FACTOID # 28: Austin, Texas has more people than Alaska.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Stomach" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Stomach
M'Hammed
The location of the stomach in the body.
Diagram from cancer.gov:
* 1. Body of stomach
* 2. Fundus
* 3. Anterior wall
* 4. Greater curvature
* 5. Lesser curvature
* 6. Cardia
* 9. Pyloric sphincter
* 10. Pyloric antrum
* 11. Pyloric canal
* 12. Angular notch
* 13. Gastric canal
* 14. Rugal folds

Work of the United States Government
Latin Ventriculus
Gray's subject #247 1161
Nerve celiac ganglia, vagus[1]
Lymph celiac preaortic lymph nodes[2]
MeSH Stomach
Dorlands/Elsevier g_03/12386049

In anatomy, the stomach is a bean-shaped hollow muscular organ of the gastrointestinal tract involved in the second phase of digestion, following mastication. The word stomach is derived from the Latin stomachus, which derives from the Greek word stomachos (στόμαχος). The words gastro- and gastric (meaning related to the stomach) are both derived from the Greek word gaster (γαστήρ). Image File history File links Stomach_diagram. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Illu_stomach. ... A plane passing through the incisura angularis on the lesser curvature and the left limit of the opposed dilatation on the greater curvature divides the stomach into a left portion or body and a right or pyloric portion. ... The left portion of the body of the stomach is known as the fundus, and is marked off from the remainder of the body by a plane passing horizontally through the cardiac orifice. ... The greater curvature of the stomach is directed mainly forward, and is four or five times as long as the lesser curvature. ... The lesser curvature of the stomach, extending between the cardiac and pyloric orifices, forms the right or posterior border of the stomach. ... This article is about the cardia in the human body. ... From Greek pylorus; pyl- = gate, -orus = guard. ... Pyloric antrum is initial portion of the pyloric part of the stomach, which may temporarily become partially or completely shut off from the remainder of the stomach during digestion by peristaltic contraction of the prepyloric sphincter; it is demarcated, sometimes, from the second part of the pyloric part of the... The pyloric canal, also known as the canalis pyloricus, is the opening between the stomach and the small intestine [1]. Pylorus University of Illinois Medical Center at Chicago Health Library Category: ... Nearer the pyloric end of the stomach than its cardiac end is a well-marked notch, the angular incisure (or notch), which varies somewhat in position with the state of distension of the viscus. ... Nearer the pyloric end of the stomach than its cardiac end is a well-marked notch, the angular incisure (or notch), which varies somewhat in position with the state of distension of the viscus. ... Rugae are the mucus-covered ridges, or folds, located on the inside of the stomach wall. ... A work of the United States government, as defined by United States copyright law, is a work prepared by an officer or employee of the U.S. government as part of that persons official duties. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ... Nerves (yellow) Nerves redirects here. ... The Celiac Ganglia (semilunar ganglia) are two large irregularly shaped masses having the appearance of lymph glands and placed one on either side of the middle line in front of the crura of the diaphragm close to the suprarenal glands, that on the right side being placed behind the inferior... The vagus nerve is tenth of twelve paired cranial nerves and is the only nerve that starts in the brainstem (somewhere in the medulla oblongata) and extends all the way down past the head, right down to the abdomen. ... In mammals including humans, the lymphatic vessels (or lymphatics) are a network of thin tubes that branch, like blood vessels, into tissues throughout the body. ... The preaortic lymph nodes lie in front of the aorta, and may be divided into celiac, superior mesenteric, and inferior mesenteric groups, arranged around the origins of the corresponding arteries. ... Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... Elseviers logo. ... Human heart and lungs, from an older edition of Grays Anatomy. ... This article is about the biological unit. ... Gut redirects here. ... For the industrial process, see anaerobic digestion. ... Mastication or chewing is the process by which food is mashed and crushed by teeth. ... For other uses, see Latin (disambiguation). ...


== the stomach is a highly acidic environment due to gastric acid production and secretion which produces a luminal pH range usually between 1 and 4 depending on the species, food intake, time of the day, drug use, and other factors. Combined with digestive enzymes, such an environment is able to break down large molecules (such as from food) to smaller ones so that they can eventually be absorbed from the small intestine. The human stomach can produce and secrete about 2 to 3 liters of gastric acid per day with basal secretion levels being typically highest in the evening. The stomach can expand to hold between 2-4 liters of food. It is a temporary food storage area, and in the process of digestion, the food goes into the stomach first. Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... artery anatomy, showing lumen The lumen (pl. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Digestive enzymes are enzymes in the alimentary tract that break down food so that the organism can absorb it. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... The liter (spelled liter in American English and litre in Commonwealth English) is a unit of volume. ...


Pepsinogen is secreted by chief cells and turns into pepsin under low pH conditions and is a necessity in protein digestion. Pepsin is a protease, a digestive enzyme that degrades food proteins in the stomach; the other important digestive enzymes are trypsin and chymotrypsin. ... In general, a chief cell (or a zymogenic cell) is a cell which releases a precursor enzyme. ... Pepsin is a digestive protease (EC 3. ... A representation of the 3D structure of myoglobin, showing coloured alpha helices. ...


Absorption of vitamin B12 from the small intestine is dependent on conjugation to a glycoprotein called intrinsic factor which is produced by parietal cells of the stomach. Cobalamin or vitamin B12 is a chemical compound that is also known as cyanocobalamine. ... Conjugation may refer to: Grammatical conjugation, the modification of runnign a verb from its basic form Latin conjugation, Spanish conjugation and The English verb, each with complex conjugation forms Marriage, relationship between two individuals In mathematics: Complex conjugation, the operation which multiplies the imaginary part of a complex number by... N-linked protein glycosylation (N-glycosylation of N-glycans) at Asn residues (Asn-x-Ser/Thr motifs) in glycoproteins[1]. Glycoproteins are proteins that contain oligosaccharide chains (glycans) covalently attached to their polypeptide backbones. ... Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. ... Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are cells located in the stomach epithelium. ...


Other functions include absorbing some ions, water, and some lipid soluble compounds such as alcohol, aspirin, and caffeine. Some common lipids. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about the drug. ... Caffeine is a xanthine alkaloid compound that acts as a stimulant in humans. ...

Contents

Anatomy of the human stomach

The stomach lies between the esophagus and the duodenum (the first part of the small intestine). It is on the left side of the abdominal cavity. The top of the stomach lies against the diaphragm. Lying beneath the stomach is the pancreas, and the greater omentum which hangs from the greater curvature. The esophagus (also spelled oesophagus/Å“sophagus, Greek ), or gullet is an organ in vertebrates which consists of a muscular tube through which food passes from the pharynx to the stomach. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... In biology the small intestine is the part of the gastrointestinal tract (gut) between the stomach and the large intestine and includes the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. ... The abdominal cavity is the cavity of the human body (and other animal bodies) that holds the bulk of the viscera and which is located below (or inferior to) the thoracic cavity, and above the pelvic cavity. ... In the anatomy of mammals, the diaphragm is a shelf of muscle extending across the bottom of the ribcage. ... The pancreas is a gland organ in the digestive and endocrine systems of vertebrates. ... The greater omentum (great omentum; gastrocolic omentum; epiploon) is a large fold of peritoneum that hangs down from the stomach, and extends from the stomach to the transverse colon. ...


Two smooth muscle valves, or sphincters, keep the contents of the stomach contained. They are the esophageal sphincter (found in the cardiac region) dividing the tract above, and the Pyloric sphincter dividing the stomach from the small intestine. Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... From Greek pylorus; pyl- = gate, -orus = guard. ...


The stomach is surrounded by parasympathetic (stimulant) and orthosympathetic (inhibitor) plexuses (anterior gastric, posterior, superior and inferior, celiac and myenteric), which regulate both the secretory activity and the motor activity of the muscles.


In humans, the stomach has a volume of about 50 mL when empty. After a meal, it generally expands to hold about 1 liter of food, [3] but it can actually expand to hold as much as 4 liters. When drinking milk it can expand to just under 6 pints, or 3.4 liter. [4]


Sections

The stomach is divided into four sections, each of which has different cells and functions. The sections are:

Cardia Where the contents of the esophagus empty into the stomach.
Fundus Formed by the upper curvature of the organ.
Body or corpus The main, central region.
Pylorus or antrum The lower section of the organ that facilitates emptying the contents into the small intestine.

This article is about the cardia in the human body. ... The left portion of the body of the stomach is known as the fundus, and is marked off from the remainder of the body by a plane passing horizontally through the cardiac orifice. ... A plane passing through the incisura angularis on the lesser curvature and the left limit of the opposed dilatation on the greater curvature divides the stomach into a left portion or body and a right or pyloric portion. ... From Greek pylorus; pyl- = gate, -orus = guard. ... In Biology, Antrum is a general term for a cavity or chamber which may have specific meaning in reference to certain organs or sites in the body. ...

Blood supply

The lesser curvature of the stomach is supplied by the right gastric artery inferiorly, and the left gastric artery superiorly, which also supplies the cardiac region. The greater curvature is supplied by the right gastroepiploic artery inferiorly and the left gastroepiploic artery superiorly. The fundus of the stomach, and also the upper portion of the greater curvature, are supplied by the short gastric artery The right gastric artery (pyloric artery) arises from the hepatic, above the pylorus, descends to the pyloric end of the stomach, and passes from right to left along its lesser curvature, supplying it with branches, and anastomosing with the left gastric artery. ... The left gastric artery arises from the coeliac trunk, and runs along the superior portion of the lesser curvature of the stomach, while the right gastric artery supplies the inferior portion. ... The right gastro-omental artery (or right gastroepiploic artery) runs from right to left along the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, anastomosing with the left gastroepiploic branch of the splenic artery. ... The left gastro-omental artery (or left gastroepiploic artery), the largest branch of the splenic artery, runs from left to right about a finger’s breadth or more from the greater curvature of the stomach, between the layers of the greater omentum, and anastomoses with the right gastroepiploic. ... The short gastric arteries (vasa brevia) consist of from five to seven small branches, which arise from the end of the lienal artery, and from its terminal divisions. ...

Schematic diagram of the blood supply to the stomach.
Schematic diagram of the blood supply to the stomach.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 408 pixelsFull resolution‎ (863 × 440 pixels, file size: 30 KB, MIME type: image/png) --Jiju 19:14, 1 December 2007 (UTC) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 408 pixelsFull resolution‎ (863 × 440 pixels, file size: 30 KB, MIME type: image/png) --Jiju 19:14, 1 December 2007 (UTC) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ...

Histology of the human stomach

Layers

Like the other parts of the gastrointestinal tract, the stomach walls are made of the following layers, from inside to outside:

mucosa The first main layer. This consists of an epithelium, the lamina propria underneath, and a thin layer of smooth muscle called the muscularis mucosae.
submucosa This layer lies under the mucosa and consists of fibrous connective tissue, separating the mucosa from the next layer. The Meissner's plexus is in this layer.
muscularis externa

Under the submucosa, the muscularis externa in the stomach differs from that of other GI organs in that it has three layers of smooth muscle instead of two. The mucous membranes (or mucosa) are linings of ectodermic origin, covered in epithelium, that line various body cavities and internal organs. ... This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ... The lamina propria is a thin vascular layer of connective tissue beneath the epithelium of an organ. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ... Section of mucous membrane of human rectum. ... In the gastrointestinal tract. ... ... The nerves of the small intestines are derived from the plexuses of sympathetic nerves around the superior mesenteric artery. ... The muscular coat (or muscular layer, or muscular fibers, or muscularis externa) is a region of smooth muscle in many organs in the vertebrate body, adjacent to the mucous membrane. ... Smooth muscle Layers of Esophageal Wall: 1. ...

  • inner oblique layer: This layer is responsible for creating the motion that churns and physically breaks down the food. It is the only layer of the three which is not seen in other parts of the digestive system. The antrum has thicker skin cells in its walls and performs more forceful contractions than the fundus.
  • middle circular layer: At this layer, the pylorus is surrounded by a thick circular muscular wall which is normally tonically constricted forming a functional (if not anatomically discrete) pyloric sphincter, which controls the movement of chyme into the duodenum. This layer is concentric to the longitudinal axis of the stomach.
  • outer longituditinal layer: Auerbach's plexus is found between this layer and the middle circular layer.
serosa This layer is under the muscularis externa, consisting of layers of connective tissue continuous with the peritoneum.
Cross section of stomach wall.
Cross section of stomach wall.
Microscopic cross section of the pyloric part of the stomach wall.
Microscopic cross section of the pyloric part of the stomach wall.

what was here was sick and improperly spelled. ... From Greek pylorus; pyl- = gate, -orus = guard. ... Look up Sphincter in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Chyme, also known as Chymus is the liquid substance found in the stomach before passing through the pyloric valve and entering the duodenum. ... In anatomy of the digestive system, the duodenum is a hollow jointed tube about 25-30 cm long connecting the stomach to the jejunum. ... Part of the enteric nervous system, Auerbachs plexus exists between the longitudinal and circular layers of muscle in the gastrointestinal tract and provides motor innervation to both layers and secretomotor innervation to the mucosa. ... A serosa is a serous membrane, Serous membranes line the pericardial, pleural, and peritoneal cavities, enclosing their contents. ... In higher vertebrates, the peritoneum is the serous membrane that forms the lining of the abdominal cavity - it covers most of the intra-abdominal organs. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2816 × 2112 pixel, file size: 2. ...

Glands

The epithelium of the stomach forms deep pits. The glands at these locations are named for the corresponding part of the stomach: This article is about the epithelium as it relates to animal anatomy. ...

Cardiac glands
(at cardia)
Pyloric glands
(at pylorus)
Fundic glands
(at fundus)

Different types of cells are found at the different layers of these glands: The cardiac glands of the stomach are few in number and occur close to the cardiac orifice where the esophagus joins the stomach. ... This article is about the cardia in the human body. ... The pyloric glands are found in the pyloric portion of the stomach. ... The left portion of the body of the stomach is known as the fundus, and is marked off from the remainder of the body by a plane passing horizontally through the cardiac orifice. ... The fundus glands (or fundic glands) are found in the body and fundus of the stomach; they are simple tubes, two or more of which open into a single duct. ... In anatomy, the stomach (in ancient Greek στόμαχος) is an organ in the alimentary canal used to digest food. ... Image File history File links Gray1053. ... Image File history File links Gray1054. ... Image File history File links Gray1055. ...

Layer of stomach Name Secretion Region of stomach Staining
Isthmus of gland goblet cells mucus gel layer Fundic, cardiac, pyloric Clear
Neck of gland parietal (oxyntic) cells gastric acid and intrinsic factor Fundic, cardiac, pyloric Acidophilic
Base of gland chief (zymogenic) cells pepsinogen, rennin Fundic only Basophilic
Base of gland enteroendocrine (APUD) cells hormones gastrin, histamine, endorphins, serotonin, cholecystokinin and somatostatin Fundic, cardiac, pyloric -

Goblet cells are glandular epithelial cells that are specifically designed to secrete mucus. ... Mucus cells. ... Human parietal cells - stomach Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are the stomach epithelium cells which secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor. ... Gastric acid is, together with several enzymes and the intrinsic factor, one of the main secretions of the stomach. ... Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. ... Acidophilic describes the tendency of a inorganic particle or organism to acidic conditions or acids. ... A gastric chief cell (or peptic cell, or gastric zymogenic cell) is a cell in the stomach that releases pepsinogen and rennin. ... Pepsin is a protease, a digestive enzyme that degrades food proteins in the stomach; the other important digestive enzymes are trypsin and chymotrypsin. ... Rennet, also called rennin or chymosin (EC 3. ... Basophilic is a technical term used by histologists. ... Enteroendocrine cells are specialized endocrine cells of the gastrointestinal tract. ... Hormone is also the NATO reporting name for the Soviet/Russian Kamov Ka-25 military helicopter. ...

Control of secretion and motility

The movement and the flow of chemicals into the stomach are controlled by both the autonomic nervous system and by the various digestive system hormones: This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ...

Gastrin The hormone gastrin causes an increase in the secretion of HCl, pepsinogen and intrinsic factor from parietal cells in the stomach. It also causes increased motility in the stomach. Gastrin is released by G-cells in the stomach to distenstion of the antrum, and digestive products. It is inhibited by a pH normally less than 4 (high acid), as well as the hormone somatostatin.
Cholecystokinin Cholecystokinin (CCK) has most effect on the gall bladder, but it also decreases gastric emptying and increases release of pancreatic juice which is alkaline and neutralizes the chyme.
Secretin In a different and rare manner, secretin, produced in the small intestine, has most effects on the pancreas, but will also diminish acid secretion in the stomach.
Gastric inhibitory peptide Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) decreases both gastric acid and motility.
Enteroglucagon enteroglucagon decreases both gastric acid and motility.

Other than gastrin, these hormones all act to turn off the stomach action. This is in response to food products in the liver and gall bladder, which have not yet been absorbed. The stomach needs only to push food into the small intestine when the intestine is not busy. While the intestine is full and still digesting food, the stomach acts as storage for food. In humans, gastrin is a hormone that stimulates secretion of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Intrinsic factor is a glycoprotein produced by the parietal cells of the stomach. ... Human parietal cells - stomach Parietal cells (also called oxyntic cells) are the stomach epithelium cells which secrete gastric acid and intrinsic factor. ... In medicine, the G cell is a type of cell in the stomach that secrets gastrin. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... Somatostatin is a hormone. ... Cholecystokinin (from Greek chole, bile; cysto, sac; kinin, move; hence, move the bile-sac (gall bladder)) is a peptide hormone of the gastrointestinal system responsible for stimulating the digestion of fat and protein. ... The gallbladder (or cholecyst) is a pear-shaped organ that stores bile (or gall) until the body needs it for digestion. ... Secretin is a peptide hormone produced in the S cells of the duodenum. ... Gastric inhibitory peptide (GIP) is a gastrointestinal hormone secreted by the duodenum. ... An editor has expressed a concern that the topic of this article may be unencyclopedic. ...


Diseases of the stomach

Historically, it was widely believed that the highly acidic environment of the stomach would keep the stomach immune from infection. However, a large number of studies have indicated that most cases of stomach ulcers, gastritis, and stomach cancer are caused by Helicobacter pylori infection. One of the ways it is able to survive in the stomach involves its urease enzymes which metabolize urea (which is normally secreted into the stomach) to ammonia and carbon dioxide which neutralizes gastric acid and thus prevents its digestion. In recent years, it has been discovered that other Helicobacter bacteria are also capable of colonizing the stomach and have been associated with gastritis. Stomach ache is a non-medical term used to describe various forms of nausea or abdominal pain. ... A benign gastric ulcer (from the antrum) of a gastrectomy specimen. ... Achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria is decreased production of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria is decreased production of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Linitis plastica is seen in diffuse gastric carcinoma. ... Zollinger-Ellison syndrome is a disorder where increased levels of the hormone gastrin are produced, causing the stomach to produce excess hydrochloric acid. ... Gastroparesis, also called delayed gastric emptying, is a disorder in which the stomach takes too long to empty its contents. ... Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease (GERD or GORD using the British Å“sophageal) is defined as chronic symptoms or mucosal damage produced by the abnormal reflux in the esophagus[1]. This is commonly due to transient or permanent changes in the barrier between the esophagus and the stomach. ... Borborygmus (plural borborygmi) is the rumbling sound produced by the movement of gas through the intestines of animals. ... An infection is the detrimental colonization of a host organism by a foreign species. ... Gastritis is inflammation of the gastric mucosa. ... Stomach cancer (also called gastric cancer) can develop in any part of the stomach and may spread throughout the stomach and to other organs; particularly the esophagus and the small intestine. ... Binomial name ((Marshall 1985) Goodwin 1989) ICD-9 code: 041. ... Helicobacter Pylori Urease drawn from PDB 1E9Z. Urease (EC 3. ... Urea is an organic compound with the chemical formula (NH2)2CO. Urea is also known as carbamide, especially in the recommended International Nonproprietary Names (rINN) in use in Europe. ... For other uses, see Ammonia (disambiguation). ... Carbon dioxide is a chemical compound composed of two oxygen atoms covalently bonded to a single carbon atom. ... Helicobacter pylori is a bacterium that infects the mucus lining of the human stomach. ...


Having too little or no gastric acid is known as hypochlorhydria or achlorhydria respectively and are conditions which can have negative health impacts. Having high levels of gastric acid is called hyperchlorhydria. Many people believe that hyperchlorhydria can cause stomach ulcers. However, recent research indicates that the gastric mucosa which secretes gastric acid is acid-resistant. Achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria is decreased production of gastric acid by the stomach. ... Achlorhydria or hypochlorhydria is decreased production of gastric acid by the stomach. ... The presence of an abnormal amount of hydrochloric acid in the stomach. ... Peptic ulcer is a non-malignant ulcer of the stomach (called gastric ulcer) or duodenum (called duodenal ulcer). ...


References

  1. ^ Physiology at MCG 6/6ch2/s6ch2_30
  2. ^ Norman/Georgetown stomach
  3. ^ Sherwood, Lauralee (2004) Human Physiology - From Cells to Systems (International Student Edition, 5th ed) p604 Books/Cole - Thomson Learning ISBN 0-534-39536-8
  4. ^ Saladin, Kenneth S. (2004) "Anatomy & Physiology - The Unity of Form and Function" (International Edition, 3rd ed) p950 - The McGraw Hill Companies ISBN 0-07-242903-8

In 1828 the Medical Academy of Georgia was chartered by the state of Georgia with plans to offer a single course of lectures leading to a bachelors degree. ... Georgetown University is a Jesuit private university located in Georgetown, Washington, D.C. Bishop John Carroll founded the school in 1789, though its roots extend back to 1634. ...

External links

Look up Stomach in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

  Results from FactBites:
 
The Human Stomach: function, shape, body location, disease, transplants (324 words)
One of the substances the stomach absorbs is alcohol.
Stomach acid and digestive juices are made in the mucosa layer.
The serosa is the outermost layer of the stomach.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m