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Violence John Atherton, Bishop of Waterford and Lismore, was hanged for sodomy under a law that he had helped to institute. ...


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The Stonewall riots were a series of violent conflicts between New York City police officers and groups of gay and transgender people that began during the early morning of June 28, 1969, and lasted several days. Also called the Stonewall Rebellion or simply Stonewall, the clash was a watershed for the worldwide gay rights movement, as gay and transgender people had never before acted together in such large numbers to forcibly resist police. New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... GAY can mean: Gay, a term referring to homosexual men or women The IATA code for Gaya Airport Category: ... A transgendered person in New York Citys Gay Pride Parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... The gay rights movement is a collection of loosely aligned civil rights groups, human rights groups, support groups and political activists seeking acceptance, tolerance and equality for non-heterosexual, (homosexual, bisexual), and transgender people - despite the fact that it is typically referred to as the gay rights movement, members also...

Contents

History

Law enforcement raids on gay bars and discotheques were a regular part of gay life in cities across the United States, until the 1960s, when sudden raids on bars in many major cities became markedly less frequent. Most conclude that the decline in raids can be attributed to a series of court challenges and increased resistance from the Homophile Movement. A gay bar is a drinking establishment which can vary in character as much as any other type of bar, but which caters exclusively or primarily to a gay and / or lesbian clientele. ... Discothèque redirects here. ... Cover of French homophile literary journal Arcadie, 1975 The word homophile is an alternative to the word homosexual, preferred by some because it emphasizes love (-phile from Greek φιλία) over sex. ...


Prior to 1965, the police would sometimes record the identities of all those present at a raid, occasionally providing the information to newspapers for publication. Police used any convenient justification to make arrests on charges of indecency including kissing, holding hands, cross dressing - even merely being in the bar at the time of the raid. Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... A dictionary definition of Indecent not conforming with accepted standards of behaviour or morality. ... This article is about cross-dressing in general. ...


In 1965, two important figures came into prominence. The first was John Lindsay, a liberal Republican who was elected mayor of New York City on a reform platform. The other was Richard Leitsch, who became president of the New York City chapter of the Mattachine Society at around the same time. Leitsch was considered relatively militant compared to his predecessors and believed in direct action techniques commonly used by other civil rights groups in the 1960s. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Republican Party, often called the GOP (for Grand Old Party, although one early citation described it as the Gallant Old Party) [1], is one of the two major political parties in the United States. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Direct action is a form of political activism which seeks immediate remedy for perceived ills, as opposed to indirect actions such as electing representatives who promise to provide remedy at some later date. ...


In early 1966, administration policies had changed because of complaints made by Mattachine that the police were on the streets entrapping gay men and charging them with indecency. The police commissioner, Howard Leary, instructed the police force not to lure gays into breaking the law and also required that any plain clothes officers must have a civilian witness when a gay person was arrested. This policy caused entrapment of gay men to become much less common in New York City (D’Emilio 207). Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ... In jurisprudence, entrapment is a legal defense by which a defendant may argue that he or she should not be held criminally liable for actions which broke the law, because he/she was induced (or entrapped) by the police to commit said acts. ...


In the same year, in order to challenge the State Liquor Authority (SLA) regarding its policies over gay bars, Leitsch conducted a "sip in." Leitsch had called members of the press and planned on meeting at a bar with two other gay men—a bar could have its liquor license taken away for knowingly serving a group of three or more homosexuals—to test the SLA policy of closing bars. When the bartender at Julius turned them away, they made a complaint (D’Emilio 208).


The question then remains why the Stonewall was raided if gay bars were legal and on the rise. John D’Emilio, a prominent historian, points out that the city was in the middle of a mayoral campaign and John Lindsay, who had lost his party’s primary, had reason to call for a cleanup of the city’s bars. There were a number of reasons that made the Stonewall Inn an easy target: it operated without a liquor license; had ties to organized crime; and, “offering scantily clad go-go boys as entertainment, it brought an ‘unruly’ element to Sheridan Square” (D’Emilio 231). A primary election is an election in which voters in a jurisdiction select candidates for a subsequent election (nominating primary). ... Spirits redirects here. ...


Race may have been another factor. The Stonewall bar was heavily frequented by gay blacks and Hispanics. The decision by the police to raid the bar may have been influenced by the fact that most of the homosexuals they would encounter were black. A large percentage of the rioters were also black men. For other uses, see Race (disambiguation). ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... Hispanic flag, not widely used. ...


Many of those present were transgender and/or drag queens. A transgendered person in New York Citys Gay Pride Parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... Well-known drag artist Lypsinka. ...


Deputy Inspector Seymour Pine, who led the raid on the bar that first night, claims that he was ordered to close the Stonewall Inn because it was the central location for gathering information on gay men who worked on Wall Street. A recent increase in the number of thefts from brokerage houses on Wall Street led police to suspect that gay men, forced by blackmail, were behind the thefts. (Carter 262) Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... Elaborate marble facade of NYSE as seen from the intersection of Broad and Wall Streets For other uses, see Wall Street (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Blackmail (disambiguation). ...


The patrons of the Stonewall were used to such raids and the management was generally able to reopen for business either the same night or the following day.


The Stonewall raid and the aftermath

The Stonewall Inn.
The Stonewall Inn.

On Saturday morning, June 28, 1969, not long after 1:20 a.m., police raided the Stonewall Inn, a gay bar in Greenwich Village. A number of factors differentiated the raid that took place on June 28 from other such raids on the Stonewall Inn. In general, the sixth precinct tipped off the management of the Stonewall Inn prior to a raid. In addition, raids were generally carried out early enough in the night to allow business to return to normal for the peak hours of the night. At approximately 1:20 a.m., much later than the usual raid, eight officers from the first precinct, of which only one was in uniform, entered the bar. Most of the patrons were able to escape being arrested as the only people arrested “would be those without IDs, those dressed in the clothes of the opposite gender, and some or all of the employees” (Duberman 192). Download high resolution version (763x763, 106 KB)Stonewall Inn, Christopher Street, New York City, in January 2003. ... Download high resolution version (763x763, 106 KB)Stonewall Inn, Christopher Street, New York City, in January 2003. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The Stonewall Inn in January 2003 The Stonewall Inn was the site of the famous Stonewall riots of 1969, which have come to symbolize the beginning of... A gay bar is a drinking establishment which can vary in character as much as any other type of bar, but which caters exclusively or primarily to a gay and / or lesbian clientele. ... The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... is the 179th day of the year (180th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Details about how the riot started vary from story to story. According to one account, a transgender woman named Sylvia Rivera threw a bottle at a police officer after being prodded by his nightstick (Duberman). Another account states that a lesbian, being brought to a patrol car through the crowd put up a struggle that encouraged the crowd to do the same (D’Emilio 232). Whatever the case may be, mêlée broke out across the crowd—which quickly overtook the police. Stunned, the police retreated into the bar. Heterosexual folk singer Dave van Ronk, who was walking through the area, was grabbed by the police, pulled into the bar, and beaten. The crowd’s attacks were unrelenting. Some tried to light the bar on fire. Others used a parking meter as a battering ram to force the police officers out. Word quickly spread of the riot and many residents, as well as patrons of nearby bars, rushed to the scene. A transgendered person in New York Citys Gay Pride Parade Transgender (IPA: , from trans (Latin) and gender (English) ) is a general term applied to a variety of individuals, behaviors, and groups involving tendencies that diverge from the normative gender role (woman or man) commonly, but not always, assigned at... Sylvia Rae Rivera (1951-2002) was a transgender activist and vetran of the Stonewall Riots - the protest against homophobic abuse that, in the minds of many, birthed the modern LGBT rights movement. ... It has been suggested that some sections of this article be split into a new article entitled Club (law enforcement). ... A lesbian is a woman who is romantically and sexually attracted only to other women. ... Mêlée generally refers to disorganized hand-to-hand combat involving a group of fighters. ... Heterosexuality is a sexual orientation characterized by esthetic attraction, romantic love or sexual desire exclusively for members of the opposite sex or gender, contrasted with homosexuality and distinguished from bisexuality and asexuality. ... Dave Van Ronk (June 30, 1936 – February 10, 2002) was a folk singer born in Brooklyn, New York, who settled in Greenwich Village, New York City, and was nicknamed the Mayor of MacDougal Street. ... The Skyline Parkway Motel in Afton, Virginia after an arson fire on July 9, 2004. ... A traditional style parking meter A parking meter is a device used to collect money in exchange for the right to park a vehicle in a particular place for a limited amount of time. ... Replica battering ram at Ch teau des Baux, France A battering ram is a weapon used from ancient times. ...


Throughout the night the police singled out many transgender people and gender nonconformists, including butch women and effeminate men, among others, often beating them. On the first night alone 13 people were arrested and four police officers, as well as an undetermined number of protesters, were injured. It is known, however, that at least two rioters were severely beaten by the police (Duberman 201-202). Bottles and stones were thrown by protesters who chanted “Gay Power!” The crowd, estimated at over 2000, fought with over 400 police officers. Kamen Rider Ryuki character, see Kamen Rider Femme. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ...


The police sent additional forces in the form of the Tactical Patrol Force, a riot-control squad originally trained to counter Vietnam War protesters. The tactical patrol force arrived to disperse the crowd. However, they failed to break up the crowd, who sprayed them with rocks and other projectiles. Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000...


Eventually the scene quieted, but the crowd returned again the next night. While less violent than the first night, the crowd had the same energy as it had on the previous night. Skirmishes between the rioters and the police ensued until approximately 4:00 a.m.. The third day of rioting fell five days after the raid on the Stonewall Inn. On that Wednesday, 1,000 people congregated at the bar and again caused extensive property damage.


Numerous books on this North American gay civil rights flash point have been written. In 2004, St. Martin's Press published David Carter's Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked the Gay Revolution, based on ten years of research and interviews with participants. In the book Carter examines inconsistencies of historical record, debunking a number of myths that have surrounded the events of June 1969, including the oft-repeated urban legend that it was the death of Judy Garland that sparked the riots. Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an Oscar-nominated American film actress and singer, best known for her role as Dorothy Gale in The Wizard of Oz (1939). ...


Legacy

The forces that were simmering before the riots were now no longer beneath the surface. The community created by the homophile organizations of the previous two decades had created the perfect environment for the creation of the Gay Liberation Movement. By the end of July the Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was formed in New York and by the end of the year the GLF could be seen in cities and universities around the country. Similar organizations were soon created around the world including Canada, France, Britain, Germany, Belgium, The Netherlands, Australia and New Zealand. Image File history File links Circle-contradict. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence This box:      The Stonewall Inn in January 2003 The Stonewall Inn was the site of the famous Stonewall riots of 1969, which have come to symbolize the beginning of... Gay Liberation Front Poster, New York 1970 Gay Liberation Front (GLF) was the name of a number of Gay Liberation groups, the first of which was formed in New York City in 1969, immediately after the Stonewall riots. ... Motto: Je Maintiendrai (Dutch: Ik zal handhaven, English: I Shall Uphold) Anthem: Wilhelmus van Nassouwe Capital Amsterdam1 Largest city Amsterdam Official language(s) Dutch2 Government Parliamentary democracy Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Beatrix  - Prime minister Jan Peter Balkenende Independence Eighty Years War   - Declared July 26, 1581   - Recognised January 30, 1648 (by Spain...


The following year, in commemoration of the Stonewall Riots, the GLF organized a march from Greenwich Village to Central Park. Between 5,000 and 10,000 men and women attended the march. Many gay pride celebrations choose the month of June to hold their parades and events to celebrate “The Hairpin Drop Heard Round the World" (D'Emilio 232). Many major American cities including New York City, Chicago, Houston, San Francisco, Seattle, Minneapolis and Columbus as well as other cities such as Toronto hold Gay Pride Marches on the last Sunday of June, in honor of Stonewall. Other cities such as Anchorage, Baltimore, Boston, Des Moines, Detroit, Kansas City, Salt Lake City, Philadelphia, Atlanta and Washington, DC hold their pride parade in June but not on the last Sunday of the month. Still others, such as Dallas, Texas and Palm Springs, California, hold their celebration in another month entirely. The Washington Square Arch Greenwich Village (IPA pronunciation: ), also called simply the Village, is a largely residential area on the west side of downtown (southern) Manhattan in New York City named after Greenwich, London. ... Central Park is a large public, urban park (843 acres, 3. ... Gay pride or LGBT pride refers to a world wide movement and philosophy asserting that lesbian, gay, bisexual, and transgender individuals should be proud of their sexual orientation and gender identity. ... The tone or style of this article or section may not be appropriate for Wikipedia. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Urbs in Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in the Chicago metro area and Illinois Coordinates: , Country United States State Illinois Counties Cook, DuPage Settled 1770s Incorporated March 4, 1837 Government  - Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area  - City  234. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Texas Coordinates: , Country United States State Texas Counties Harris County Fort Bend County Montgomery County Incorporated June 5, 1837 Government  - Mayor Bill White Area  - City  601. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... “Seattle” redirects here. ... This article is about the city in Minnesota. ... Nickname: Location in the state of Ohio, USA Coordinates: , Country United States State Ohio Counties Franklin, Delaware, and Fairfield Government  - Mayor Michael B. Coleman (D) Area  - City  212. ... Nickname: Motto: Big Wild Life Location in the state of Alaska Coordinates: , Borough Municipality of Anchorage Government  - Mayor Mark Begich (D) Area  - Municipality  1,961. ... Flag Seal Nickname: Monument City, Charm City, Mob Town, B-more Motto: Get In On It (formerly The City That Reads and The Greatest City in America; BELIEVE is not the official motto but rather a specific campaign) Location Location of Baltimore in Maryland Coordinates , Government Country State County United... Nickname: City on the Hill, Beantown, The Hub (of the Universe)1, Athens of America, The Cradle of Revolution, Puritan City, Americas Walking City Location in Massachusetts, USA Counties Suffolk County Mayor Thomas M. Menino(D) Area    - City 232. ... This article is about the state capital of Iowa. ... Motto: Speramus Meliora; Resurget Cineribus (We Hope For Better Things; It Shall Rise From the Ashes - this motto was adopted after the disastrous 1805 fire that devastated the city) Nickname: The Motor City and Motown Location in Wayne County, Michigan Founded Incorporated July 24, 1701 1815  County Wayne County Mayor... Nickname: Location in Jackson, Clay, Platte, and Cass Counties in the state of Missouri. ... The Salt Lake Temple of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints is Salt Lake Citys top tourist draw. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... Aerial photo (looking NW) of the Washington Monument and the White House in Washington, DC. Washington, D.C., officially the District of Columbia (also known as D.C.; Washington; the Nations Capital; the District; and, historically, the Federal City) is the capital city and administrative district of the United... Nickname: Motto: Live Large. ... Palm Springs is a famed Riverside County, California, desert resort city, approximately 110 miles east of Los Angeles. ...


In 1998. a LGBT-rights group in the United States formed the Stonewall Democrats (affiliated with the Democratic Party). The group was founded by Barney Frank, a gay Democratic member of the U.S. House of Representatives representing Massachusetts's fourth congressional district. Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Stonewall Democrats is a grassroots network connecting LGBT Democratic activists from Seattle, Washington to Austin, Texas to Little Rock, Arkansas to Atlanta, Georgia. ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  Politics Portal      Further information: Politics of the United States#Organization of American political parties The Democratic... Barnett Barney Frank (born March 31, 1940) is an American politician and a member of the United States House of Representatives. ... The House of Representatives is the larger of two houses that make up the U.S. Congress, the other being the United States Senate. ...


The actual Stonewall Inn was vacant and closed for most of the 1970s and '80s. It reopened after its first renovation in the early 1990s. A second renovation in the late 1990s brought in new crowds to its new multi-floor layout. The club remained popular until management lost its lease in 2006. New management reopened the latest version of The Stonewall in February 2007.


On the 2006 anniversary of the Stonewall Riots, Iceland enacted a law to grant same-sex couples legal rights equal with those of heterosexual couples. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays full 2006 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In Culture

  • The prominent British gay rights group Stonewall is named after the riots. Numerous gay bars around the world take their name from the revolutionary bar - two of the most famous are The Stonewall and Moose Lounge in Allentown, Pennsylvania and Stonewall Hotel in Sydney, Australia.
  • The general atmosphere of the days immediately before the riots are dramatized in a 1995 film called Stonewall. The Film has now been turned into a stage play by the Film's Screenwriter Rikki Beadle-Blair, and had its World Premiere in London in 2007 followed by a run at the 2007 Edinburgh Festival.
  • The popular webcomic Mac Hall and its successor, Three Panel Soul, occasionally feature the authors' characters in the City of Villains massively multiplayer role-playing game. Matt Boyd's character is a bright pink villain who was originally named "The Homosexual Agenda", intended as an absurdist parody of the so-called homosexual agenda that is purported of lesbians and gays by some social conservatives. However, the game's administration eventally declared Boyd's character name to be potentially offensive, and he since has renamed the character to "Stonewall Riots".

1988 Sir Ian McKellen and Michael Cashman of Stonewall. ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Semper Tyrannis Pennsylvanias location in the United States Allentowns location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Lehigh Founded 1762 Government  - Mayor Ed Pawlowski Area  - City  18. ... The Sydney Opera House on Sydney Harbour Sydney (pronounced ) is the most populous city in Australia, with a metropolitan area population of approximately 4. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... Film is a term that encompasses individual motion pictures, the field of film as an art form, and the motion picture industry. ... Stonewall is a 1995 historical comedy-drama film. ... A stage play is a dramatic work intended for performance before a live audience, or a performance of such a work. ... Mac Hall (debut: 2000-11-07) is a webcomic which was created through a bet between the creator Ian McConville and a friend who claimed he couldnt make a comic like Penny Arcade.[1] After the fifteenth comic, McConville was joined by Matt Boyd who began to write the... Three Panel Soul is a webcomic made by Ian McConville and Matt Boyd, the creators of the now concluded Mac Hall. ... City of Villains is a massively multiplayer online role-playing computer game based on the superhero comic book genre, developed by Cryptic Studios and published by NCSoft. ... An image from World of Warcraft, one of the largest commercial MMORPGs as of 2004, based on active subscriptions. ... Matt Boyd may refer to: Matt Boyd (amateur wrestler), a wrestler Matt Boyd (amateur golfer), a golfer at Virginia Tech Matt Boyd (author), an author and bulldog enthusiast Mac Hall, a webcomic of which a Matt Boyd is a writer Category: ... The use of the word pink as a color first occurred in the 17th century to describe the light red flowers of pinks, flowering plants in the genus Dianthus. ... The homosexual agenda (or the gay agenda) is a term used by some social conservatives to describe the goal of increasing LGBT acceptance through public policies, media exposure, and cultural change. ... The homosexual agenda (or the gay agenda) is a term used by some social conservatives to describe the goal of increasing LGBT acceptance through public policies, media exposure, and cultural change. ... Social conservatism is a belief in traditional morality and social mores and the desire to preserve these in present day society, often through civil law or regulation. ...

See also

Brenda Howard (December 24, 1946 – June 28, 2005) a bisexual activist and sex-positive feminist who is an important figure in the modern LGBT rights movement. ... The President of the German Bundestag (Parliament), Wolfgang Thierse, addresses the crowd at CSD Berlin 2001. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Persecution Violence In August of 1966, the Comptons Cafeteria Riot occurred in the Tenderloin district of San Francisco. ... 2004 Gay Pride Parade in São Paulo, Brazil. ... LGBT rights Around the world · By country History · Groups · Activists Declaration of Montreal Same-sex relationships Marriage · Adoption Opposition · Discrimination Violence This box:      This timeline of lesbian, gay, bisexual and transgender (LGBT) history details notable events in the Common Era West. ... The White Night Riots, beginning on May 21, 1979, were the San Francisco, California, gay communitys response to the minimal sentence given to former San Francisco City Supervisor Dan White for killing George Moscone, then Mayor of San Francisco and Harvey Milk, the openly gay supervisor of said city...

References

  • D'Emilio, John. Sexual Politics, Sexual Communities. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1983.
  • Duberman, Martin. Stonewall. New York: A Dutton Book, 1993.
  • Teal, Donn. The Gay Militants. New York: Stein and Day, 1971.
  • Carter, David. Stonewall: The Riots That Sparked The Gay Revolution. New York: St. Martin's Press, 2004

John DEmilio (born 1948, New York City) is a professor of history and of womens and gender studies at the University of Illinois at Chicago. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Stonewall riots - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1689 words)
The Stonewall riots, which as a whole is often called the Stonewall Rebellion, were a series of violent conflicts between lesbian, gay, bi-sexual, transgender, and queer persons and police officers in New York City.
"Stonewall," as the raids are often referred to, is generally considered a turning point for the modern gay rights movement worldwide, as it is one of the first times in modern history a significant body of gay people resisted arrest.
However, historians still differ on whether her death's proximity to the Stonewall riots was mere coincidence, or if it was a true cause of the riots.
Stonewall Inn - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (202 words)
Stonewall Inn was the site of the famous Stonewall riots of 1969, which have come to symbolize the beginning of the gay liberation movement in the United States.
Stonewall is regarded as the single most important event that led to the modern movement for gay and lesbian civil rights.
In June 1999, the Stonewall Inn was listed on the National Register of Historic Places for its historic significance to gay and lesbian history.
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