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Encyclopedia > Stonewall Jackson
Thomas Jonathan Jackson
January 21, 1824(1824-01-21)May 10, 1863 (aged 39)

General Thomas J. Jackson
Nickname Stonewall, Old Jack, Old Blue Light, Tom Fool
Place of birth Clarksburg, Virginia (now West Virginia)
Place of death Guinea Station, Virginia
Allegiance United States Army
Confederate States Army
Years of service 1846–51 (USA)
1861–63 (CSA)
Rank Major USA
Lieutenant General CSA
Commands Stonewall Brigade
Second Corps, Army of Northern Virginia
Battles/wars Mexican-American War
American Civil War

Thomas Jonathan "Stonewall" Jackson (January 21, 1824[1]May 10, 1863) was a Confederate general during the American Civil War, and probably the most revered Confederate commander after General Robert E. Lee.[2] His military career includes such famous exploits as the audacious Valley Campaign of 1862 and as a corps commander in the Army of Northern Virginia under Robert E. Lee. Confederate pickets accidentally shot him at the Battle of Chancellorsville on May 2, 1863, which the general survived, albeit with the loss of an arm to amputation. However, he died of complications of pneumonia eight days later. is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Download high resolution version (2500x2987, 752 KB) File links The following pages link to this file: Stonewall Jackson Categories: U.S. history images ... Clarksburg is a city in Harrison County, West Virginia, U.S. The population was 16,743 at the 2000 census. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... The United States Army is the largest, and by some standards oldest, established branch of the armed forces of the United States and is one of seven uniformed services. ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Insignia of a Major in the United States Military Major is a rank used in the United States Army, United States Air Force, and United States Marine Corps, and is the equivalent of a Lieutenant Commander in the United States Navy and United States Coast Guard. ... The Stonewall Brigade of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was one of the most famous combat units in United States history. ... Battle Flag in the Second Corps (37th Va. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... For other uses, see Bull Run (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville... There are a number of uses of Stonewall Jackson. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... A group of Confederate soldiers The Confederate States Army (CSA) was organized in February 1861 to defend the newly formed Confederate States of America from military action by the United States government during the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia during the American Civil War. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about human pneumonia. ...


Military historians consider Jackson to be one of the most gifted tactical commanders in United States history. His Valley Campaign and his envelopment of the Union Army right wing at Chancellorsville are studied worldwide even today as examples of innovative and bold leadership. He excelled as well at the First Battle of Bull Run (where he received his famous nickname "Stonewall"), Second Bull Run, Antietam, and Fredericksburg. Jackson was not universally successful as a commander, however, as displayed by his weak and confused efforts during the Seven Days Battles around Richmond in 1862. His death was a severe setback for the Confederacy, affecting not only its military prospects, but the morale of its army and the general public; as Jackson lay dying, General Robert E. Lee sent a message to Jackson through Chaplain Lacy, saying "Give General Jackson my affectionate regards, and say to him: he has lost his left arm but I my right."[3] American history redirects here. ... The 21st Michigan Infantry, a company of Shermans veterans. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... For other uses, see Bull Run (disambiguation). ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ...

Contents

Early years

Paternal ancestry

Thomas Jonathan Jackson was the great-grandson of John Jackson (1715 or 1719 – 1801) and Elizabeth Cummins (also known as Elizabeth Comings and Elizabeth Needles) (1723 – 1828). John Jackson was born in Coleraine, County Londonderry, in Ireland. While living in London, he was convicted of the capital crime of larceny for stealing £170; the judge at the Old Bailey sentenced him to a seven-year indenture in America. Elizabeth, a strong, blonde woman over 6 feet (1.8 m) tall, born in London, was also convicted of larceny in an unrelated case for stealing 19 pieces of silver, jewelry, and fine lace, and received a similar sentence. They both were transported on the prison ship Litchfield, which departed London in May 1749 with 150 convicts. John and Elizabeth met on board and were in love by the time the ship arrived at Annapolis, Maryland. Although they were sent to different locations in Maryland for their indenture, the couple married in July 1755.[4] Clan Comyn/Cumming Crest: A lion rampant or, in his dexter paw a dagger Proper Clan Cumming, also known as Clan Comyn, is a Scottish clan from the central Highlands that played a major role in the history of 13th century Scotland and in the Wars of Scottish Independence where... WGS-84 (GPS) Coordinates: , Statistics Province: Ulster County: District: Coleraine Borough UK Parliament: East Londonderry European Parliament: Northern Ireland Dialling Code: 028, +44 28 Post Town: Coleraine Postal District(s): BT51, BT52 Population (2001) 24,042 Coleraine (from the Irish: Cúil Raithin meaning Ferny corner) is a large town... For other places with similar names, see Londonderry (disambiguation) and Derry (disambiguation). ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... The Old Bailey. ... An Indentured servant is an unfree labourer under contract to work (for a specified amount of time) for another person, often without any pay, but in exchange for accommodation, food, other essentials and/or free passage to a new country. ... Annapolis redirects here. ...


The family migrated west across the Blue Ridge Mountains to settle near Moorefield, Virginia, (now West Virginia) in 1758. In 1770, they moved further west to the Tygart Valley. They began to acquire large parcels of virgin farmland near the present-day town of Buckhannon, including 3,000 acres (12 km²) in Elizabeth's name. John and his two teenage sons were early recruits for the American Revolutionary War, fighting in the Battle of Kings Mountain on October 7, 1780; John finished the war as captain and served as a lieutenant of the Virginia Militia after 1787. While the men were in the Army, Elizabeth converted their home to a haven, "Jackson's Fort," for refugees from Indian attacks.[5] Blue Ridge Mountains, Shining Rock Wilderness Area Appalachian Mountain system The Blue Ridge is a mountain chain in the eastern United States, part of the Appalachian Mountains, forming their eastern front from Georgia to Pennsylvania. ... Moorefield is a town in Hardy County, West Virginia, USA. Moorefield is the county seat of Hardy County. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... The Tygart Valley River is a chief tributary of the Monongahela River in east-central West Virginia in the United States. ... Buckhannon is the only incorporated city in Upshur County, West Virginia and is located along the Buckhannon River. ... This article is about military actions only. ... Combatants Patriot militia Loyalist militia Commanders William Campbell, John Sevier, Frederick Hambright, Joseph McDowell, Benjamin Cleveland, James Williams†, Isaac Shelby Patrick Ferguson† Strength 900 (+500 nearby) 1,100 (+200 nearby) Casualties 28 killed (including James Williams), 62 wounded 157 killed, 163 wounded, 698 captured (nine of the captured were later... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1780 was a leap year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... For other uses, see Captain (disambiguation). ... Lieutenant is a military, naval, paramilitary, fire service or police officer rank. ... The Virginia Militia is a semi-official organization of the state of Virginia which is a private citizens force under the control of the state governor for the purposes of state disasters and emergencies. ...


John and Elizabeth had eight children. Their second son was Edward Jackson (March 1, 1759December 25, 1828), and Edward's third son was Jonathan Jackson, Thomas's father.[6] is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1759 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... is the 359th day of the year (360th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1828 (MDCCCXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a leap year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Jackson family was deeply religious, and for this reason Thomas Jackson beleived that he would not die in battle. He simply believed that it was not his time to die yet. For this reason, he was extreemely brave in battle, and was for this reason honored among his soldiers.


Early childhood

Thomas Jackson was the third child of Julia Beckwith (née Neale) Jackson (1798 – 1831) and Jonathan Jackson (1790 – 1826), an attorney. Both of Jackson's parents were natives of Virginia. The family already had two young children and were living in Clarksburg, in what is now West Virginia. This is where their third child, Thomas, was born. He was named for his maternal grandfather. Julia Neale Jackson (1789-1831) was the mother of Confederate General Thomas Jonathon Stonewall Jackson. ... An attorney is someone who represents someone else in the transaction of business: For attorney-at-law, see lawyer, solicitor, barrister or civil law notary. ... Clarksburg is a city in Harrison County, West Virginia, U.S. The population was 16,743 at the 2000 census. ...


Thomas's sister Elizabeth (age six) died of typhoid fever on March 6, 1826, while two-year-old Thomas sat by her bedside. His father died of the same disease March 26. Jackson's mother gave birth to Thomas's sister Laura Ann the day after Jackson's father died.[7] Julia Jackson thus was widowed at 28 and was left with much debt and three young children (including the newborn). She sold the family's possessions to pay the debts. She declined family charity and moved into a small rented one-room house. Julia took in sewing and taught school to support herself and her three young children for about four years. For a similar disease with a similar name, see typhus. ... is the 65th day of the year (66th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... March 26 is the 85th day of the year (86th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1830, Julia Neale Jackson remarried. Her new husband, Blake Woodson[8], an attorney, did not like his stepchildren. There were continuing financial problems. The following year, after giving birth to Thomas's half-brother, Julia died of complications, leaving her three older children orphaned.[9] Julia was buried in an unmarked grave in a homemade coffin in Westlake Cemetery along the James River and Kanawha Turnpike in Fayette County within the corporate limits of present-day Ansted, West Virginia. The James River and Kanawha Turnpike was built to facilitate portage of shipments of passengers and freight by water between the western reaches of the James River via the James River and Kanawha Canal and the eastern reaches of the Kanawha River. ... Fayette County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... A scenic view of the New River Valley from Lovers Leap in Hawks Nest State Park, Ansted, West Virginia Ansted is a town located in Fayette County in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ...

Jackson's Mill, owned by Cummins Jackson.
Jackson's Mill, owned by Cummins Jackson.

Jacksons Mill This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ... Jacksons Mill This image is in the public domain because its copyright has expired in the United States and those countries with a copyright term of life of the author plus 100 years. ...

Working and teaching at Jackson's Mill

Jackson was seven years old when his mother died. He and his sister Laura Ann were sent to live with their paternal uncle, Cummins Jackson, who owned a grist mill in Jackson's Mill (near present-day Weston in Lewis County in central West Virginia). Cummins Jackson was strict with Thomas, who looked up to Cummins as a schoolteacher. His older brother, Warren, went to live with other relatives on his mother's side of the family, but he later died of tuberculosis in 1841 at the age of 20. Jacksons Mill, owned by Cummins Jackson Cummins Jackson was a paternal uncle of Confederate General Thomas Jonathon Stonewall Jackson (1824-1863). ... Jacksons Mill was a grist mill in West Virginia (near the present-day city of Weston in Lewis County, West Virginia). ... Weston is a city in Lewis County, West Virginia along the West Fork River. ... Lewis County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... For university teachers, see professor. ... Tuberculosis (abbreviated as TB for tubercle bacillus or Tuberculosis) is a common and deadly infectious disease caused by mycobacteria, mainly Mycobacterium tuberculosis. ...


Jackson helped around his uncle's farm, tending sheep with the assistance of a sheepdog, driving teams of oxen and helping harvest wheat and corn. Formal education was not easily obtained, but he attended school when and where he could. Much of Jackson's education was self-taught. He once made a deal with one of his uncle's slaves to provide him with pine knots in exchange for reading lessons; Thomas would stay up at night reading borrowed books by the light of those burning pine knots. Virginia law forbade teaching a slave, free black or mulatto to read or write, as enacted following Nat Turner's Slave Rebellion in Southampton County in 1831. Nevertheless, Jackson secretly taught the slave to read, as he had promised. Once literate, the young slave fled to Canada via the underground railroad.[10] In his later years at Jackson's Mill, Thomas was a schoolteacher. A Sheep dog is a type of domestic dog whose original purpose was to herd or guard sheep. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... Slave redirects here. ... Nat Turners Rebellion (also known as the Southampton Insurrection) was a slave rebellion that took place in Southampton County, Virginia during August 1831. ... Southampton County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia, a state of the United States. ... H. B. Lindsley, Harriet Tubman, c. ...


West Point

In 1842, Jackson was accepted to the United States Military Academy at West Point, New York. Because of his inadequate schooling, he had difficulty with the entrance examinations and began his studies at the bottom of his class. As a student, he had to work harder than most cadets to absorb lessons. However, displaying a dogged determination that was to characterize his life, he became one of the hardest working cadets in the academy, and moved steadily up the academic rankings. Jackson graduated 17th out of 59 students in the Class of 1846. It was said by his peers that if they had stayed there another year, he would have graduated first. USMA redirects here. ... West Point painting West Point is a federal military base (and a census-designated place) located in the Town of Highlands in Orange County, New York. ... This article is about the state. ...


U.S. Army and the Mexican War

Stain glass of Jackson's life in the National Cathedral in part depicting his service in the Mexican-American War
Stain glass of Jackson's life in the National Cathedral in part depicting his service in the Mexican-American War

Jackson began his U.S. Army career as a brevet second lieutenant in the 1st U.S. Artillery Regiment and was sent to fight in the Mexican-American War from 1846 to 1848. He served at the Siege of Veracruz and the battles of Contreras, Chapultepec, and Mexico City, eventually earning two brevet promotions, and the regular army rank of first lieutenant. It was in Mexico that Jackson first met Robert E. Lee. Washington National Cathedral was the site of two Presidential state funerals: for Dwight D. Eisenhower and Ronald W. Reagan, and a presidential burial in the cathedral mausoleum: Woodrow Wilson. ... The Army is the branch of the United States armed forces which has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... In the US military, brevet referred to a warrant authorizing a commissioned officer to hold a higher rank temporarily, but usually without receiving the pay of that higher rank. ... Second Lieutenant is the lowest commissioned rank in many armed forces. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia José Mariá Flores Strength 78,790 soldiers 25,000–40,000 soldiers Casualties KIA: 1733 Total dead: 13,271 Wounded: 4,152 AWOL: 9,200+ 25,000... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott (Army) David Conner (Navy) Matthew C. Perry (Navy) Juan Morales Strength 12,000 3,360 Casualties 18 killed 62 wounded 180 killed and wounded 100 civilian The Battle of Veracruz was a 20-day siege of the key Mexican seaport of Veracruz, Veracruz... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Gabriel Valencia Strength 8,500 20,000 Casualties 60 killed and wounded 700 killed 843 surrendered Gen Frontera dead Gen Salas, Nicolas Mendoza captured The Battle of Contreras (also known, particularly in Mexico, as the Battle of... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Nicolás Bravo #, Mariano Monterde School Commandant, Juan N. Perez commander Remants Leon Brigade) Strength 13,000 876 cadets, 4000 regulars Casualties 130 killed 703 wounded 29 missing 862 total 1,800 killed and wounded 823 captured 2,623 Total Gen. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Winfield Scott Antonio López de Santa Anna Strength 7,200 16,000 Casualties 1,651 4,500 The Battle for Mexico City refers to the series of engagements from September 8 to September 15, 1847, in the general vicinity of Mexico City during the... The United States Regular Army is the permanent force of the United States Army that is maintained during peacetime, as opposed to those persons who may be part of a reserve or national guard outfit. ... First Lieutenant is a military rank. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ...


During the assault on Chapultepec Castle, he refused what he felt was a "bad order" to withdraw his troops. Confronted by his superior, he explained his rationale, claiming withdrawal was more hazardous than continuing his overmatched artillery duel. His judgment proved correct, and a relieving brigade was able to exploit the advantage Jackson had broached. In contrast to this display of strength of character, he obeyed what he also felt was a "bad order" when he raked a civilian throng with artillery fire after the Mexican authorities failed to surrender Mexico City at the hour demanded by the U.S. forces.[11] The former episode, and later aggressive action against the retreating Mexican army, earned him field promotion to the brevet rank of major.


Lexington and the Virginia Military Institute

In the spring of 1851,[12] Jackson accepted a newly created teaching position at the Virginia Military Institute (VMI), in Lexington, Virginia. He became Professor of Natural and Experimental Philosophy and Instructor of Artillery. Jackson's teachings are still used at VMI today because they are military essentials that are timeless, to wit: discipline, mobility, assessing the enemy's strength and intentions while attempting to conceal your own, and the efficiency of artillery combined with an infantry assault. The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ... Lexington is an independent city within the confines of Rockbridge County in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... For other uses, see Artillery (disambiguation). ... Infantry of the Royal Irish Rifles during the Battle of the Somme in World War I Infantry or footmen are very highly disciplined and trained soldiers who fight primarily with small arms(rifles), but are trained to use everything from their bare hands to missle systems in order to neutralize...


However, despite the high quality of his work, he was not popular as a teacher. He memorized his lectures and then recited them to the class; any students who came to ask for help were only given the same explanation as before. And if students came to ask again, Jackson viewed this as insubordination and likewise punished them. The students mocked his apparently stern, religious nature and his eccentric traits. In 1856, a group of alumni attempted to have Jackson removed from his position.[13]


Little as he was known to the white inhabitants of Lexington, Jackson was revered by many of the African-Americans in town, both slaves and free blacks. He was instrumental in the organization in 1855 of Sunday school classes for blacks at the Presbyterian Church. His second wife, Mary Anna Jackson, taught with Jackson, as "he preferred that my labors should be given to the colored children, believing that it was more important and useful to put the strong hand of the Gospel under the ignorant African race, to lift them up." [14] The pastor, Dr. William Spottswood White, described the relationship between Jackson and his Sunday afternoon students: "In their religious instruction he succeeded wonderfully. His discipline was systematic and firm, but very kind. ... His servants reverenced and loved him, as they would have done a brother or father. ... He was emphatically the black man's friend." He addressed his students by name and they in turn referred to him affectionately as "Marse Major."[15] Languages Predominantly American English Religions Protestantism (chiefly Baptist and Methodist); Roman Catholicism; Islam Related ethnic groups Sub-Saharan Africans and other African groups, some with Native American groups. ...


Jackson's family owned six slaves in the late 1850s. Three (Hetty, Cyrus, and George, a mother and two teenage sons) were received as a wedding present. Another, Albert, requested that Jackson purchase him and allow him to work for his freedom; he was employed as a waiter in one of the Lexington hotels and Jackson rented him to VMI. Amy also requested that Jackson purchase her from a public auction and she served the family as a cook and housekeeper. The sixth, Emma, was a four-year-old orphan with a learning disability, accepted by Jackson from an aged widow and presented to his second wife, Mary Anna, as a welcome-home gift.[16] After the American Civil War began, he appears to have hired out or sold his slaves. Mary Anna Jackson, in her 1895 memoir, said, "our servants ... without the firm guidance and restraint of their master, the excitement of the times proved so demoralizing to them that he deemed it best for me to provide them with good homes among the permanent residents." [17] James Robertson wrote about Jackson's view on slavery:[18] This article is about the use of the term in the United States and Canada. ...

Jackson neither apologized for nor spoke in favor of the practice of slavery. He probably opposed the institution. Yet in his mind the Creator had sanctioned slavery, and man had no moral right to challenge its existence. The good Christian slaveholder was one who treated his servants fairly and humanely at all times.

While an instructor at VMI, in 1853, Thomas Jackson married Elinor "Ellie" Junkin, whose father was president of Washington College (later named Washington and Lee University) in Lexington. An addition was built onto the president's residence for the Jacksons, and when Robert E. Lee became president of Washington College he lived in the same home, now known as the Lee-Jackson House.[19] Ellie gave birth to a stillborn son on October 22, 1854, experiencing a hemorrhage an hour later that proved fatal.[20] Washington and Lee University is a private liberal arts college in Lexington, Virginia. ... is the 295th day of the year (296th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1854 (MDCCCLIV) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ...


After a tour of Europe, Jackson married again, in 1857. Mary Anna Morrison was from North Carolina, where her father was the first president of Davidson College. They had a daughter named Mary Graham on April 30, 1858, but the baby died less than a month later. Another daughter was born in 1862, shortly before her father's death. The Jacksons named her Julia Laura, after his mother and sister. Davidson College is a private liberal arts college for 1,700 students in Davidson, North Carolina, USA. Both the town and college were named for Brigadier General William Lee Davidson, a Revolutionary War commander. ... is the 120th day of the year (121st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1858 (MDCCCLVIII) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian Calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


Jackson purchased the only house he ever owned while in Lexington. Built in 1801, the brick town house at 8 East Washington Street was purchased by Jackson in 1859. He lived in it for two years before being called to serve in the Confederacy. Jackson never returned to his home.


In November 1859, at the request of the governor of Virginia, Major William Gilham led a contingent of the VMI Cadet Corps to Charles Town to provide an additional military presence at the execution by hanging on December 2, 1859 of militant abolitionist John Brown following his raid on the federal arsenal at Harpers Ferry. Major Jackson was placed in command of the artillery, consisting of two howitzers manned by 21 cadets. William Gilham (January 13, 1818-November 16, 1872) was an American soldier, teacher, chemist, and author. ... See also Charleston, West Virginia or Charlestown Charles Town is a city in Jefferson County, West Virginia USA. The population was 2,907 at the 2000 census. ... is the 336th day of the year (337th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1859 (MDCCCLIX) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Thursday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Brown (May 9, 1800 – December 2, 1859) was a white American abolitionist who advocated and practiced armed insurrection as a means to abolish all slavery. ... Harpers Ferry, West Virginia 1865. ... 19th century 12 pounder (5 kg) mountain howitzer displayed by the National Park Service at Fort Laramie in Wyoming, USA A howitzer is a type of artillery piece that is characterized by a relatively short barrel and the use of comparatively small explosive charges to propel projectiles at trajectories with...


Civil War

In 1861, as the American Civil War broke out, Jackson became a drill master for some of the many new recruits in the Confederate Army. On April 27, 1861, Virginia Governor John Letcher ordered Colonel Jackson to take command at Harpers Ferry, where he would assemble and command the famous "Stonewall Brigade", consisting of the 2nd, 4th, 5th, 27th, and 33rd Virginia Infantry regiments. All of these units were from the Shenandoah Valley region of Virginia. Jackson became known for his relentless drilling of his troops; he believed discipline was vital to success on the battlefield. He was promoted to brigadier general on June 17.[21] Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America (Confederacy) Commanders Abraham Lincoln, Ulysses S. Grant Jefferson Davis, Robert E. Lee Strength 2,200,000 1,064,000 Casualties 110,000 killed in action, 360,000 total dead, 275,200 wounded 93,000 killed in action, 258,000 total... This article is in need of attention. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... John Letcher (1813-1884) of Lexington, Virginia, was an American lawyer, journalist, politician, served as Representative in U.S. Congress (1851-1859), Governor of Virginia (1860-1864), Delegate in Virginia General Assembly 1875-1877, and on the Board of Visitors of Virginia Military Institute 1866-1880. ... For other uses, see Colonel (disambiguation). ... Harpers Ferry is the name of several places in the United States of America: Harpers Ferry, Iowa Harpers Ferry, West Virginia There was also John Browns raid on the armory at Harpers Ferry, West Virginia as well as a Battle of Harpers Ferry in the American Civil War. ... The Stonewall Brigade of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was one of the most famous combat units in United States history. ... Canoeing on the Shenandoah River near Winchester, VA. The Shenandoah Valley region of western Virginia, from Winchester to Staunton, is bounded by the Blue Ridge mountains to the East and the Allegheny mountains to the West. ... Brigadier General is the lowest ranking general officer in some countries, usually just above colonel and just below major general. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


First Bull Run

Jackson rose to prominence and earned his most famous nickname at the First Battle of Bull Run (also known as First Manassas) in July 1861. As the Confederate lines began to crumble under heavy Union assault, Jackson's brigade provided crucial reinforcements on Henry House Hill, demonstrating the discipline he instilled in his men. Brig. Gen. Barnard Elliott Bee, Jr., exhorted his own troops to re-form by shouting, "There is Jackson standing like a stone wall. Let us determine to die here, and we will conquer. Follow me."[22] There is some controversy over Bee's statement and intent, which could not be clarified because he was killed almost immediately after speaking and none of his subordinate officers wrote reports of the battle. Major Burnett Rhett, chief of staff to General Joseph E. Johnston, claimed that Bee was angry at Jackson's failure to come immediately to the relief of Bee's and Bartow's brigades while they were under heavy pressure. Those who subscribe to this opinion believe that Bee's statement was meant to be pejorative: "Look at Jackson standing there like a damned stone wall!"[23] Regardless of the controversy and the delay in relieving Bee, Jackson's brigade, which would henceforth be known as the Stonewall Brigade, stopped the Union assault and suffered more casualties than any other Southern brigade that day.[24] After the battle, Jackson was promoted to major general (October 7, 1861)[21] and given command of the Valley District, with headquarters in Winchester Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Irvin McDowell Joseph E. Johnston P.G.T. Beauregard Strength 35,000 32,500 Casualties 2,896 (460 killed, 1,124 wounded, 1,312 captured/missing)[1] 1,982 (387 killed, 1,582 wounded, 13 missing)[1] For other uses... Manassas redirects here. ... Barnard Elliott Bee Jr. ... Joseph E. Johnston Joseph Eggleston Johnston (February 3, 1807 – March 21, 1891) was a career U.S. Army officer and one of the most senior generals in the Confederate States Army during the American Civil War. ... Francis Stebbins Bartow Francis Stebbins Bartow ( September 6, 1816, Chatham Country, Savannah, Georgia; d. ... The Stonewall Brigade of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was one of the most famous combat units in United States history. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Founded 1802 Government  - Mayor Elizabeth Minor Area  - City  9. ...


Valley Campaign

For more details on this topic, see Valley Campaign.

In the spring of 1862, Union Maj. Gen. George B. McClellan's massive Army of the Potomac approached Richmond from the southeast in the Peninsula Campaign, Maj. Gen. Irvin McDowell's large corps was poised to hit Richmond from the north, and Maj. Gen. Nathaniel P. Banks's army threatened the Shenandoah Valley. Jackson was ordered by Richmond to operate in the Valley to defeat Banks's threat and prevent McDowell's troops from reinforcing McClellan. The Valley Campaign was Confederate General Thomas J. Stonewall Jacksons brilliant spring 1862 campaign through the Shenandoah Valley in Virginia during the American Civil War. ... For the 1960s commissioner of the Royal Canadian Mounted Police, see George McClellan (police commissioner). ... Generals Burnside, Hancock, Couch, Ferro, Patrick, Wilcox, Cochrane, Buford and others. ... McClellan and Johnston of the Peninsula Campaign The Peninsula Campaign (also known as the Peninsular Campaign) of the American Civil War was a major Union operation launched in southeastern Virginia from March through July 1862, the first large-scale offensive in the Eastern Theater. ... General Irvin McDowell Irvin McDowell (October 15, 1818 – May 4, 1885) was an American military officer, famous for his participation in the American Civil War. ... Nathaniel Prentiss Banks (January 30, 1816–September 1, 1894), American politician and soldier, was born at Waltham, Massachusetts. ...


Jackson possessed the attributes to succeed against his poorly coordinated and sometimes timid opponents: a combination of great audacity, excellent knowledge and shrewd use of the terrain, and the ability to inspire his troops to great feats of marching and fighting.


The campaign started with a tactical defeat at Kernstown on March 23, 1862, when faulty intelligence led him to believe he was attacking a much smaller force than was actually present, but it was a strategic victory for the Confederacy, forcing President Abraham Lincoln to keep Banks's forces in the Valley and McDowell's 30,000-man corps near Fredericksburg, subtracting about 50,000 soldiers from McClellan's invasion force. In addition, it was Jackson's only defeat in the Valley. First Battle of Kernstown Conflict American Civil War Date March 23, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina Result Union victory The First Battle of Kernstown took place on March 23, 1862 in Frederick County and Winchester, Virgina as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through... is the 82nd day of the year (83rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Abraham Lincoln (disambiguation). ... This article is about a military unit. ... Location in Virginia Coordinates: Country United States State Virginia County Independent City* Founded 1728 Incorporated 1781 Government  - Mayor Thomas Tomzak Area  - City  10. ...


By adding Maj. Gen. Richard S. Ewell's large division and Maj. Gen. Edward "Allegheny" Johnson's small division, Jackson increased his army to 17,000 men. He was still significantly outnumbered, but attacked portions of his divided enemy individually at McDowell, defeating both Brig. Gens. Robert H. Milroy and Robert C. Schenck. He defeated Banks at Front Royal and Winchester, ejecting him from the Valley. Lincoln decided that the defeat of Jackson was an immediate priority (though Jackson's orders were solely to keep Union forces occupied away from Richmond). They ordered Irvin McDowell to send 20,000 men to Front Royal and Maj. Gen. John C. Frémont to move to Harrisonburg. If both forces could converge at Strasburg, Jackson's only escape route up the Valley would be cut. Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Symbol of the Polish 1st Legions Infantry Division in NATO code A division is a large military unit or formation usually consisting of around ten to twenty thousand soldiers. ... Edward Allegheny Johnson Edward Johnson (April 16, 1816 – March 2, 1873), also known as Allegheny Johnson (sometimes spelled Alleghany), was a U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War. ... Battle of McDowell Conflict American Civil War Date May 8, 1862 Place Highland County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of McDowell, also known as the Battle of Sitlingtons Hill, took place on May 8, 1862 in Highland County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jackson... A Brigadier General, or one-star general, is the lowest rank of general officer in the United States and some other countries, ranking just above Colonel and just below Major General. ... Robert H. Milroy during the war Robert Huston Milroy (June 11, 1816 – March 29, 1890) was a lawyer, judge, and a Union Army general in the American Civil War, most noted for his defeat at the Second Battle of Winchester in 1863. ... Robert Cumming Schenck (1809-1890) Robert Cumming Schenck (October 4, 1809–March 23, 1890) was a Union general in the American Civil War. ... Battle of Front Royal Conflict American Civil War Date May 23, 1862 Place Warren County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Front Royal, also known as the Battle of Guard Hill or Cedarville, took place on May 23, 1862 in Warren County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General... First Battle of Winchester Conflict American Civil War Date May 25, 1862 Place Frederick County and Winchester Result Confederate victory The First Battle of Winchester was a battle of the American Civil War that took place on May 25, 1862 in and around Frederick County, Virginia and Winchester, Virginia. ... John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first presidential candidate of a major party to run on a platform in opposition to slavery. ... Nickname: Location in Virginia Coordinates: , County Independent City Founded 1737 Government  - Mayor Rodney Eagle[1] Area  - City 45. ...


After a series of maneuvers, Jackson defeated Frémont at Cross Keys and Brig. Gen. James Shields at Port Republic on June 8 and June 9. Union forces were withdrawn from the Valley. Battle of Cross Keys Conflict American Civil War Date June 8, 1862 Place Rockingham County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Cross Keys took place on June 8, 1862 in Rockingham County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through Shenandoah Valley, Virginia during... James Shields (May 10, 1810 – June 1, 1879) was an American politician and U.S. Army officer who was born in Altmore, County Tyrone, Ireland. ... Battle of Port Republic Conflict American Civil War Date June 9, 1862 Place Rockingham County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Port Republic took place on June 9, 1862 in Rockingham County, Virginia as part of Confederate Army General Thomas J. Jacksons Campaign through Shenandoah Valley, Virginia during... is the 159th day of the year (160th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 160th day of the year (161st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


It was a classic military campaign of surprise and maneuver. Jackson pressed his army to travel 646 miles (1,040 km) in 48 days of marching and won five significant victories with a force of about 17,000 against a combined force of 60,000. Stonewall Jackson's reputation for moving his troops so rapidly earned them the oxymoronic nickname "foot cavalry". He became the most celebrated soldier in the Confederacy (until he was eventually eclipsed by Lee) and lifted the morale of the Southern public. This article is about the contradiction in terms. ... Stonewall Jackson Foot cavalry was an oxymoron coined to describe the rapid movements of infantry troops serving under Confederate General Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson during the American Civil War (1861–1865). ...


Peninsula

McClellan's Peninsula Campaign toward Richmond stalled at the Battle of Seven Pines on May 31 and June 1. After the Valley Campaign ended in mid-June, Jackson and his troops were called to join Robert E. Lee's Army of Northern Virginia in defense of the capital. By utilizing a railroad tunnel under the Blue Ridge Mountains and then transporting troops to Hanover County on the Virginia Central Railroad, Jackson and his forces made a surprise appearance in front of McClellan at Mechanicsville. Reports had last placed Jackson's forces in the Shenandoah Valley; their presence near Richmond added greatly to the Union commander's overestimation of the strength and numbers of the forces before him. This proved a crucial factor in McClellan's decision to re-establish his base at a point many miles downstream from Richmond on the James River at Harrison's Landing, essentially a retreat that ended the Peninsula Campaign and prolonged the war almost three more years. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Joseph E. Johnston G. W. Smith Strength 41,797 41,816 Casualties 5,031 (790 killed, 3,594 wounded, 647 captured/missing) 6,134 (980 killed, 4,749 wounded, 405 captured/missing) The Battle of Seven Pines... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... Blue Ridge Mountains, Shining Rock Wilderness Area Appalachian Mountain system The Blue Ridge is a mountain chain in the eastern United States, part of the Appalachian Mountains, forming their eastern front from Georgia to Pennsylvania. ... Hanover County is a county located in the Commonwealth of Virginia. ... Virginia Central Railroad was chartered as the Louisa Railroad in 1836 by the Virginia Board of Public Works and had its name changed to Virginia Central Railroad in 1850. ... Battle of Beaver Dam Creek Conflict American Civil War Date June 26, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Beaver Dam Creek, also known as the Battle of Mechanicsville or Ellerson’s Mill, took place on June 26, 1862 in Hanover County, Virginia as part of... The James River at Cartersville The James River in the U.S. state of Virginia is 660 km (410 miles) long including its Jackson River source and drains a watershed comprising 27,019 km² (10,432 square miles). ...


Jackson's troops served well under Lee in the series of battles known as the Seven Days Battles, but Jackson's own performance in those battles is generally considered to be poor.[25] He arrived late at Mechanicsville and inexplicably ordered his men to bivouac for the night within clear earshot of the battle. He was late and disoriented at Gaines' Mill. He was late again at Savage's Station, and at White Oak Swamp, he failed to employ fording places to cross White Oak Swamp Creek, attempting for hours to rebuild a bridge, which limited his involvement to an ineffectual artillery duel and a missed opportunity. At Malvern Hill, Jackson participated in the futile, piecemeal frontal assaults against entrenched Union infantry and massed artillery and suffered heavy casualties, but this was a problem for all of Lee's army in that ill-considered battle. The reasons for Jackson's sluggish and poorly coordinated actions during the Seven Days are disputed, although a severe lack of sleep after the grueling march and railroad trip from the Shenandoah Valley was probably a significant factor. Both Jackson and his troops were completely exhausted. Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac; 105,445 Army of Northern Virginia; 90,500 Casualties 1,734 killed 8,062 wounded 6,053 missing/captured 3,286 killed 15,009 wounded 946 missing/captured Peninsula... Battle of Gaines Mill Conflict American Civil War Date June 27, 1862 Place Hanover County, Virginia Result Confederate victory The Battle of Gaines Mill, also known as the First Battle of Cold Harbor or the Battle of Chickahominy River, took place on June 27, 1862, in Hanover County, Virginia, as... Battle of Savages Station Conflict American Civil War Date June 29, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of Savage’s Station took place on June 29, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of White Oak Swamp Conflict American Civil War Date June 30, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Inconclusive The Battle of White Oak Swamp took place on June 30, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of the American Civil War. ... Battle of Malvern Hill Conflict American Civil War Date July 1, 1862 Place Henrico County, Virginia Result Union victory The Battle of Malvern Hill, also known as the Battle of Poindexter’s Farm, took place on July 1, 1862 in Henrico County, Virginia as part of the Peninsula Campaign of...


Second Bull Run to Fredericksburg

Jackson and Sorrel, painting by David Bendann.
Jackson and Sorrel, painting by David Bendann.

The military reputations of Lee's corps commanders are often characterized as Stonewall Jackson representing the audacious, offensive component of Lee's army, whereas his counterpart, James Longstreet, more typically advocated and executed defensive strategies and tactics. Jackson has been described as the army's hammer, Longstreet its anvil.[26] In the Northern Virginia Campaign of August 1862, this stereotype did not hold true. Longstreet commanded the Right Wing (later to become known as the First Corps) and Jackson commanded the Left Wing. Jackson started the campaign under Lee's orders with a sweeping flanking maneuver that placed his corps into the rear of Union Maj. Gen. John Pope's Army of Virginia, but he then took up a defensive position and effectively invited Pope to assault him. On August 28 and August 29, the start of the Second Battle of Bull Run (or the Second Battle of Manassas), Pope pounded Jackson as Longstreet and the remainder of the Army marched north to reach the battlefield. James Longstreet (January 8, 1821 – January 2, 1904) was one of the foremost Confederate generals of the American Civil War and the principal subordinate to General Robert E. Lee, who called him his Old War Horse. ... Union soldiers at the Orange & Alexandria Railroad The Northern Virginia Campaign, also known as the Second Bull Run Campaign or Second Manassas Campaign, was a series of battles fought in Virginia during August and September, 1862, in the American Civil War. ... Major General John Pope John Pope (March 18, 1822 – September 23, 1892) was a career Army officer and general in the American Civil War. ... The Army of Virginia was organized as a major unit of the Union Army and operated briefly and unsuccessfully in 1862 in the American Civil War. ... is the 240th day of the year (241st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 241st day of the year (242nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see Bull Run (disambiguation). ...


On August 30, Pope came to believe that Jackson was starting to retreat, and Longstreet took advantage of this by launching a massive assault on the Union army's left with over 25,000 men. Although the Union troops put up a furious defense, Pope's army was forced to retreat in a manner similar to the embarrassing Union defeat at First Bull Run, fought on roughly the same battleground. is the 242nd day of the year (243rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


When Lee decided to invade the North in the Maryland Campaign, Jackson took Harpers Ferry, then hastened to join the rest of the army at Sharpsburg, Maryland, where they fought McClellan in the Battle of Antietam. Antietam was primarily a defensive battle fought against superior odds, although McClellan failed to exploit his advantage. Jackson's men bore the brunt of the initial attacks on the northern end of the battlefield and, at the end of the day, successfully resisted a breakthrough on the southern end when Jackson's subordinate, Maj. Gen. A.P. Hill, arrived at the last minute from Harpers Ferry. The Confederate forces held their position, but the battle was extremely bloody for both sides, and Lee withdrew the Army of Northern Virginia back across the Potomac River, ending the invasion. Jackson was promoted to lieutenant general on October 10 and his command was redesignated the Second Corps. Confederate dead at Antietam The Maryland Campaign, or the Antietam Campaign, of September 1862 is widely considered one of the major turning points of the American Civil War. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Dixon S. Miles† Thomas J. Jackson Strength 14,000 19,900 Casualties 44 killed 173 wounded 12,419 captured 39 killed 248 wounded Maryland Campaign, actions September 3 to September 15, 1862  Confederate  Union The Battle of Harpers Ferry was... Sharpsburg is a town located in Washington County, Maryland. ... Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders George B. McClellan Robert E. Lee Strength 87,000 45,000 Casualties 12,401 (2,108 killed, 9,540 wounded, 753 captured/missing) 10,316 (1,546 killed, 7,752 wounded, 1,018 captured/missing) The Battle of Antietam (also... Ambrose Powell Hill (November 9, 1825 _ April 2, 1865), was a Confederate States of America general in the American Civil War. ... The Army of Northern Virginia was the primary military force of the Confederate States of America during the American Civil War in the eastern theater. ... The Potomac River flows into the Chesapeake Bay, located along the mid-Atlantic coast of the United States (USA). ... US Lieutenant General insignia In three branches of the United States Army, United States Marine Corps and United States Air Force, a Lieutenant General is also called a three-star general, named for the three stars worn on the uniform. ... is the 283rd day of the year (284th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Before the armies camped for winter, Jackson's Second Corps held off a strong Union assault against the right flank of the Confederate line at the Battle of Fredericksburg, in what became a decisive Confederate victory. Just before the battle, Jackson was delighted to receive a letter about the birth of his daughter, Julia Laura Jackson, on November 23.[27] Also before the battle, Maj. Gen. J.E.B. Stuart, Lee's dashing and well-dressed cavalry commander, presented to Jackson a fine general's frock that he had ordered from one of the best tailors in Richmond. Jackson's previous coat was threadbare and colorless from exposure to the elements, its buttons removed by admiring ladies. Jackson asked his staff to thank Stuart, saying that although the coat was too handsome for him, he would cherish it as a souvenir. His staff insisted that he wear it to dinner, which caused scores of soldiers to rush to see him in uncharacteristic garb. So embarrassed was Jackson with the attention that he did not wear the new uniform for months.[28] Combatants United States of America Confederate States of America Commanders Ambrose E. Burnside Robert E. Lee Strength Army of the Potomac ~114,000 engaged Army of Northern Virginia ~72,500 engaged Casualties 12,653 (1,284 killed, 9,600 wounded, 1,769 captured/missing) 5,377 (608 killed, 4,116... is the 327th day of the year (328th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Watergate conspirator, see Jeb Stuart Magruder. ...


Chancellorsville

At the Battle of Chancellorsville, the Army of Northern Virginia was faced with a serious threat by the Army of the Potomac and its new commanding general, Major General Joseph Hooker. General Lee decided to employ a risky tactic to take the initiative and offensive away from Hooker's new southern thrust—he decided to divide his forces. Jackson and his entire corps were sent on an aggressive flanking maneuver to the right of the Union lines. This flanking movement would be one of the most successful and dramatic of the war. While riding with his infantry in a wide berth well south and west of the Federal line of battle, Jackson employed Maj. Gen. Fitzhugh Lee's cavalry to provide for better reconnaissance in regards to the exact location of the Union right and rear. The results were far better than even Jackson could have hoped. Lee found the entire right side of the Federal lines in the middle of open field, guarded merely by two guns that faced westward, as well as the supplies and rear encampments. The men were eating and playing games in carefree fashion, completely unaware that an entire Confederate corps was less than a mile away. What happened next is given in Lee's own words: Belligerents United States (Union) CSA (Confederacy) Commanders Joseph Hooker Robert E. Lee Stonewall Jackson† Strength 133,868 60,892 Casualties and losses 17,197 (1,606 killed, 9,672 wounded, 5,919 missing)[2] 12,764 (1,665 killed, 9,081 wounded, 2,018 missing)[2] The Battle of Chancellorsville... For the English botanist, see Joseph Dalton Hooker. ... Fitzhugh Lee in the Civil War Fitzhugh Lee (November 19, 1835 – April 18, 1905), nephew of Robert E. Lee, was a Confederate cavalry general in the American Civil War, Governor of Virginia, diplomat, and U.S. Army general in the Spanish-American War. ...

So impressed was I with my discovery, that I rode rapidly back to the point on the Plank road where I had left my cavalry, and back down the road Jackson was moving, until I met "Stonewall" himself. "General," said I, "if you will ride with me, halting your column here, out of sight, I will show you the enemy's right, and you will perceive the great advantage of attacking down the Old turnpike instead of the Plank road, the enemy's lines being taken in reverse. Bring only one courier, as you will be in view from the top of the hill." Jackson assented, and I rapidly conducted him to the point of observation. There had been no change in the picture.


I only knew Jackson slightly. I watched him closely as he gazed upon Howard's troops. It was then about 2 P.M. His eyes burned with a brilliant glow, lighting up a sad face. His expression was one of intense interest, his face was colored slightly with the paint of approaching battle, and radiant at the success of his flank movement. To the remarks made to him while the unconscious line of blue was pointed out, he did not reply once during the five minutes he was on the hill, and yet his lips were moving. From what I have read and heard of Jackson since that day, I know now what he was doing then. Oh! "beware of rashness," General Hooker. Stonewall Jackson is praying in full view and in rear of your right flank! While talking to the Great God of Battles, how could he hear what a poor cavalryman was saying. "Tell General Rodes," said he, suddenly whirling his horse towards the courier, "to move across the Old plank road; halt when he gets to the Old turnpike, and I will join him there." One more look upon the Federal lines, and then he rode rapidly down the hill, his arms flapping to the motion of his horse, over whose head it seemed, good rider as he was, he would certainly go. I expected to be told I had made a valuable personal reconnaissance—saving the lives of many soldiers, and that Jackson was indebted to me to that amount at least. Perhaps I might have been a little chagrined at Jackson's silence, and hence commented inwardly and adversely upon his horsemanship. Alas! I had looked upon him for the last time.

Fitzhugh Lee, address to the Association of the Army of Northern Virginia, 1879

Jackson immediately returned to his corps and arranged his divisions into a line of battle to charge directly into the oblivious Federal right. The Confederates marched silently until they were merely several hundred feet from the Union position, then released a bloodthirsty cry and full charge. Many of the Federals were captured without a shot fired, the rest were driven into a full rout. Jackson pursued relentlessly back toward the center of the Federal line until dusk.

The plantation office building where Stonewall Jackson died in Guinea Station, Virginia
The plantation office building where Stonewall Jackson died in Guinea Station, Virginia

Darkness ended the assault. As Jackson and his staff were returning to camp on May 2, they were mistaken for a Union cavalry force by a Confederate North Carolina regiment who shouted, "Halt, who goes there?," but fired before evaluating the reply. Jackson was hit by three bullets, two in the left arm and one in the right hand. Several other men in his staff were killed in addition to many horses. Darkness and confusion prevented Jackson from getting immediate care. He was dropped from his stretcher while being evacuated because of incoming artillery rounds. Because of his injuries, Jackson's left arm had to be amputated by Dr. Hunter McGuire. Jackson was moved to Thomas C. Chandler's 740 acres (3.0 km²) plantation named "Fairfield." He was offered Chandler's home for recovery, but Jackson refused and suggested using Chandler's plantation office building instead. He was thought to be out of harm's way, but unknown to the doctors, he already had classic symptoms of pneumonia, complaining of a sore chest. This soreness was mistakenly thought to be the result of his rough handling in the battlefield evacuation. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x766, 1255 KB) Summary Summary: The Stonewall Jackson Shrine is Thomas C. Chandlers Fairfield Plantation office building where General Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson died. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1024x766, 1255 KB) Summary Summary: The Stonewall Jackson Shrine is Thomas C. Chandlers Fairfield Plantation office building where General Thomas Jonathan Stonewall Jackson died. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Amputation is the removal of a body extremity by trauma or surgery. ... Dr. Hunter Holmes McGuire (1835-1900) of Virginia, noted physician and educator Hunter Holmes McGuire, M.D. (October 11, 1835-September 19, 1900) was a physician, teacher, and orator. ...


Death

Lee wrote to Jackson after learning of his injuries, stating "Could I have directed events, I would have chosen for the good of the country to be disabled in your stead."[29] Jackson died of complications of pneumonia on May 10, 1863. His dying words were, "Let us cross over the river and rest in the shade of the trees." His body was moved to the Governor's Mansion in Richmond for the public to mourn, and he was then moved to be buried in the Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery, Lexington, Virginia. However, the arm that was amputated on May 2 was buried separately by Jackson's chaplain, at the J. Horace Lacy house, "Ellwood", in the Wilderness of Spotsylvania County, near the field hospital. is the 130th day of the year (131st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1863 (MDCCCLXIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Spotsylvania County is a county located in the U.S. state — officially, Commonwealth — of Virginia. ...


Upon hearing of Jackson's death, Robert E. Lee mourned the loss of both a friend and a trusted commander. The night Lee learned of Jackson's death, he told his cook, "William, I have lost my right arm" (deliberately in contrast to Jackson's left arm) and "I'm bleeding at the heart." For other uses, see Robert E. Lee (disambiguation). ...


Legacy

"Stonewall" Jackson statue, Manassas Battlefield Park
"Stonewall" Jackson statue, Manassas Battlefield Park

Jackson is considered one of the great characters of the Civil War. He was profoundly religious, a deacon in the Presbyterian Church. He disliked fighting on Sunday, though that did not stop him from doing so. He loved his wife very much and sent her tender letters. In direct contrast to Lee, Jackson was not a striking figure, who often wore old, worn-out clothes rather than a fancy uniform, and sometimes looked more like a moth-eaten private than a corps commander. Download high resolution version (913x1201, 202 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (913x1201, 202 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Presbyterianism is a family of Christian denominations within the Reformed branch of Protestant Western Christianity. ...

Statue of Jackson near the State Capitol in Richmond, Virginia.

A recurring story concerns his love of lemons, which he allegedly gnawed whole to alleviate symptoms of dyspepsia. However, recent research[30] has found that none of his contemporaries recorded any unusual lemon habits and Jackson thought of a lemon as a "rare treat ... enjoyed greatly whenever it could obtained from the enemy's camp". He was fond of all fruits, particularly peaches. He held a lifelong belief that one of his arms was longer than the other, and thus usually held the "longer" arm up to equalize his circulation. He was described as a "champion sleeper", even falling asleep with food in his mouth occasionally. He also became noted throughout the Confederate Army for leading his troops in complete circles. It has even been hypothesized that Jackson had Asperger syndrome.[31] Jackson also suffered a significant hearing loss in both of his ears as a result of his prior service in the U.S. Army as an artillery officer. Asperger syndrome (also Aspergers syndrome, Aspergers disorder, Aspergers, or AS) is one of several autism spectrum disorders (ASD) characterized by difficulties in social interaction and by restricted and stereotyped interests and activities. ...


In command, Jackson was extremely secretive about his plans and extremely punctilious about military discipline. This secretive nature did not stand him in good stead with his subordinates, who were often not aware of his overall operational intentions and complained of being left out of key decisions.[32]


Jackson had a poor reputation as a horseman. One of his soldiers, Georgia volunteer William Andrews, wrote that Jackson was "a very ordinary looking man of medium size, his uniform badly soiled as though it had seen hard service. He wore a cap pulled down nearly to his nose and was riding a rawboned horse that did not look much like a charger, unless it would be on hay or clover. He certainly made a poor figure on a horseback, with his stirrup leather six inches too short, putting his knees nearly level with his horse's back, and his heels turned out with his toes sticking behind his horse's foreshoulder. A sorry description of our most famous general, but a correct one."[33] His horse was named "Little Sorrel" (also known as "Old Sorrel"), a small sorrel gelding.[34] He rode Little Sorrel throughout the war, and was riding him when he was shot at Chancellorsville. Little Sorrel died at age 36 and is buried near a statue of Jackson on the parade grounds of VMI. (His mounted hide is on display in the VMI Museum.)[35]


The South mourned his death; he was greatly admired there. A poem penned by one of his soldiers soon became a very popular song, "Stonewall Jackson's Way." Many theorists through the years have postulated that if Jackson had lived, Lee might have prevailed at Gettysburg.[36] Certainly Jackson's iron discipline and brilliant tactical sense were sorely missed, and might well have carried an extremely close-fought battle. He is buried at Lexington, Virginia, near VMI, in the Stonewall Jackson Memorial Cemetery. He is memorialized on Georgia's Stone Mountain, in Richmond on historic Monument Avenue, on the grounds of the state capitol in his native West Virginia, and in many other places. Stonewall Jacksons Way is a poem penned during the American Civil War that later became a well-known patriotic song of the Confederate States of America and the Southern United States. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing... The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ... This article is about Stone Mountain in Georgia, USA. For other uses, see Stone Mountain (disambiguation). ... Nickname: Motto: Sic Itur Ad Astra (Thus do we reach the stars) Location in the Commonwealth of Virginia Coordinates: , Country State Government  - Mayor L. Douglas Wilder (I) Area  - City 62. ... Jefferson Davis monument on Monument Avenue, Richmond, Virginia Monument Avenue, in Richmond, Virginia, memorializes Virginian native Confederate participants of the Civil War and one 20th century Richmond native. ...

General Lee's last visit to Stonewall Jackson's grave, painting by Louis Eckhardt, 1872.
General Lee's last visit to Stonewall Jackson's grave, painting by Louis Eckhardt, 1872.

Lee could trust Jackson with deliberately non-detailed orders that conveyed Lee's overall objectives, what modern doctrine calls the "end state." This was because Jackson had a talent for understanding Lee's sometimes unstated goals and Lee trusted Jackson with the ability to take whatever actions were necessary to implement his end state requirements. Many of Lee's subsequent corps commanders did not have this disposition. At Gettysburg, this resulted in lost opportunities. Thus, after the Federals retreated to the heights south of town, Lee sent one of his new corps commanders, Richard S. Ewell, discretionary orders that the heights (Cemetery Hill and Culp's Hill) be taken "if practicable." Without Jackson's intuitive grasp of Lee's orders and the intuition to take advantage of sudden tactical opportunities, Ewell chose not to attempt the assault, and this failure is considered by historians to be the greatest missed opportunity of the battle.[37] Richard S. Ewell Richard Stoddert Ewell (February 8, 1817 – January 25, 1872) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general during the American Civil War. ... Jubal Earlys attack on East Cemetery Hill, July 2, 1863, engraving from The Century Magazine. ... Battle of Gettysburg Conflict American Civil War Date July 1–3, 1863 Place Adams County Result Union victory The Battle of Gettysburg (July 1–3, 1863), fought in and around the town of Gettysburg, Pennsylvania, as part of the Gettysburg Campaign, was the largest battle ever conducted in North America...


After the war, Jackson's wife and young daughter Julia moved from Lexington to North Carolina. Mary Anna Jackson wrote two books about her husband's life, including some of his letters. She never remarried, and was known as the "Widow of the Confederacy", living until 1915. His daughter Julia married, and bore children, but she died of typhoid fever at the age of 26 years.


A former Confederate soldier who admired Jackson, Captain Thomas R. Ranson of Staunton, Virginia, also remembered the tragic life of Jackson's mother. Years after the War, he went to the tiny mountain hamlet of Ansted in Fayette County, West Virginia, and had a marble marker placed over the unmarked grave of Julia Neale Jackson in Westlake Cemetery, to make sure that the site was not lost forever. Captain Thomas R. Ranson of Staunton in Augusta County, Virginia was a member of the Confederate Army and served in the Stonewall Brigade under General Thomas Jonathon Stonewall Jackson during the American Civil War. ... West Beverley Street in downtown Staunton Staunton (IPA: or STAN-tehn or STANT-en) is an independent city within the confines of Augusta County in the commonwealth of Virginia. ... A scenic view of the New River Valley from Lovers Leap in Hawks Nest State Park, Ansted, West Virginia Ansted is a town located in Fayette County in the U.S. state of West Virginia. ... Fayette County is a county located in the state of West Virginia. ... Julia Neale Jackson (1789-1831) was the mother of Confederate General Thomas Jonathon Stonewall Jackson. ...


West Virginia's Stonewall Jackson State Park is named in his honor. Nearby, at Stonewall Jackson's historical childhood home, his Uncle's grist mill is the centerpiece of a historical site at the Jackson's Mill Center for Lifelong Learning and State 4-H Camp. The facility, located near Weston, serves as a special campus for West Virginia University and the WVU Extension Service. Official language(s) none (de facto English) Demonym West Virginian Capital Charleston Largest city Charleston Largest metro area Charleston metro area Area  Ranked 41st in the US  - Total 24,230 sq mi (62,755 km²)  - Width 130 miles (210 km)  - Length 240 miles (385 km)  - % water 0. ... Weston is a city in Lewis County, West Virginia along the West Fork River. ... West Virginia University is an institution of higher learning based in Morgantown, West Virginia, USA. Other campuses include: West Virginia University at Parkersburg in Parkersburg; West Virginia University Institute of Technology in Montgomery; Potomac State College of West Virginia University in Keyser; and a clinical campus for the Universitys...


The United States Navy submarine U.S.S. Stonewall Jackson (SSBN 634), commissioned in 1964, was named for him. The words "Strength—Mobility" are emblazoned on the ship's banner, words taken from letters written by General Jackson. It was the third U.S. Navy ship named for him. The submarine was decommissioned in 1995. During World War II, the Navy named a Liberty ship the SS T.J. Jackson in his honor. USN redirects here. ... USS Stonewall Jackson (SSBN-634), a James Madison-class ballistic missile submarine, was the third ship of the United States Navy to be named for General Thomas J. Jackson, CSA, though the earlier two were known simply as Stonewall. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000... The Liberty ships were cargo ships built in the United States during World War II. They were cheap and quick to build, and came to symbolize U.S. wartime industrial output. ...


The Commonwealth of Virginia honors Jackson's birthday on Lee-Jackson Day, a state holiday observed as such since 1904. It is currently observed on the Friday preceding the third Monday in January. Lee-Jackson Day is a holiday celebrated in the Commonwealth of Virginia for the birthdays of Robert E. Lee and Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson. ...

Davis, Lee, and Jackson on Stone Mountain.
Davis, Lee, and Jackson on Stone Mountain.

Jackson also appears prominently in the enormous bas-relief carving on the face of Stone Mountain riding with Jefferson Davis and Robert E. Lee. The carving depicts the three on horseback, appearing to ride in a group from right to left across the mountainside. The lower parts of the horses' bodies merge into the mountainside at the foot of the carving. The three riders are shown bare-headed and holding their hats to their chests. It is the largest such carving in the world. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1462x1010, 805 KB) Cropped giant image at http://commons. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1462x1010, 805 KB) Cropped giant image at http://commons. ... This article is about Stone Mountain in Georgia, USA. For other uses, see Stone Mountain (disambiguation). ... Bas relief is a method of sculpting which entails carving or etching away the surface of a flat piece of stone or metal. ... This article is about Stone Mountain in Georgia, USA. For other uses, see Stone Mountain (disambiguation). ...


Stonewall Jackson appeared on the CSA $500 bill (7th Issue, February 17, 1864). is the 48th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1864 (MDCCCLXIV) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ...


In popular media

Jackson is featured prominently in the novel and film Gods and Generals. In the film, he is portrayed by Stephen Lang. For other uses, see Gods and Generals (disambiguation). ... Stephen Lang (b. ...


Jackson survives the Civil War, and commands Confederate Forces in the Second Mexican War, in Harry Turtledove's Timeline-191 series of alternate history novels. Belligerents United States of America Confederate States of America United Kingdom France Mormon Rebels Kiowa Indians Apache Indians Commanders James G. Blaine William Rosecrans John Pope Theodore Roosevelt George A. Custer Orlando B. Willcox James Longstreet Stonewall Jackson Jeb Stuart † E. Porter Alexander Satanta Geronimo In Harry Turtledoves fictional... Harry Norman Turtledove (born June 14, 1949) is an American historian and prolific novelist who has written historical fiction, fantasy, and science fiction works. ... Timeline-191 is a fan name given to a series of Harry Turtledove alternate history novels. ... Alternate history (fiction) - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ...


In the DC comic, Jonah Hex (Jonah Hex #37), years after the Civil War, an old man tells the story of how Hex meets General Jackson and undertakes a special mission for him. At the end, the old man reveals that, although every boy North and South has learned in school that General "Stonewall" Jackson was accidentally shot by his own men, few know that the bullet that hit him was fired by Jonah Hex. Jonah Hex is a Western comic book anti-hero, created by writer John Albano and artist Tony DeZuniga, and published by DC Comics. ...


Quotations

Always mystify, mislead, and surprise the enemy, if possible; and when you strike and overcome him, never let up in the pursuit so long as your men have strength to follow; for an army routed, if hotly pursued, becomes panic-stricken, and can then be destroyed by half their number. The other rule is, never fight against heavy odds, if by any possible maneuvering you can hurl your own force on only a part, and that the weakest part, of your enemy and crush it. Such tactics will win every time, and a small army may thus destroy a large one in detail, and repeated victory will make it invincible.[38]


—Jackson to General Imboden

To move swiftly, strike vigorously, and secure all the fruits of victory, is the secret of successful war.[39]


—Jackson, 1863

The only true rule for cavalry is to follow the enemy as long as he retreats.[40]


—Jackson to Colonel Munford on June 13, 1862 is the 164th day of the year (165th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about 1862 . ...

War means fighting. The business of the soldier is to fight. Armies are not called out to dig trenches, to throw up breastworks, to live in camps, but to find the enemy and strike him; to invade his country, and do him all possible damage in the shortest possible time. This will involve great destruction of life and property while it lasts; but such a war will of necessity be of brief continuance, and so would be an economy of life and property in the end.[41]


—Jackson

"Let us cross over the river, and rest under the shade of the trees." -Jackson


See also

Military of the United States Portal
  • George Francis Robert Henderson (biographer) and his work Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War
  • William B. Ebbert, 1st Lt., W. Virginia Infantry, Union Army. (1923 quote recalling battle of Winchester, March 1862)

Image File history File links Naval_Jack_of_the_United_States. ... George Francis Robert Henderson (1854-1903) was a British soldier and military author. ... William Baltzell Ebbert (February 28, 1846-February 27, 1927) was an officer and adjutant in the Union Army (1st Regiment West Virginia Infantry Volunteers), a Colorado legislator, newspaper publisher, author, farmer, businessman, and poet. ...

References

  • Alexander, Bevin, Lost Victories: The Military Genius of Stonewall Jackson, Hippocrene Books, 2004, ISBN 0-7818-1036-1.
  • Bryson, Bill, A Walk in the Woods, Broadway, 1998, ISBN 0-7679-0251-3.
  • Burns, Ken, The Civil War, PBS television series, 1990.
  • Eicher, John H., and Eicher, David J., Civil War High Commands, Stanford University Press, 2001, ISBN 0-8047-3641-3.
  • Freeman, Douglas S., Lee's Lieutenants: A Study in Command (3 volumes), Scribners, 1946, ISBN 0-684-85979-3.
  • Freeman, Douglas S., R. E. Lee, A Biography (4 volumes), Scribners, 1934.
  • Henderson, G. F. R., Stonewall Jackson and the American Civil War, Smithmark reprint, 1995, ISBN 0-8317-3288-1.
  • McPherson, James M., Battle Cry of Freedom: The Civil War Era (Oxford History of the United States), Oxford University Press, 1988, ISBN 0-19-503863-0.
  • Robertson, James I., Jr., Stonewall Jackson: The Man, The Soldier, The Legend, MacMillan Publishing, 1997, ISBN 0-02-864685-1.
  • Sears, Stephen W., Gettysburg, Houghton Mifflin, 2003, ISBN 0-395-86761-4.
  • Sharlet, Jeff, "Through a Glass, Darkly: How the Christian right is reimagining U.S. history," Harpers, December 2006.
  • Underwood, Robert, and Buel, Clarence C. (eds.), Battles and Leaders of the Civil War, Century Co., 1884-1888.
  • Wert, Jeffry D., General James Longstreet: The Confederacy's Most Controversial Soldier: A Biography, Simon & Schuster, 1993, ISBN 0-671-70921-6.
  • Jackson genealogy site at Virginia Military Institute

William McGuire Bill Bryson, OBE, (born December 8, 1951 in Des Moines, Iowa) is a best-selling American author of humorous books on travel, as well as books on the English language and on scientific subjects. ... A Walk in the Woods is a book by Bill Bryson describing his attempt to walk the Appalachian Trail with his childhood friend Katz. ... Kenneth Lauren Burns (born July 29, 1953) is an American director and producer of documentary films known for his style of making use of original prints and photographs. ... The Civil War was a highly popular and acclaimed PBS documentary about the American Civil War created by Sam Sim, and released on PBS in September 1990. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Douglas Southall Freeman (May 16, 1886 – June 13, 1953) was an American journalist and historian. ... Douglas Southall Freeman (May 16, 1886 – June 13, 1953) was an American journalist and historian. ... George Francis Robert Henderson (1854-1903) was a British soldier and military author. ... For the Civil War General of a similar name see James B. McPherson James M. McPherson (born October 11, 1936) is an American Civil War historian, and is the George Henry Davis 86 Professor Emeritus of United States History at Princeton University. ... The Virginia Military Institute (VMI), located in Lexington, Virginia, is the oldest state military college in the United States. ...

Notes

  1. ^ Eicher, p. 316; Robertson, p. 7. The physician, Dr. James McCally, recalls delivering baby Thomas just before midnight on January 20, but the family has insisted since then that he was born in the first minutes of January 21. The later date is the one generally acknowledged in biographies.
  2. ^ Jackson biography at Civil War Home.
  3. ^ Roberston, p. 746.
  4. ^ Robertson, pp. 1-2.
  5. ^ Robertson, pp. 2-3.
  6. ^ VMI Jackson genealogy site; Robertson, p. 4.
  7. ^ Robertson, p. 7.
  8. ^ Robertson, p. 8.
  9. ^ Robertson, p. 10.
  10. ^ Robertson, p. 17.
  11. ^ Robertson, p. 69.
  12. ^ Robertson, pp. 108-10. He left the Army on March 21, 1851, but stayed on the rolls, officially on furlough, for nine months. His resignation took effect formally on February 29, 1852, and he joined the VMI faculty in August 1851.
  13. ^ Virginia Military Institute Archives: Stonewall Jackson FAQ
  14. ^ Jackson, Mary Anna, Memoirs of Stonewall Jackson, by His Widow (Louisville, Ky, 1895), 78.
  15. ^ Robertson, p. 169.
  16. ^ Robertson, pp. 191-92.
  17. ^ Jackson, 152.
  18. ^ Robertson, p. 191.
  19. ^ Archibald Alexander travelogue of Lexington.
  20. ^ Robertson, p. 157.
  21. ^ a b Eicher, p. 316.
  22. ^ Freeman, Lee's Lieutenants, vol. 1, p. 82; Robertson, p. 264. McPherson, p. 342, reports the quotation after "stone wall" as being "Rally around the Virginians!"
  23. ^ See, for instance, Goldfield, David, et al., The American Journey: A History of the United States, Prentice Hall, 1999, ISBN 0-13-088243-7. There are additional controversies about what Bee said and whether he said anything at all. See Freeman, Lee's Lieutenants, vol. 1, pp. 733–34.
  24. ^ McPherson, p. 342.
  25. ^ See, for instance, Freeman, R.E. Lee, vol. 2, p. 247: "... by every test, Jackson had failed throughout the Seven Days." Confederate politician Robert Toombs wrote that "Stonewall Jackson and his troops did little or nothing in these battles of the Chickahominy" (Robertson, p. 504).
  26. ^ Wert, p. 206.
  27. ^ Robertson, p. 645.
  28. ^ Robertson, p. 630.
  29. ^ Robertson, p. 739
  30. ^ Robertson, p. xi.
  31. ^ Fitzgerald, Michael, Society of Clinical Psychologists paper.
  32. ^ Robertson, p. xiv.
  33. ^ Robertson, p. 499.
  34. ^ Robertson, p. 230.
  35. ^ [http://users.erols.com/va-udc/sorrell.html "Little Sorrel Buried at VMI July 20, 1997"; Robertson, p. 922, n. 16.
  36. ^ See, for instance, Sears, Gettysburg, pp. 233-34. Alternative theories about Gettysburg are prominent ideas in the literature about the Lost Cause.
  37. ^ Battle of Gettysburg.
  38. ^ Underwood and Buel, Vol.2, p. 297.
  39. ^ Henderson, Vol. 2, chapter XXV, p. 481.
  40. ^ Henderson, Vol. 1, chapter XI, S. 392.
  41. ^ Henderson, Vol. 2, chapter XXV, p. 481.

is the 20th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 21st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 80th day of the year (81st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1851 (MDCCCLI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Friday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... February 29 is a day added into a leap year of the Gregorian calendar. ... 1852 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Postbellum photograph of Robert A. Toombs. ... George Washington Custis Lee, 1832-1913, on horseback, with staff reviewing Confederate Reunion Parade in Richmond, Virginia, June 3, 1907, in front of monument to Jefferson Davis. ... Combatants United States of America (Union) Confederate States of America Commanders George G. Meade Robert E. Lee Strength 93,921[1] 71,699[2] Casualties 23,055 (3,155 killed, 14,531 wounded, 5,369 captured/missing)[1] 23,231 (4,708 killed, 12,693 wounded, 5,830 captured/missing...

Further reading

  • Addey, Markfield, Stonewall Jackson: Life and Military Career (New York, 1863)
  • Chambers, Lenoir, Stonewall Jackson (Two Volumes, New York, 1959)
  • Cooke, J. E., Stonewall Jackson: A Military Biography (New York, 1876)
  • Dabney, R. L., Life of General T. J. (Stonewall) Jackson (New York, 1866)
  • Jackson, M. A. M., Memoirs (Louisville, 1895)
  • McGuire and Christian, Confederate Cause and Conduct in the War between the States (Richmond, 1907)
  • White, H. A., Stonewall Jackson (Philadelphia, 1909)
  • Wilkins, J. Steven, All Things for Good: The Steadfast Fidelity of Stonewall Jackson, Cumberland House Publishing, 2004, ISBN 1-58182-225-1.
  • Williamson, M. L., Life of General Thomas F. [sic] Jackson (Richmond, 1901)

John Esten Cooke (1830 - 1886), novelist, born in Virginia, illustrated the life and history of his native state in the novels, The Virginia Comedians (1854), and The Wearing of the Gray, a tale of the Civil War, and more formally in an excellent History of the State. ... R. L. Dabney Robert Lewis Dabney (March 5, 1820 — January 3, 1898) was an American Christian theologian, a Southern Presbyterian pastor, and Confederate Army chaplain. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Stonewall Jackson
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Military offices
Preceded by
(none)
Commander of the Stonewall Brigade
April 27, 1861October 28, 1861
Succeeded by
Richard B. Garnett

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ... Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... The original Wikisource logo. ... The Stonewall Brigade of the Confederate Army during the American Civil War, was one of the most famous combat units in United States history. ... is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1861 (MDCCCLXI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Possible portrait of Richard B. Garnett Richard Brooke Garnett (November 21, 1817 – July 3, 1863) was a career U.S. Army officer and a Confederate general in the American Civil War, killed during Picketts Charge at the Battle of Gettysburg. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Stonewall Jackson (1264 words)
Jackson had not at any time of his life yielded to the vices, and was in all habits strictly moral, but had given no particular attention to the duties enjoined by the church.
The only special incident occurring amidst the educational and domestic life of Major Jackson, which flowed on serenely from this hour, was the summons of the cadets of the Institute by Governor Letcher, to proceed to Harper's Ferry on the occasion of the raid of John Brown in 1859.
Jackson's valuable service was given to Virginia in the occupation of Harper's Ferry and several subsequent small affairs, but his fame became general from the battle of First Manassas.
Stonewall Jackson Civil War Confederate General (2193 words)
Jackson's military feats had elevated him to near mythical proportions, in both North and South, when in the midst of one of his most brilliant maneuvers, he was mistakenly shot by his own men on the night of May 2, 1863 at the The Battle of Chancellorsville.
Jackson displayed ineffective leadership which stood in stark contrast to the brilliance of the Shenandoah Valley campaign; the reasons for this uncharacteristic military failure is still debated among Jackson scholars.
Stonewall" Jackson is widely regarded as one of the greatest of the Confederate commanders of the Civil War.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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