countries were struggling to find a solution to the Great Depression, also known in Europe as the World Depression. ...


In the biography of her father, The Story of Walt Disney (Henry Holt, 1956), Diane Disney Miller explains that the first complete storyboards were created for the 1933 Disney short Three Little Pigs. According to John Canemaker, in Paper Dreams: The Art and Artists of Disney Storyboards (1999, Hyperion Press), the first storyboards at Disney evolved from comic-book like "story sketches" created in the 1920s to illustrate concepts for animated cartoon short subjects such as Plane Crazy and Steamboat Willie. The family of Elias Disney (son of Kepple Disney and Mary Richardson): Elias Disney was born on February 6, 1859 in Ontario, Canada and died on September 13, 1941 Elias married Flora Call on January 1, 1888 in Acron, Florida and had 4 sons and 1 daughter Herbert Arthur Disney... Three Little Pigs is an animated short film released on May 27, 1933 by United Artists, produced by Walt Disney and directed by Burton Gillett. ... Mickey and Minnie in Plane Crazy (1928) Plane Crazy (1928) (first released on May 15, 1928) was the first animated cartoon to feature Mickey Mouse as well as Minnie Mouse (Mickeys girlfriend). ... Steamboat Willie (1928) is an animated cartoon featuring Mickey Mouse released on November 18, 1928. ...


According to Christopher Finch in The Art of Walt Disney (Abrams, 1973), Disney credited animator Webb Smith with creating the idea of drawing scenes on separate sheets of paper and pinning them up on a bulletin board to tell a story in sequence, thus creating the first storyboard.


One of the first live action films to be completely storyboarded was Gone with the Wind. William Cameron Menzies, the film's production designer, was hired by David Selznik to design every shot of the film. Many large budget silent films were also storyboarded but most of this material has been lost during the reduction of the studio archives during the 1970's. Gone with the Wind is a 1939 film adapted from Margaret Mitchells 1936 novel of the same name. ...


Storyboarding became popular in live-action film production during the early 1940s, and grew into a standard medium for previsualization of films: "We can see the last half century ... as the period in which production design was largely characterized by adoption of the storyboard," wrote curator Annette Michelson in a 1993 catalog for the Pace Gallery exhibit Drawing into Film: Director's Drawings, which featured storyboards of popular films. This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Storyboarding's most recent use is outlining websites and other interactive media projects during the design phase. A website (alternatively, Web site or web site) is a collection of Web pages, images, videos and other digital assets that is hosted on one or several Web server(s), usually accessible via the Internet, cell phone or a LAN. A Web page is a document, typically written in HTML... All Saints Chapel in the Cathedral Basilica of St. ...


Usage

Film

A film storyboard is essentially a large comic of the film or some section of the film produced beforehand to help film directors, cinematographers and television commercial advertising clients visualize the scenes and find potential problems before they occur. Often storyboards include arrows or instructions that indicate movement. Comics (or, less commonly, sequential art) is a form of visual art consisting of images which are commonly combined with text, often in the form of speech balloons or image captions. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... A cinematographer (from cinema photographer) is one photographing with a motion picture camera. ... The examples and perspective in this article or section may not represent a worldwide view. ... “Advert” redirects here. ...


In creating a motion picture with any degree of fidelity to a script, a storyboard provides a visual layout of events as they are to be seen through the camera lens. And in the case of interactive media, it is the layout and sequence in which the user or viewer sees the content or information. In the storyboarding process, most technical details involved in crafting a film or interactive media project can be efficiently described either in picture, or in additional text. For other uses see film (disambiguation) Film refers to the celluliod media on which movies are printed Film — also called movies, the cinema, the silver screen, moving pictures, photoplays, picture shows, flicks, or motion pictures, — is a field that encompasses motion pictures as an art form or as... Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ...


Some live-action film directors, such as Joel and Ethan Coen, used storyboard extensively before taking the pitch to their funders, stating that it helps them get the figure they are looking for since they can show exactly where the money will be used. Other directors storyboard only certain scenes, or not at all. Animation directors are usually required to storyboard extensively, sometimes in place of doing a script. Joel and Ethan Coen at Cannes 2001 Joel and Ethan Coen, commonly known as The Coen Brothers have written and directed numerous successful films, such as comedies O Brother Where Art Thou, Raising Arizona and The Big Lebowski, as well as darker film noir dramas such as Fargo, Millers...


Animatics

In animation and special effects work, the storyboarding stage may be followed by simplified mock-ups called "animatics" to give a better idea of how the scene will look and feel with motion and timing. At its simplest, an animatic is a series of still images edited together and displayed in sequence. More commonly, a rough dialogue and/or rough sound track is added to the sequence of still images (usually taken from a storyboard) to test whether the sound and images are working effectively together. The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... Special effects (abbreviated SPFX or SFX) are used in the film, television, and entertainment industry to create effects that cannot be achieved by normal means, such as depicting travel to other star systems. ... A dialogue (sometimes spelt dialog[1]) is a reciprocal conversation between two or more entities. ...


This allows the animators and directors to work out any screenplay, camera positioning, shot list and timing issues that may exist with the current storyboard. The storyboard and soundtrack are amended if necessary, and a new animatic may be created and reviewed with the director until the storyboard is perfected. Editing the film at the animatic stage can avoid animation of scenes that would be edited out of the film. Animation is usually an expensive process, so there should be a minimum "deleted scenes" if the film is to be completed within budget. An animator is an artist who creates multiple images called frames that form an illusion of movement called animation when rapidly displayed. ... The film director, on the right, gives last minute direction to the cast and crew, whilst filming a costume drama on location in London. ... Sample from a screenplay, showing dialogue and action descriptions. ...


Often storyboards are animated with simple zooms and pans to simulate camera movement (using non-linear editing software). These animations can be combined with available animatics, sound effects and dialog to create a presentation of how a film could be shot and cut together. Some feature film DVD special features include production animatics. Note: Please see National Latin Examination for the standardized test that is also abbreviated NLE. A non-linear editing system (abbreviated NLE) is a video editing or audio editing system that can perform random access on the source material. ...


Business

Storyboards were adapted from the film industry to business, purportedly by Howard Hughes of Hughes Aircraft. Today they are used by industry for planning ad campaigns, commercials, a proposal or other projects intended to convince or compel to action. For the Welsh murderer, see Howard Hughes (murderer). ... Hughes logo adopted after his death Hughes developed the AIM-120 AMRAAM, one of the worlds most advanced air-to-air missiles Hughes Aircraft Company was a major defense/aerospace company founded by Howard Hughes. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


A "quality storyboard" is a tool to help facilitate the introduction of a quality improvement process into an organisation. A Quality storyboard is a visual method for displaying a Quality Control story (QC story). ...


Design comics are a type of storyboard used to include a customer or other characters into a narrative. Design comics are most often used in designing web sites or illustrating product usage scenarios during design. Design comics are a type of storyboarding used in product and web site design. ...


Interactive media

More recently the term "storyboard" has been used in the fields of web development, software development and instructional design to present and describe interactive events as well as audio and motion, particularly on user interfaces, electronic pages and presentation screens. An interactive media storyboard may be used in the graphical user interface for the user experience design of a website or interactive project as well as a visual tool for planning the content. In contrast, a site map or flow chart may be better to plan the information architecture, navigation, links, organization and total user experience, especially when the sequence of events is less predictable or the audiovisual change between events is of little design importance. Web development is a broad term for any activities related to developing a web site for the World Wide Web or an intranet. ... Software development is the translation of a user need or marketing goal into a software product. ... Instructional design, also known as instructional systems design, is the analysis of learning needs and systemic development of instruction. ... There are several conceptual views of interactivity, the most general being the contingency view. ... Audio can mean: Sounding that can be heard. ... Look up motion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The user interface is the part of a system exposed to users. ... An electronic page is a term to encompass the grouping of content between basic breaking points in documents that originate or remain as visual electronic documents. ... Street preacher in Covent Garden using a presentation style Presentation is the process of presenting the content of a topic to an audience. ... “GUI” redirects here. ... User experience design is a subset of the field of experience design which pertains to the creation of the architecture and interaction models which impact a users perception of a device or system. ... A site map (or sitemap) is a web page that lists the pages on a web site site, typically organized in hierarchical fashion. ... A simple flowchart for what to do if a lamp doesnt work A flowchart (also spelled flow-chart and flow chart) is a schematic representation of a process. ... Information architecture is the science of expressing a model or concept for information. ... Experience design is an approach to the design of products, services and environments based on a holistic consideration of the users experience. ...


Benefits

One advantage of using storyboards is that it allows (in film and business) the user to experiment with changes in the storyline to evoke stronger reaction or interest. Flashbacks, for instance, are often the result of sorting storyboards out of chronological order to help build suspense and interest.


The process of visual thinking and planning allows a group of people to brainstorm together, placing their ideas on storyboards and then arranging the storyboards on the wall. This fosters more ideas and generates consensus inside the group.


Creation

Storyboards for films are created in a multiple step process.


The first step is to create "thumbnail" storyboard. These storyboards get their name because they are rough sketches no bigger than your thumbnail. For many motion pictures, thumbnail storyboards is the highest form of storyboards created. This is just enough for the director to communicate to the cinematographer what is needed for each shot of a scene. The ThumbsPlus image file manager showing folder tree in the upper left and 12 thumbnail-size images to the right. ...



If the director or producer wishes, higher quality 2D storyboard images are created. These are created by professional storyboard artists or by using 2D storyboarding programs. These look much better than thumbnail storyboards and they convey more of the mood for the scene. However, this are not completely accurate as artists can draw images which cannot be filmed. Even the 2D storyboard programs can produce gorgeous looking images which cannot be filmed.



Finally, if needed, full 3D storyboards are created. The advantage of 3D storyboards is they show exactly what the film camera will see using the lenses the film camera will use. While it is possible to create 3D storyboards using 3D animation programs such as Maya or Lightwave, some people prefer to use digital puppets with 3D programs such as Poser and DAZ Studio. These programs have a huge collection of inexpensive 3D figures (called "poser figures") available from 3rd party vendors. Look up Poser in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... DAZ|Studio is a software application released by DAZ Productions. ...


More recently, 3D storyboarding programs have been developed which are designed specifically for filmmakers and cinematographers that create optically-correct format and lens storyboard frames. An example of this kind of program is FrameForge 3D Studio. FrameForge 3D studio is previsualization storyboard software for writer/directors of film, video and advertising content. ...


See also


 
 

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