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Encyclopedia > Stonehenge
Stonehenge, Avebury,
and Associated Sites
*
UNESCO World Heritage Site

Stonehenge in 2004
State Party Flag of the United Kingdom United Kingdom
Type Unknown — though most likely Religious.
Criteria i, ii, iii
Reference 373
Region List of World Heritage Sites in Europe
Inscription history
Inscription 1986  (10th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.
Map showing the location of Stonehenge

Stonehenge is a prehistoric monument located in the English county of Wiltshire, about 8 miles (13 km) north of Salisbury. One of the most famous prehistoric sites in the world, Stonehenge is composed of earthworks surrounding a circular setting of large standing stones. Archaeologists believe that the standing stones were erected around 2200 BC and the surrounding circular earth bank and ditch, which constitute the earliest phase of the monument, have been dated to about 3100 BC. The site and its surroundings were added to the UNESCO's list of World Heritage Sites in 1986 in a co-listing with Avebury henge monument, and it is also a legally protected Scheduled Ancient Monument. Stonehenge itself is owned by the Crown and managed by English Heritage while the surrounding land is owned by the National Trust.[1][2] Stonehenge is an ancient stone monument in England. ... Avebury Henge and Village Avebury is the site of a large henge and several stone circles in the English county of Wiltshire at grid reference SU103699, surrounding the village of Avebury (its geographical location is 51°25′43″N, 1°51′15″W). ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Download high resolution version (1752x1196, 311 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_the_United_Kingdom. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... This is a list of the UNESCO World Heritage Sites in Europe. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 504 × 600 pixelsFull resolution‎ (600 × 714 pixels, file size: 326 KB, MIME type: image/png) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Red_pog2. ... For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Not to be confused with Wilshire. ... This article is about the city in the United Kingdom. ... Stonehenge, England, erected by Neolithic peoples ca. ... In archaeology, Earthworks are artificial changes in land level often known as lumps and bumps. ... Standing stones, orthostats, liths or more commonly, megaliths because of their large and cumbersome size, are solitary stones set vertically in the ground. ... For referencing in Wikipedia, see Wikipedia:Citing sources. ... UNESCO (United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization) is a specialized agency of the United Nations established in 1945. ... Elabana Falls is in Lamington National Park, part of the Central Eastern Rainforest Reserves World Heritage site in Queensland, Australia. ... Avebury Henge and Village Avebury is the site of a large henge and several stone circles in the English county of Wiltshire at grid reference SU103699, surrounding the village of Avebury (its geographical location is 51°25′43″N, 1°51′15″W). ... Archaeologists use the term henge monument to describe a site where a henge is combined with other features such as stone circles, standing stones, barrows, cairns or timber circles. ... A Scheduled Ancient Monument is defined in the Ancient Monuments and Archaeological Areas Act 1979 and the National Heritage Act 1983 of the United Kingdom government. ... This article refers to the Commonwealths concept of the monarchys legal authority. ... The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... The site of the Cursus, part of the NT Stonehenge Landscape The Stonehenge Landscape is a property of The National Trust, located near Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ...

Contents

Etymology

Christopher Chippindale's Stonehenge Complete gives the derivation of the name Stonehenge as coming from the Old English words "stān" meaning "stone", and either "hencg" meaning "hinge" (because the stone lintels hinge on the upright stones) or "hen(c)en" meaning "hang" or "gallows" or "instrument of torture". Medieval gallows consisted of two uprights with a lintel joining them, resembling Stonehenge's trilithons, rather than looking like the inverted L-shape more familiar today. Christopher Chippindale is a British archaeologist, most well-known for his work on Stonehenge. ... Old English redirects here. ... A hinge is a type of bearing that connects two solid objects, typically allowing only a limited angle of rotation between them. ... Look up hang in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... These gallows in Tombstone Courthouse State Historic Park are maintained by Arizona State Parks. ... Trilithon entrance, Mnajdra temple A trilithon at Stonehenge A trilithon (or trilith) is a structure consisting of two large vertical stones (posts) supporting a third stone set horizontally across the top (lintel). ...


The "henge" portion has given its name to a class of monuments known as henges. Archaeologists define henges as earthworks consisting of a circular banked enclosure with an internal ditch. As often happens in archaeological terminology, this is a holdover from antiquarian usage, and Stonehenge is not truly a henge site as its bank is inside its ditch. Despite being contemporary with true Neolithic henges and stone circles, Stonehenge is in many ways atypical. For example, its extant trilithons make it unique. Stonehenge is only distantly related to the other stone circles in the British Isles, such as the Ring of Brodgar.[citation needed] A henge is a roughly circular or oval-shaped flat area over 20m in diameter which is enclosed and delimited by a boundary earthwork that usually comprises a ditch with an external bank. ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... An array of Neolithic artifacts, including bracelets, axe heads, chisels, and polishing tools. ... Swinside stone circle, in the Lake District, England. ... This article describes the archipelago in north-western Europe. ... The Ring of Brodgar The Ring of Brodgar (or Brogar) is a Neolithic henge and stone circle in Orkney, Scotland. ...


History

Plan of Stonehenge today. After Cleal et al. and Pitts.
Plan of Stonehenge today. After Cleal et al. and Pitts.

The Stonehenge complex was built in several construction phases spanning at least 3000 years, although there is evidence for activity both before and afterwards on the site, perhaps extending its time frame to 6500 years. Download high resolution version (1220x1188, 180 KB)Drawn by User:Adamsan from other sources  ? Key to plan: 1 = Altar Stone, a six ton monolith of green micaceous sandstone from Wales 2 = barrow without a burial 3 = barrow without a burial 4 = the fallen Slaughter Stone, 4. ... Download high resolution version (1220x1188, 180 KB)Drawn by User:Adamsan from other sources  ? Key to plan: 1 = Altar Stone, a six ton monolith of green micaceous sandstone from Wales 2 = barrow without a burial 3 = barrow without a burial 4 = the fallen Slaughter Stone, 4. ...


Dating and understanding the various phases of activity at Stonehenge is not a simple task; it is complicated by poorly kept early excavation records, surprisingly few accurate scientific dates and the disturbance of the natural chalk by periglacial effects and animal burrowing. The modern phasing most generally agreed by archaeologists is detailed below. Features mentioned in the text are numbered and shown on the plan, right, which illustrates the site as of 2004. The plan omits the trilithon lintels for clarity. Holes that no longer, or never, contained stones are shown as open circles and stones visible today are shown coloured. The term archaeological excavation has a double meaning. ... The Needles, situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... Periglacial refers to places in the edges of glacial areas, normally those related to past ice ages rather than those in the modern era. ...


Before the monument (8000 BC forward)

Some archaeologists have found four (or possibly five, although one may have been a natural tree throw) large Mesolithic postholes which date to around 8000 BC nearby, beneath the modern tourist car-park. These held pine posts around 0.75 m (2.4ft) in diameter which were erected and left to rot in situ. Three of the posts (and possibly four) were in an east-west alignment and may have had ritual significance; no parallels are known from Britain at the time but similar sites have been found in Scandinavia. At this time, Salisbury Plain was still wooded but four thousand years later, during the earlier Neolithic, a cursus monument was built 600 m north of the site as the first farmers began to clear the forest and exploit the area. Several other early Neolithic sites, a causewayed enclosure at Robin Hood's Ball and long barrow tombs were built in the surrounding landscape. A tree throw or tree hole is a bowl-shapped cavity or depression created in the subsoil by a tree. ... The Mesolithic (Greek mesos=middle and lithos=stone or the Middle Stone Age[1]) was a period in the development of human technology between the Paleolithic and Neolithic periods of the Stone Age. ... In archaeology a posthole is a cut feature used to hold a surface timber or stone. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Subgenera Subgenus Strobus Subgenus Ducampopinus Subgenus Pinus See Pinus classification for complete taxonomy to species level. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Scandinavia (disambiguation). ... This article is about the plateau in southern England; Salisbury Plain is also an area on South Georgia Island. ... Cursus was a name given by early British archaeologists such as William Stukeley to the large parallel lengths of banks with external ditches which they thought were early Roman athletics tracks, hence the Latin name Cursus, meaning Circus. Cursus monuments are now understood to be Neolithic structures and may have... Causewayed enclosures are a type of large prehistoric earthworks common to the early Neolithic Europe. ... Robin Hoods Ball is the name of a Neolithic causewayed enclosure near Amesbury in the English county of Wiltshire. ... A long barrow is a prehistoric monument dating to the Neolithic period. ...


Stonehenge 1 (ca. 3100 BC)

Stonehenge 1. After Cleal et al.
Stonehenge 1. After Cleal et al.

The first monument consisted of a circular bank and ditch enclosure made of Late Cretaceous (Santonian Age) Seaford Chalk, (7 and 8) measuring around 110 m (360 feet) in diameter with a large entrance to the north east and a smaller one to the south (14). It stood in open grassland on a slightly sloping but not especially remarkable spot. The builders placed the bones of deer and oxen in the bottom of the ditch as well as some worked flint tools. The bones were considerably older than the antler picks used to dig the ditch and the people who buried them had looked after them for some time prior to burial. The ditch itself was continuous but had been dug in sections, like the ditches of the earlier causewayed enclosures in the area. The chalk dug from the ditch was piled up to form the bank. This first stage is dated to around 3100 BC after which the ditch began to silt up naturally and was not cleared out by the builders. Within the outer edge of the enclosed area was dug a circle of 56 pits, each around 1 m in diameter (13), known as the Aubrey holes after John Aubrey, the seventeenth century antiquarian who was thought to have first identified them. The pits may have contained standing timbers, creating a timber circle although there is no excavated evidence of them. A small outer bank beyond the ditch could also date to this period. Download high resolution version (1220x1188, 135 KB)drawn by me File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (1220x1188, 135 KB)drawn by me File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Geography of the US in the Late Cretaceous Period Late Cretaceous (100mya - 65mya) refers to the second half of the Cretaceous Period, named after the famous white chalk cliffs of southern England, which date from this time. ... The Santonian is a stage of the Late Cretaceous Epoch. ... The Needles, situated on the Isle Of Wight, are part of the extensive Southern England Chalk Formation. ... The Konza tallgrass prairie in the Flint Hills of northeastern Kansas. ... This article is about the ruminent animal. ... Binomial name Bos taurus Linnaeus, 1758 Cattle are domesticated ungulates, a member of the subfamily Bovinae of the family Bovidae. ... This article is about the sedimentary rock. ... Aubrey holes are a ring of 56 pits at Stonehenge named after the seventeenth century antiquarian, John Aubrey. ... For other persons named John Aubrey, see John Aubrey (disambiguation). ... An antiquarian or antiquary is one concerned with antiquities or things of the past. ... In archaeology, a timber circle is a circular arrangement of wooden posts. ...


Stonehenge 2 (ca. 3000 BC)

Evidence of the second phase is no longer visible. It appears from the number of postholes dating to this period that some form of timber structure was built within the enclosure during the early 3rd millennium BC. Further standing timbers were placed at the northeast entrance and a parallel alignment of posts ran inwards from the southern entrance. The postholes are smaller than the Aubrey Holes, being only around 0.4 m in diameter and are much less regularly spaced. The bank was purposely reduced in height and the ditch continued to silt up. At least twenty-five of the Aubrey Holes are known to have contained later, intrusive, cremation burials dating to the two centuries after the monument's inception. It seems that whatever the holes' initial function, it changed to become a funerary one during Phase 2. Thirty further cremations were placed in the enclosure's ditch and at other points within the monument, mostly in the eastern half. Stonehenge is therefore interpreted as functioning as an enclosed cremation cemetery at this time, the earliest known cremation cemetery in the British Isles. Fragments of unburnt human bone have also been found in the ditch fill. Late Neolithic grooved ware pottery has been found in connection with the features from this phase providing dating evidence. The crematorium at Haycombe Cemetery, Bath, England. ... Enclosed cremation cemetery is term used by archaeologists to describe a type of cemetery found in north western Europe during the late Neolithic and early Bronze Age. ... Castle Ashby Graveyard Northamptonshire A cemetery is a place in which dead bodies and cremated remains are buried. ... Grooved ware is the name given to a pottery style of the British Neolithic. ...


Stonehenge 3 I (ca. 2600 BC)

Archaeological excavation has indicated that around 2600 BC, timber was abandoned in favour of stone and two concentric crescents of holes (called the Q and R Holes) were dug in the centre of the site. Again, there is little firm dating evidence for this phase. The holes held up to 80 standing stones (shown blue on the plan) 43 of which, the bluestones (dolerite, a holocrystine igneous rock), were thought for much of the 20th century to have been transported by humans from the Preseli Hills, 250 km away in modern day Pembrokeshire in Wales. A newer theory is that they were brought from glacial deposits much nearer the site, which had been carried down from the northern side of the Preselis to southern England by the Irish Sea Glacier.[3] Other standing stones may well have been small sarsens, used later as lintels. The stones, which weighed about four tons, consisted mostly of spotted Ordovician dolerite but included examples of rhyolite, tuff and volcanic and calcareous ash. Each measures around 2 m in height, between 1 m and 1.5 m wide and around 0.8 m thick. What was to become known as the Altar Stone (1), a six-ton specimen of green micaceous Silurian-Devonian sandstone, twice the height of the bluestones, is derived from either South Pembrokeshire or the Brecon Beacons and may have stood as a single large monolith. Bluestone is the name given to a form of dolerite which appears blue when wet or freshly broken. ... Categories: Mountains and hills of south Wales | Pembrokeshire ... Pembrokeshire (Welsh: ) is a county in the southwest of Wales in the United Kingdom. ... This article is about the country. ... It is known that during the Ice Age, probably on more than one occasion, a huge glacier referred to as The Irish Sea Glacier flowed southwards from its source areas in Scotland and Northern Ireland and across the Isle of Man, Anglesey and Pembrokeshire. ... Artist impression of the Ordovician Sea. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Diabase. ... This page is about a volcanic rock. ... Welded tuff at Golden Gate in Yellowstone National Park Tuff (from the Italian tufo) is a type of rock consisting of consolidated volcanic ash ejected from vents during a volcanic eruption. ... The Altar stone is a central megalith at Stonehenge in England, dating to Stonehnege phase 3i, around 2600 BC. It is made of green micaceous sandstone and originated from a quarry in Wales. ... For other uses, see Silurian (disambiguation). ... For the Celtic language, see Southwestern Brythonic language; for the residents of the English county, see Devon. ... Red sandstone interior of Lower Antelope Canyon, Arizona, worn smooth due to erosion by flash flooding over millions of years Sandstone is a sedimentary rock composed mainly of sand-size mineral or rock grains. ... South Pembrokeshire was a local government district of Dyfed, Wales from 1974 to 1996. ... Part of the Brecon Beacons, looking from the highest point Pen y Fan, 886 m (2907 feet), to Cribyn, 795 m (2608 feet) The Brecon Beacons (Welsh: Bannau Brycheiniog) are a mountain range located in the south-east of Wales. ... A monolith is a geological or technological feature such as a mountain, consisting of a single massive stone or rock. ...


The north eastern entrance was also widened at this time with the result that it precisely matched the direction of the midsummer sunrise and midwinter sunset of the period. This phase of the monument was abandoned unfinished however, the small standing stones were apparently removed and the Q and R holes purposefully backfilled. Even so, the monument appears to have eclipsed the site at Avebury in importance towards the end of this phase and the Amesbury Archer, found in 2002 three miles (5 km) to the south, would have seen the site in this state. Midsummer may refer to the period of time centered upon the summer solstice and the diverse celebrations of it around the world, but more often refers to European celebrations that accompany the summer solstice, or to Western festivals that take place in June and are usually related to Saint John... A typical sunrise, in New Zealand A sunrise through clouds over Oakland, California. ... Illumination of Earth by Sun on the day of the northern winter solstice In astronomy, the winter solstice is the moment when the earth is at a point in its orbit where one hemisphere is most inclined away from the sun. ... A composite image showing the terminator dividing night from day, running across Europe and Africa. ... Avebury Henge and Village Avebury is the site of a large henge and several stone circles in the English county of Wiltshire at grid reference SU103699, surrounding the village of Avebury (its geographical location is 51°25′43″N, 1°51′15″W). ... Amesbury Archer (dubbed the King of Stonehenge in the British press though there is no specific connection to the famous site) is an early Bronze Age man dating to around 2300 BC, with about a 200-year margin of error, whose grave was discovered in May 2002, at Amesbury near...


The Heelstone (5), a Tertiary sandstone, may also have been erected outside the north eastern entrance during this period although it cannot be securely dated and may have been installed at any time in phase 3. At first, a second stone, now no longer visible, joined it. Two, or possibly three, large portal stones were set up just inside the north eastern entrance of which only one, the fallen Slaughter Stone (4), 16 ft (4.9 m) long, now remains. Other features loosely dated to phase 3 include the four Station Stones (6), two of which stood atop mounds (2 and 3). The mounds are known as 'barrows' although they do not contain burials. The Avenue, (10), a parallel pair of ditches and banks leading 3 km to the River Avon was also added. Two ditches similar to Heelstone Ditch circling the Heelstone, which was by then reduced to a single monolith, were later dug around the Station Stones. The Heelstone The Heelstone is a single large block of sarsen stone standing within the Avenue outside the entrance of the Stonehenge earthwork, close to the main road (Highways Agency A344). ... Tertiary geological time interval covers roughly the time span between the demise of the non-avian dinosaurs and beginning of the most recent Ice Age, approximately 65 million to 1. ... // In archaeology, a forecourt is the name given to the area in front of certain types of chamber tomb. ... The Station Stones are elements of the prehistoric monument of Stonehenge. ... This page refers to the archaeological feature known as an avenue. ... The River Avon is a river in the county of Hampshire in the south of England. ... Heelstone Ditch (circular depression) Heelstone Ditch is a roughly circular earthwork having steep sloping sides which end at a narrow flat base, being approximately 4 ft (1. ...


Stonehenge 3 II (2450 BC to 2100 BC)

The next major phase of activity at the tail end of the 3rd millennium BC saw 30 enormous Oligocene-Miocene sarsen stones (shown grey on the plan) brought from a quarry around 24 miles (40 km) north of Stonehenge, on the Marlborough Downs. The stones were dressed and fashioned with mortise and tenon joints before 30 were erected as a 33 m (108 ft) diameter circle of standing stones, with a ring of 30 lintel stones resting on top. The lintels were fitted to one another using another woodworking method, the tongue and groove joint. Each standing stone was around 4.1 m (13.5 feet) high, 2.1 m (7.5 feet) wide and weighed around 25 tons. Each had clearly been worked with the final effect in mind; the orthostats widen slightly towards the top in order that their perspective remains constant as they rise up from the ground while the lintel stones curve slightly to continue the circular appearance of the earlier monument. The sides of the stones that face inwards are smoother and more finely worked than the sides that face outwards. The average thickness of these stones is 1.1 m (3.75 feet) and the average distance between them is 1 m (3.5 feet). A total of 74 stones would have been needed to complete the circle and unless some of the sarsens were removed from the site, it would seem that the ring was left incomplete. Of the lintel stones, they are each around 3.2 m long (10.5 feet), 1 m (3.5 feet) wide and 0.8 m (2.75 feet) thick. The tops of the lintels are 4.9 m (16 feet) above the ground. The 3rd millennium BC spans the Early to Middle Bronze Age. ... The Oligocene epoch is a geologic period of time that extends from about 34 million to 23 million years before the present. ... The Miocene Epoch is a period of time that extends from about 23. ... Sarsen stones are sandstone blocks found on Salisbury Plain and elsewhere. ... The North Wessex Downs Area of Outstanding Natural Beauty (AONB) is located in the English counties of Berkshire, Hampshire, Oxfordshire and Wiltshire. ... Diagram of a Mortise and Tenon Joint Simple and strong, the mortise and tenon joint (also called the mortice and tenon) has been used for millennia by woodworkers around the world to join two pieces of wood, most often at an angle close to 90°. Although there are many variations... Tongue and groove is a method of fitting similar objects together, used mainly with wood: flooring, panelling etc. ... An orthostat is a large stone set upright. ...


Within this circle stood five trilithons of dressed sarsen stone arranged in a horseshoe shape 13.7 m (45 feet) across with its open end facing north east. These huge stones, ten uprights and five lintels, weigh up to 50 tons each and were again linked using complex jointings. They are arranged symmetrically; the smallest pair of trilithons were around 6 m (20 feet) tall, the next pair a little higher and the largest, single trilithon in the south west corner would have been 7.3 m (24 feet) tall. Only one upright from the Great Trilithon still stands; 6.7 m (22 ft) is visible and a further 2.4 m (8 feet) is below ground. Trilithon entrance, Mnajdra temple A trilithon at Stonehenge A trilithon (or trilith) is a structure consisting of two large vertical stones (posts) supporting a third stone set horizontally across the top (lintel). ... Sarsen stones are sandstone blocks found on Salisbury Plain and elsewhere. ...


The images of a 'dagger' and 14 'axe-heads' have been recorded carved on one of the sarsens, known as stone 53. Further axe-head carvings have been seen on the outer faces of stones known as numbers 3, 4, and 5. They are difficult to date but are morphologically similar to later Bronze Age weapons; recent laser scanning work on the carvings supports this interpretation. The pair of trilithons in north east are smallest, measuring around 6 m (20 feet) in height and the largest is the trilithon in the south west of the horseshoe is almost 7.5 m (24 feet) tall. This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ...


This ambitious phase is radiocarbon dated to between 2440 and 2100 BC. Radiocarbon dating is the use of the naturally occurring isotope of carbon-14 in radiometric dating to determine the age of organic materials, up to ca. ... (26th century BC - 25th century BC - 24th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2900 - 2334 BC -- Mesopotamian wars of the Early Dynastic period 2494 BC -- End of Fourth Dynasty, start of Fifth Dynasty in Egypt. ... (Redirected from 2100 BC) (22nd century BC - 21st century BC - 20th century BC - other centuries) (4th millennium BC - 3rd millennium BC - 2nd millennium BC) Events 2130 - 2080 BC -- Ninth Dynasty wars in Egypt 2112 - 2095 BC -- Sumerian campaigns of Ur-Nammu 2064 - 1986 BC -- Twin Dynasty wars in Egypt 2049...


Stonehenge 3 III

Later in the Bronze Age, the bluestones appear to have been re-erected for the first time, although the exact details of this period are still unclear. They were placed within the outer sarsen circle and at this time may have been trimmed in some way. A few have timber working-style cuts in them like the sarsens themselves, suggesting they may have been linked with lintels and part of a larger structure during this phase.


Stonehenge 3 IV (2280 BC to 1930 BC)

This phase saw further rearrangement of the bluestones as they were placed in a circle between the two settings of sarsens and in an oval in the very centre. Some archaeologists argue that some of the bluestones in this period were part of a second group brought from Wales. All the stones were well-spaced uprights without any of the linking lintels inferred in Stonehenge 3 III. The Altar Stone may have been moved within the oval and stood vertically. Although this would seem the most impressive phase of work, Stonehenge 3 IV was rather shabbily built compared to its immediate predecessors, as the newly re-installed bluestones were not at all well founded and began to fall over. However, only minor changes were made after this phase. Stonehenge 3 IV dates from 2280 to 1930 BC.


Stonehenge 3 V (2280 BC to 1930 BC)

Soon afterwards, the north eastern section of the Phase 3 IV Bluestone circle was removed, creating a horseshoe-shaped setting termed the Bluestone Horseshoe. This mirrored the shape of the central sarsen Trilithons and dates from 2270 to 1930 BC. This phase is contemporary with the famous Seahenge site in Norfolk. Seahenge or Holme I is a bronze-age timber circle discovered in 1998 just off the coast of the English county of Norfolk at Holme-next-the-Sea. ... Norfolk (IPA: //) is a low-lying county in East Anglia in the east of southern England. ...


After the monument (1600 BC on)

Even though the last known construction of Stonehenge was about 1600 BC, and the last known usage of it was during the Iron Age (if not as late as the 7th century), where Roman coins, prehistoric pottery, an unusual bone point and a skeleton of a young male (780-410 cal BC) were found, we have no idea if Stonehenge was in continuous use or exactly how it was used. Notable is the late 7th-6th century BC large arcing Scroll Trench which deepens E-NE towards Heelstone, and the burial of a decapitated Saxon man excavated from Stonehenge dated to the 7th century. The site was known by scholars during the Middle Ages and since then it has been studied and adopted by numerous different groups. Iron Age Axe found on Gotland This article is about the archaeological period known as the Iron Age, for the mythological Iron Age see Iron Age (mythology). ... Scroll Trench, also called Arc Trench, is a 25 ft (7. ... For other uses, see Anglo-Saxon. ... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


Function and Construction

Stonehenge was produced by a culture with no written language, and at great historical remove from the first cultures that did leave written records. Many aspects of Stonehenge remain subject to debate. This multiplicity of theories, some of them very colourful, is often called the "mystery of Stonehenge." Stonehenge has been subjected to many theories about its origin, ranging from the academic worlds of archaeology to explanations from mythology and the paranormal. ...


There is little or no direct evidence for the construction techniques used by the Stonehenge builders. Over the years, various authors have suggested that supernatural or anachronistic methods were used, usually asserting that the stones were impossible to move otherwise. However, conventional techniques using Neolithic technology have been demonstrably effective at moving and placing stones this size.[4] Proposed functions for the site include usage as an astronomical observatory, or as a religious site. Other theories have advanced supernatural or symbolic explanations for the construction.


Folklore

The Heelstone
The Heelstone

Download high resolution version (960x1280, 151 KB)Heelstone of Stonehenge File links The following pages link to this file: Stonehenge ... Download high resolution version (960x1280, 151 KB)Heelstone of Stonehenge File links The following pages link to this file: Stonehenge ...

“Friar’s Heel” or the “Sunday Stone”

The Heel Stone was once known as “Friar’s Heel”. A folk tale, which cannot be dated earlier than the seventeenth century, relates the origin of the name of this stone: The Heelstone The Heelstone is a single large block of sarsen stone standing within the Avenue outside the entrance of the Stonehenge earthwork, close to the main road (Highways Agency A344). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Devil bought the stones from a woman in Ireland, wrapped them up, and brought them to Salisbury plain. One of the stones fell into the Avon, the rest were carried to the plain. The Devil then cried out, “No-one will ever find out how these stones came here!” A friar replied, “That’s what you think!,” whereupon the Devil threw one of the stones at him and struck him on the heel. The stone stuck in the ground and is still there. This is an overview of the Devil. ... The River Avon is a river in the county of Hampshire in the south of England. ...


Some claim “Friar’s Heel” is a corruption of “Freyja’s He-ol” or “Freyja Sul”, from the Nordic goddess Freyja and the Welsh word for “way” or “Sunday”, respectively, or the name may simply imply that the stone heels, or leans. The name is not unique; there was a monolith with the same name recorded in the 19th century by antiquarian Charles Warne at Long Bredy in Dorset. The term Germanic peoples may refer to: the Germanic tribes that in the first millennium were seen as a barbarian threat by the Roman Empire and its successors; the Germanic Christianity that in the second millennium came to dominate much of Northern Europe, politically organized in the Holy Roman Empire... -1... Long Bredy is a village in west Dorset, England, situated in a small valley seven miles west of Dorchester. ...


Arthurian legend

A giant helps Merlin build Stonehenge. From a manuscript of the Brut by Wace in the British Library (Egerton 3028). This is the oldest known depiction of Stonehenge.
A giant helps Merlin build Stonehenge. From a manuscript of the Brut by Wace in the British Library (Egerton 3028). This is the oldest known depiction of Stonehenge.

Stonehenge is also mentioned within Arthurian legend. Geoffrey of Monmouth said that Merlin the wizard directed its removal from Ireland, where it had been constructed on Mount Killaraus by Giants, who brought the stones from Africa. After it had been rebuilt near Amesbury, Geoffrey further narrates how first Ambrosius Aurelianus, then Uther Pendragon, and finally Constantine III, were buried inside the ring of stones. In many places in his Historia Regum Britanniae Geoffrey mixes British legend and his own imagination; it is intriguing that he connects Ambrosius Aurelianus with this prehistoric monument, seeing how there is place-name evidence to connect Ambrosius with nearby Amesbury. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 570 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (613 × 645 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cropped version of Image:BLEgerton3028Fol30rStonehenge. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 570 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (613 × 645 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Cropped version of Image:BLEgerton3028Fol30rStonehenge. ... For other uses, see Merlin (disambiguation). ... Brut can mean many different things: Brutus of Troy (also known as Brut, Brute) was a legendary British character. ... Wace (c. ... British Library main building, London The British Library (BL) is the national library of the United Kingdom. ... For other uses, see King Arthur (disambiguation). ... Geoffrey of Monmouth (in Welsh: Gruffudd ap Arthur or Sieffre o Fynwy) (c. ... Merlin Ambrosius (Welsh: Myrddin Emrys (Merlin the Wise); also known as Myrddin Wyllt (Merlin the Wild), Merlin Caledonensis (Scottish Merlin), Merlinus, and Merlyn) is the personage best known as the mighty wizard featured in Arthurian legends, starting with Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae. ... ... Jack the Giant-Killer by Arthur Rackham. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ... Ambrosius Aurelianus, called Aurelius Ambrosius in the Historia Regum Britanniae and elsewhere, was a war leader of the Romano-British who won an important battle against the Anglo-Saxons in the 5th century, according to Gildas. ... Uther Pendragon (French: Uter Pendragon; Welsh: Wthyr Bendragon, Uthr Bendragon, Uthyr Pendraeg) is a legendary king of sub-Roman Britain and the father of King Arthur. ... Roman coin, with Constantine III portrayed on its face Constantine III (died 411 by September 18) was a Roman general who declared himself Western Roman Emperor in 407, abdicating in 411 (and being killed soon after). ... Wikisource has original text related to this article: History of the Kings of Britain Geoffrey of Monmouths Historia Regum Britanniae (English: The History of the Kings of Britain) is a pseudohistorical account of British history, written around 1136. ... Toponymy is the taxonomic study of toponyms (place-names), their origins and their meanings. ...


According to Geoffrey of Monmouth, the rocks of Stonehenge were healing rocks which Giants brought from Africa to Ireland for their healing properties. These rocks were called The Giant's Dance. Aurelius Ambrosias (5th Century), wishing to erect a memorial to the nobles (3000) who had died in battle with the Saxons and were buried at Salisbury, chose (at Merlin's advice) Stonehenge to be their monument. So the King sent Merlin, Uther Pendragon (Arthur's father), and 15,000 knights to Ireland to retrieve the rocks. They slew 7,000 Irish. As the knights tried to move the rocks with ropes and force, they failed. Then Merlin, using "gear" and skill, easily dismantled the stones and sent them over to Britain, where Stonehenge was dedicated. Shortly after, Aurelius died and was buried within the Stonehenge monument, or "The Giants' Ring of Stonehenge".


Recent history

Photograph of Stonehenge taken July 1877
Photograph of Stonehenge taken July 1877
Stonehenge in October 2007, on a stormy day with the 'Slaughter Stone' in the foreground
Stonehenge in October 2007, on a stormy day with the 'Slaughter Stone' in the foreground
The sun rising over Stonehenge on the summer solstice on 21 June 2005
The sun rising over Stonehenge on the summer solstice on 21 June 2005


Stonehenge has changed hands on several occasions since King Henry VIII acquired Amesbury Abbey and its surrounding lands. In 1540 he gave the estate to the Earl of Hertford, and it subsequently passed to Lord Carlton and then the Marquis of Queensbury. The Antrobus family of Cheshire bought the estate in 1824, but sold it in 1915 after the last heir was killed in France. The auction was held by Knight Frank & Rutley estate agents in Salisbury on the 21 September, and included "Lot 15. Stonehenge with about 30 acres, 2 ro[o]ds, 37 perches of adjoining downland."[5] Cecil Chubb bought Stonehenge for £6,600 and then gave it to the nation three years later. Although it has been speculated that he purchased it at the suggestion of - or even as a present for - his wife, he in fact bought it on a whim as he believed a local man should be the new owner. Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (3072 × 2304 pixels, file size: 1. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1224x854, 142 KB) The Sun rising over Stonehenge on the morning of the Summer Solstice (21st June 2005). ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1224x854, 142 KB) The Sun rising over Stonehenge on the morning of the Summer Solstice (21st June 2005). ... “Summer solstice” redirects here. ... is the 172nd day of the year (173rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... It has been suggested that Roundtable Access be merged into this article or section. ... Henry VIII King of England and Ireland by Hans Holbein the Younger His Grace King Henry VIII (28 June 1491–28 January 1547) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from 22 April 1509 until his death. ... The Greyhound inn at Amesbury Amesbury is a town and civil parish in the English county of Wiltshire, eight miles north of Salisbury. ... The titles of Earl of Hertford and Marquess of Hertford have been created several times in the peerages of England and Great Britain. ... Marquess of Queensberry (often spelled, archaically, as the Marquis of Queensbury) is a title in the peerage of Scotland. ... Knight Frank LLP is a UK headquartered global property consultancy firm. ... is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A rood is an old English ( Anglo-Saxon) unit equal to quarter an acre, i. ... Sir Cecil Herbert Edward Chubb, 1st Baronet (14 April 1876 – 22 September 1934), was the last owner of Stonehenge which he gave to the nation in 1918. ...


Stonehenge is a place of pilgrimage for neo-druids and those following pagan or neo-pagan beliefs. The midsummer sunrise began attracting modern visitors in the 1870s, with the first record of recreated Druidic practices dating to 1905 when the Ancient Order of Druids enacted a ceremony. Despite efforts by archaeologists and historians to stress the differences between the Iron Age Druidic religion and the much older monument, Stonehenge has become increasingly, almost inextricably, associated with British Druidism, Neo Paganism and New Age philosophy. After the Battle of the Beanfield in 1985 this use of the site was stopped for several years, and currently ritual use of Stonehenge is carefully controlled. This article is about the religious or spiritual journey. ... A group of British druids, congregating to celebrate the summer solstice at stonehenge. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Neopaganism (sometimes Neo-Paganism, meaning New Paganism) is a heterogeneous group of religions which attempt to revive ancient, mainly European pre-Christian religions. ... The Ancient Order of Druids was founded in England in 1781 as a secret society, rather similar to the Freemasons. ... For other uses, see Druid (disambiguation). ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ...


In more recent years, the setting of the monument has been affected by the proximity of the A303 road between Amesbury and Winterbourne Stoke, and the A344. Early in 2003, the Department for Transport announced that the A303 would be upgraded, including the construction of the Stonehenge road tunnel. On 06 December 2007 it was announced that the plans had been cancelled.[6] The A303 is a trunk road in England. ... The A344 is a trunk road in the English county of Wiltshire. ... In the United Kingdom, the Department for Transport is the government department responsible for the transport network. ... The A303 road passing by Stonehenge The Stonehenge road tunnel is a controversial tunnel in Wiltshire, England proposed by the Highways Agency to upgrade the A303 road. ... December 6 is the 340th day (341st on leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


When Stonehenge became open to the public it was possible to walk amongst and even climb on the stones. However this ended in 1977 when the stones were roped off as a result of serious erosion [7]. Visitors are no longer permitted to touch the stones, but merely walk around the monument from a short distance. English Heritage does however permit access during the summer and winter solstice, and the spring and autumn equinox. Additionally, visitors can make special bookings to access the stones throughout the year [8].


Repairs and alterations

By the beginning of the 20th century a number of the stones had fallen or were leaning precariously. One stone, thought to be in danger of falling, was straightened and given a concrete foundation in 1901 and in the 1920s archaeologist William Hawley undertook major alterations, including the moving and re-erecting of six stones, based on his excavations at the site and using information from antiquarian drawings. Three more stones were set in concrete in 1958 and the opportunity taken to re-mount one lintel. Remedial work was carried out on four further stones in 1964. Later archaeologists, including Christopher Chippindale of the Museum of Archaeology and Anthropology, University of Cambridge and Brian Edwards of the University of the West of England campaigned to give the public more knowledge of the restoration and in 2004 English Heritage included pictures of the works in progress in its new book Stonehenge: A History in Photographs.[9][10][11] Colonel William Hawley (1861-1941) was a British archaeologist who most famously undertook pioneering excavations at Stonehenge. ... Christopher Chippindale is a British archaeologist, most well-known for his work on Stonehenge. ... UWE redirects here. ...


See also

Avebury Henge and Village Avebury is the site of a large henge and several stone circles in the English county of Wiltshire at grid reference SU103699, surrounding the village of Avebury (its geographical location is 51°25′43″N, 1°51′15″W). ... This article or section may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Durrington Walls is a prehistoric henge enclosure monument situated close to Woodhenge on Salisbury Plain. ... Development of the European Megalithic Culture The European Megalithic Culture was a prehistoric (and preliterate) civilisation based primarily in Western Europe, that has left a legacy of large stone monuments, or megaliths, scattered widely across the continent. ... The first recorded excavations at Stonehenge were carried out by William Cunnington and Richard Colt Hoare. ... The Goloring is a cultural monument of Celtic origin, which dates back to the late Hallstatt era (1200-800 B.C.). The Goloring is thought to have been constructed during the time of the urnfield culture (1200 - 800 B.C.). During this time a widespread solar cult existed in Central... Site of the Goseck circle. ... Detail of Carhenge, a Stonehenge replica constructed from vintage American cars. ... Swinside stone circle, in the Lake District, England. ... The site of the Cursus, part of the NT Stonehenge Landscape The Stonehenge Landscape is a property of The National Trust, located near Salisbury Plain in Wiltshire, England. ... The Prehistoric landmark of Stonehenge is distinctive and famous enough to have become frequently referenced in popular culture. ... The A303 road passing by Stonehenge The Stonehenge road tunnel is a controversial tunnel in Wiltshire, England proposed by the Highways Agency to upgrade the A303 road. ... The Stonehenge Riverside Project is a major archaeological research study interested in the development of the Stonehenge landscape in Neolithic and Bronze Age Britain. ...

References

  1. ^ How did Stonehenge come into the care of English Heritage?. FAQs on Stonehenge. English Heritage. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  2. ^ Ancient ceremonial landscape of great archaeological and wildlife interest. Stonehenge Landscape. National Trust. Retrieved on 2007-12-17.
  3. ^ John, Brian (2007):The Stonehenge Bluestones—glacial transport back in favour
  4. ^ Wally Wallington demonstrates how to build Stonehenge. http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=lRRDzFROMx0
  5. ^ The man who bought Stonehenge Heffernan, T. H. J. This is Amesbury
  6. ^ A303 Stonehenge Road Scheme Hansard report of proceedings in the House of Commons 6 December 2007
  7. ^ Proposals for a tunnel at Stonehenge: an assessment of the alternatives. The World Archaeological Congress
  8. ^ Planning Your Visit to Stonehenge. English Heritage
  9. ^ Young, Emma. "Concrete Evidence". New Scientist (2001-01-09). Retrieved on 2008-03-03. 
  10. ^ Taverner, Roger. "How they rebuilt Stonehenge", Western Daily Press, quoted in Cosmic Conspiracies: How they rebuilt Stonehenge, 2001-01-08. Retrieved on 2008-03-03. 
  11. ^ Richards, Julian C. (2004). Stonehenge: A History in Photographs. London: English Heritage. ISBN 1850748950. 

The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The standard of the National Trust The National Trust for Places of Historic Interest or Natural Beauty, usually known as The National Trust, is a British preservation organization. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... December 17 is the 351st day of the year (352nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Hansard is the traditional name for the printed transcripts of parliamentary debates in the Westminster system of government. ... Type Lower House Speaker Michael Martin, (Non-affiliated) since October 23, 2000 Leader Harriet Harman, (Labour) since June 28, 2007 Shadow Leader Theresa May, (Conservative) since May 5, 2005 Members 659 Political groups Labour Party Conservative Party Liberal Democrats Scottish National Party Plaid Cymru Democratic Unionist Party Sinn Féin... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... New Scientist is a weekly international science magazine covering recent developments in science and technology for a general English-speaking audience. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 9th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Western Daily Press is a regional newspaper covering South West England, and is published Monday to Saturday in Bristol, UK. The majority of its readers are in rural areas, small towns and villages throughout the region and the papers coverage of rural, agricultural and countryside issues is particularly... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 8th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance to the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 62nd day of the year (63rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... == Julian Richards is a presenter on television and radio, a writer and an archaeologist with over 30 years experience of fieldwork and publication. ... The standard of English Heritage English Heritage is a non-departmental public body of the United Kingdom government (Department for Culture, Media and Sport) with a broad remit of managing the historic environment of England. ...

Bibliography

  • Atkinson, R J C, Stonehenge (Penguin Books, 1956)
  • Bender, B, Stonehenge: Making Space (Berg Publishers, 1998)
  • Burl, A, Prehistoric Stone Circles (Shire, 2001) (In Burl's Stonehenge (Constable, 2006), he notes, cf. the meaning of the name in paragraph two above, that "the Saxons called the ring 'the hanging stones', as though they were gibbets.")
  • Chippendale, C, Stonehenge Complete (Thames and Hudson, London, 2004) ISBN 0500284679
  • Chippindale, C, et al, Who owns Stonehenge? (B T Batsford Ltd, 1990)
  • Cleal, R. M. J., Walker, K. E. & Montague, R., Stonehenge in its landscape (English Heritage, London, 1995)
  • Cunliffe, B, & Renfrew, C, Science and Stonehenge (The British Academy 92, Oxford University Press, 1997)
  • Hall, R, Leather, K, & Dobson, G, Stonehenge Aotearoa (Awa Press, 2005)
  • Hawley, Lt-Col W, The Excavations at Stonehenge. (The Antiquaries Journal 1, Oxford University Press, 19-41). 1921.
  • Hawley, Lt-Col W, Second Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge. (The Antiquaries Journal 2, Oxford University Press, 1922)
  • Hawley, Lt-Col W, Third Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge. (The Antiquaries Journal 3, Oxford University Press, 1923)
  • Hawley, Lt-Col W, Fourth Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge. (The Antiquaries Journal 4, Oxford University Press, 1923)
  • Hawley, Lt-Col W, Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge during the season of 1923. (The Antiquaries Journal 5, Oxford University Press, 1925)
  • Hawley, Lt-Col W, Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge during the season of 1924. (The Antiquaries Journal 6, Oxford University Press, 1926)
  • Hawley, Lt-Col W, Report on the Excavations at Stonehenge during 1925 and 1926. (The Antiquaries Journal 8, Oxford University Press, 1928)
  • Hutton, R, From Universal Bond to Public Free For All (British Archaeology 83, 2005)
  • Mooney, J, Encyclopedia of the Bizarre (Black Dog & Leventhal Publishers, 2002)
  • Newall, R S, Stonehenge, Wiltshire -Ancient monuments and historic buildings- (Her Majesty's Stationery Office, London, 1959)
  • North, J, Stonehenge: Ritual Origins and Astronomy (HarperCollins, 1997)
  • Pitts, M, Hengeworld (Arrow, London, 2001)
  • Pitts, M W, On the Road to Stonehenge: Report on Investigations beside the A344 in 1968, 1979 and 1980 (Proceedings of the Prehistoric Society 48, 1982)
  • Richards, J, English Heritage Book of Stonehenge (B T Batsford Ltd, 1991)
  • Richards, J Stonehenge: A History in Photographs (English Heritage, London, 2004)
  • Stone, J F S, Wessex Before the Celts (Frederick A Praeger Publishers, 1958)
  • Worthington, A, Stonehenge: Celebration and Subversion (Alternative Albion, 2004)
  • English Heritage: Stonehenge: Historical Background

Richard John Copland Atkinson (1920 – 1994) was a British prehistorian and archaeologist. ... Aubrey Burl is a British archaeologist most well known for his studies into megalithic monuments and the nature of prehistoric rituals associated with them. ... Christopher Chippendale is a British archaeologist, most well-known for his work on Stonehenge. ... Barrington Windsor Cunliffe CBE (born December 10, 1939), known as Barry Cunliffe, has been Professor of European Archaeology at the University of Oxford since 1972. ... Andrew Colin Renfrew, Baron Renfrew of Kaimsthorn (born 25 July 1937), English archaeologist, notable for his work on the radiocarbon revolution, the prehistory of languages, archaeogenetics, and the prevention of looting of archaeological sites. ... Colonel William Hawley (1861-1941) was a British archaeologist who most famously undertook pioneering excavations at Stonehenge. ... Ronald Hutton is Professor of History at the University of Bristol and is an occasional commentator on British television and radio on the history of paganism in the British Isles. ... == Julian Richards is a presenter on television and radio, a writer and an archaeologist with over 30 years experience of fieldwork and publication. ... == Julian Richards is a presenter on television and radio, a writer and an archaeologist with over 30 years experience of fieldwork and publication. ... John Frederick Smerdon Stone (____ - 1957) was a British archaeologist, most famous for his work in and around Wiltshire, especially at Stonehenge and the Woodhenge area. ...

External links

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Coordinates: 51°10′44″N, 1°49′34″W Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...




  Results from FactBites:
 
Stonehenge - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (6054 words)
Stonehenge is therefore interpreted as functioning as an enclosed cremation cemetery at this time, the earliest known cremation cemetery in the British Isles.
Stonehenge is aligned northeast–southwest, and it has been suggested that particular significance was placed by its builders on the solstice and equinox points, so for example on a midsummer's morning, the sun rose close to the Heelstone, and the sun's first rays went directly into the centre of the monument between the horseshoe arrangement.
Stonehenge Aotearoa in the Wairarapa region of New Zealand is a modern adaptation aligned with the astronomy seen from the Antipodes; it was built by the Phoenix Astronomical Society from wood and sprayed concrete.
Stonehenge - Crystalinks (1226 words)
Stonehenge is a megalithic monument on the Salisbury Plain in Southern England, composed mainly of thirty upright stones (sarsens, each over ten feet tall and weighing 26 tons), aligned in a circle, with thirty lintels (6 tons each) perched horizontally atop the sarsens in a continuous circle.
Stonehenge is angled such that on the equinoxes and the solstices, the sun rising over the horizon appears to be perfectly placed between gaps in the megaliths.
Scientists believe that Stonehenge, which was used continuously for thousands of years, allowed the people of the day to foretell eclipses of the sun and moon by where the positions of the celestial bodies were in relation to the stones.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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