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Encyclopedia > Stop consonant
Manners of articulation
Obstruent
Click
Plosive
Ejective
Implosive
Affricate
Fricative
Sibilant
Sonorant
Nasal
Flaps/Tap
Trill
Approximant
Liquid
Vowel
Semivowel
Lateral
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A stop, plosive, or occlusive is a consonant sound produced by stopping the airflow in the vocal tract. The term plosive is reserved for oral (non-nasal) stops: that is, stops with a release burst. Many use the term nasal continuant rather than nasal stop to refer to sounds like [n] and [m]. One should be aware that this article treats these "nasal continuants" as nasal stops. In linguistics, manner of articulation describes how the tongue, lips, and other speech organs involved in making a sound make contact. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ... Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ... A sibilant is a type of fricative or affricate, made by directing a jet of air through a narrow channel towards the sharp edge of the teeth. ... In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ... In phonetics, a flap or tap is a type of consonantal sound, which is produced with a single contraction of the muscles so that one articulator (such as the tongue) is thrown against another. ... In phonetics, a trill is a consonantal sound produced by vibrations between the articulator and the place of articulation. ... Approximants are speech sounds that could be regarded as intermediate between vowels and typical consonants. ... Liquid consonants, or liquids, are approximant consonants that are not classified as semivowels (glides) because they do not correspond phonetically to specific vowels (in the way that, for example, the initial in English yes corresponds to ). The class of liquids can be divided into lateral liquids and rhotics. ... Note: This page contains IPA phonetic symbols in Unicode. ... Semivowels (also called semiconsonants or glides) are vowels that function phonemically as consonants. ... Laterals are L-like consonants pronounced with an occlusion made somewhere along the axis of the tongue, while air from the lungs escapes at one side or both sides of the tongue. ... Phonetic (pho-NET-ic) is a nationwide voicemail-to-text messaging service available for most digital mobile phones in which a subscriber is provided a custom voice mailbox for the purpose of receiving all incoming voice messages as actual transcribed text for reading via short messaging (also known as SMS... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... In articulatory phonetics, a consonant is a sound in spoken language that is characterized by a closure or stricture of the vocal tract sufficient to cause audible turbulence. ... Sagittal section of human vocal tract The vocal tract is that cavity in animals and humans, where sound that is produced at the sound source (larynx in mammals; syrinx in birds) is filtered. ... An oral consonant is a consonant sound in speech that is made by allowing air to escape from the mouth. ... A continuant is a sound produced with an incomplete closure of the vocal tract. ...


All languages in the world have stops and most have at least [p], [t], [k], [n], and [m]. Colloquial Samoan lacks the dentals [t] and [n], and the northern Iroquoian languages lack the labials [p] and [m]. Several of the Chimakuan, Salishan, and Wakashan languages around Puget Sound lack nasal stops. The Iroquoian languages are a Native American language family. ... The Chimakuan language family consists of two languages that are spoken in northwestern Washington, USA on the Olympic Peninsula. ... The Salishan (also Salish) languages are a group of languages of western Canada and the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... Wakashan is a family of languages spoken around Vancouver Island. ... Puget Sound Puget Sound (pronounced IPA ) is a sound connected to the Pacific Ocean via the Strait of Juan de Fuca in the Pacific Northwest of the United States. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ...

Contents

Stop articulation

In the articulation of the stop, three phases can be distinguished:

  • Catch: The airway closes so that no air can escape through the mouth (hence the name stop). With nasal stops, the air escapes through the nose.
  • Hold or occlusion: The airway stays closed, causing a pressure difference to build up (hence the name occlusive).
  • Release or burst: The closure is opened. In the case of plosives, the released airflow produces a sudden impulse causing an audible sound (hence the name plosive).

In many languages, such as Malay and Vietnamese, final stops lack a release burst, or have a nasal release. See Unreleased stop. The Malay language, also known locally as bahasa Melayu, is an Austronesian language spoken by the Malay people who reside in the Malay Peninsula, southern Thailand, the Philippines, Singapore, central eastern Sumatra, the Riau islands, and parts of the coast of Borneo. ... In phonetics, a nasal release is the release of a plosive consonant into a nasal stop. ... An unreleased stop or plosive is a plosive consonant without an audible release burst. ...


In affricate stops, the release is a fricative. Affricate consonants begin as stops (most often an alveolar, such as or ) but release as a fricative (such as or or, in a couple of languages, into a fricative trill) rather than directly into the following vowel. ... Fricatives (or spirants) are consonants produced by forcing air through a narrow channel made by placing two articulators close together. ...


Classification of stops

Nasalization

Nasal stops are differentiated from oral stops only by a lowered velum that allows the air to escape through the nose during the occlusion. In phonetics, nasalization is the production of a sound while the velum is lowered, so that air escapes partially or wholly through the nose during the production of the sound. ... Note: This page contains phonetic information presented in the International Phonetic Alphabet (IPA) using Unicode. ... The soft palate, or velum, is the soft tissue comprising the back of the roof of the mouth. ...


Nasal stops are acoustically sonorants, as they have a non-turbulent airflow and are nearly always voiced, but they are articulatorily obstruents, as there is complete blockage of the oral cavity. In phonetics and phonology, a sonorant is a speech sound that is produced without turbulent airflow in the vocal tract. ... In phonetics, an obstruent is a consonant sound formed by obstructing the airway. ...


A prenasalized stop starts out with a lowered velum that raises during the occlusion. The closest examples in English are consonant clusters such as the [nd] in candy, but many languages have prenasalized stops that behave as single consonants. Swahili is well known for having words that begin with sounds like [mp] or [nd]. Prenasalized stops are phonetic sequences of nasal plus plosive that behave phonologically like single consonant. ... Phil is a Punda. ...


A postnasalized stop begins with a raised velum that lowers during the occlusion. This causes an audible nasal release, as in English sudden. Russian and other Slavic languages have words that begin with [dn], which can be seen in the name of the Dnieper River. In phonetics, a nasal release is the release of a plosive consonant into a nasal stop. ... The Dnieper River (also known as: Dnepr, Dniapro, or Dnipro) is a river which flows from Russia, through Belarus and Ukraine, ending its flow in the Black Sea. ...


Note that the terms prenasalization and postnasalization are normally only used in languages where these sounds are phonemic, that is, not analyzed into sequences of plosive plus nasal stop.


Voice

Voiced stops are articulated with simultaneous vibration of the vocal cords, voiceless stops without. Plosives are commonly voiceless, whereas nasal stops are only rarely so. A voiced consonant is a sound made as the vocal cords vibrate, as opposed to a voiceless consonant, where the vocal cords are relaxed. ... Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. ... Phoneticians define phonation as use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ...


Aspiration

In aspirated stops, the voice onset (the time when the vocal cords begin to vibrate) comes perceivably later than the release of the stop. The duration between the release of the stop and the voice onset is called voice onset time (VOT). Tenuis stops have a voice onset time close to zero, meaning that voicing begins when the stop is released. Voiced stops have a negative voice onset time, meaning the voicing begins before the stop is released. A stop is called "fully voiced" if it is voiced during the entire occlusion. In English, however, initial voiced plosives like [b] or [d] are only partially voiced, meaning that voicing picks up sometime during the occlusion. Aspirated stops have a voice onset time greater than zero, so that there is a period of voiceless airflow (a phonetic [h]) before the onset of the vowel. In phonetics, aspiration is the strong burst of air that accompanies the release of some obstruents. ... Laryngoscopic view of the vocal folds. ... In phonetics, voice onset time, commonly abbreviated VOT, is the length of time that passes between when a consonant is released and when voicing, the vibration of the vocal folds begins. ... A tenuis consonant is one which is unvoiced and unaspirated. ... The voiceless glottal fricative is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ...


In most dialects of English, the final g in the word bag is likely to be fully voiced, while the initial b will be only partially voiced. Initial voiceless plosives, like the p in pie, are aspirated, with a palpable puff of air upon release, while a plosive after an s, as in spy, is tenuous. Speaking near a candle flame, one will notice that the flame will flicker more when pie, tie, chi is articulated compared with spy, sty, sky.


Length

In a geminate or long stop, the occlusion lasts longer than in normal stops. In languages where stops are only distinguished by length (e.g. Arabic, Ilwana, Icelandic), the long stops may last up to three times as long as the short stops. Italian is well known for its geminate stop, as the double t in the name Vittoria takes just as long to say as the ct does in English Victoria. Japanese also prominently features the geminate consonant, such as in the minimal pair 来た (kita), meaning came, and 切った (kitta) meaning cut (past). Listen to this article · (info) This audio file was created from the revision dated 2005-07-20, and does not reflect subsequent edits to the article. ...


Note that there are many languages where the features voice, aspiration, and length reinforce each other, and in such cases it may be hard to tell which of these features predominates. In such cases the terms fortis is sometimes used for aspiration or gemination, while lenis is used for single, tenuous or voiced stops. Beware, however, that the terms fortis and lenis are poorly defined, and their meanings vary from source to source. Fortis may refer to document management software produced by Westbrook Technologies, Inc. ... Fortis (from Latin fortis strong) and lenis (from Latin lenis weak) are linguistics terms. ...


Airstream mechanism

Stops may be made with more than one airstream mechanism. The normal mechanism is pulmonic egressive, that is, with air flowing outward from the lungs. All languages have pulmonic stops. Some languages have stops made with other mechanisms as well: ejective stops (glottalic egressive), implosive stops (glottalic ingressive), or click consonants (velaric ingressive). In phonetics, initiation is the action by which an air-flow is created through the vocal tract. ... This page is a candidate to be moved to Wiktionary. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or tenuis consonants in a language. ... Ejective consonants are a class of consonants which may contrast with aspirated or unaspirated consonants in a language. ... Implosive consonants are plosives (rarely affricates) with a glottalic ingressive airstream mechanism. ... A glottalic consonant is a consonant produced with some important contribution (a movement, a closure) of the glottis (the opening that leads from the nose and mouth cavities into the larynx and the lungs). ... Clicks are stops produced with two articulatory closures in the oral cavity. ... In phonetics, velaric ingressive is an airstream mechanism where a sound is produced by a closure of the velum (or soft palate) and other place of articulation in the front of the oral cavity (such as the alveolar ridge or the lips), and then sucking air in while simultaneously releasing...


Tenseness

A fortis stop (in the narrow sense) is produced with more muscular tension than a lenis stop (in the narrow sense). However, this is difficult to measure, and there is usually debate over the actual mechanism of alleged fortis or lenis consonants. Tenseness is a term used in phonology to describe a particular vowel quality that is phonemically contrastive in many languages, including English. ... Fortis may refer to document management software produced by Westbrook Technologies, Inc. ... Fortis (from Latin fortis strong) and lenis (from Latin lenis weak) are linguistics terms. ...


There are a series of stops in Korean, sometimes written with the IPA symbol for ejectives, which are produced using "stiff voice", meaning there is increased contraction of the glottis than for normal production of voiceless stops. The indirect evidence for stiff voice is in the following vowels, which have a higher fundamental frequency than those following other stops. The higher frequency is explained as a result of the glottis being tense. Other such phonation types include breathy voice, or murmur; slack voice; and creaky voice. The term stiff voice describes the pronunciation of consonants with a glottal opening narrower, and the vocal cords stiffer, than what occurs in normal (modal) voice. ... In phonetics, phonation is the use of the laryngeal system to generate an audible source of acoustic energy, i. ... Breathy voice or murmured voice is a phonation in which the vocal folds are vibrating as in normal voicing, but the glottal closure is incomplete, so that the voicing is somewhat inefficient and air continues to leak between the vocal folds throughout the vibration cycle with audible friction noise. ... The term slack voice (or lax voice) describes the pronunciation of consonants with a glottal opening slightly wider than that occurring in normal full voice. ... Creaky voice (also called laryngealisation or vocal fry, especially in the US), is a special kind of phonation in which the arytenoid cartilages in the larynx are drawn together; as a result, the vocal folds are compressed rather tightly, becoming relatively slack and compact, and forming a large, irregularly vibrating...


Examples

Here are the oral stops (plosives) granted dedicated symbols in the IPA. See also the nasal stops. Not to be confused with the NATO phonetic alphabet, which has also informally been called the “International Phonetic Alphabet”. For information on how to read IPA transcriptions of English words, see IPA chart for English. ... A nasal consonant is produced when the velum—that fleshy part of the palate near the back—is lowered, allowing air to escape freely through the nose. ...

The voiceless bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced bilabial plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced alveolar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced retroflex plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced palatal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound used in many spoken languages. ... The voiced velar plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiceless uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The voiced uvular plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The epiglottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in some spoken languages. ... The glottal stop or voiceless glottal plosive is a type of consonantal sound, used in many spoken languages. ...

English stops

[p], [t], [k] (aspirated word-initially, tenuis in clusters with s)


[b], [d], [g] (in most dialects: partially voiced word-initially, fully voiced intervocalically)


[m], [n], [ŋ] (fully voiced nasal stops)


[ʔ] (glottal stop, not as a phoneme in most dialects) This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Consonant - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (708 words)
The word consonant comes from Latin meaning "sounding with" or "sounding together", the idea being that consonants don't sound on their own, but only occur with a nearby vowel, which is the case in Latin.
Consonant letters in the English alphabet are B, C, D, F, G, H, J, K, L, M, N, P, Q, R, S, T, V, W, X, Z, and sometimes Y — the letter Y stands for the consonant [j] in "yoke" but for the vowel [ɪ] in "myth", for example.
The phonation method of a consonant is whether or not the vocal cords are vibrating during articulation of a consonant.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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