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Encyclopedia > Stolen Generation
Portrayal of The taking of the children on the Great Australian Clock, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney

The Stolen Generation (or Stolen Generations) is a term used to describe the Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander children, usually of mixed descent who were removed from their families, under the rationale of protecting their interests, by Australian government agencies and church missions, under various state acts of parliament, denying the rights of parents and making all Aboriginal children wards of the state, between approximately 1869 and (officially) 1969. The policy typically involved the removal of children into internment camps, orphanages and other institutions.[1] The Stolen Generation has received significant public attention in Australia following the publication in 1997 of Bringing Them Home - Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families.[2] Questions regarding whether the Stolen Generation actually occurred or to what scale it occurred, remain controversial topics within Australian political discourse.[3][4] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 403 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Detail of the Great Australian Clock, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney Photographed by myself Brian Jenkins on 21 Apr 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 403 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Detail of the Great Australian Clock, Queen Victoria Building, Sydney Photographed by myself Brian Jenkins on 21 Apr 2004 File history Legend: (cur) = this is the... The Queen Victoria Building, or QVB, is a grand Victorian building located in the heart of Downtown Sydney. ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous... Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia. ... Actress Halle Berry was born to a white mother of British extraction and a black father of American extraction. ... This article describes the national government of Australia. ... For the architectural structure, see Church (building). ... 1869 (MDCCCLXIX) is a common year starting on Friday (link will take you to calendar) of the Gregorian calendar or a common year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar. ... Also: 1969 (Stargate SG-1) episode. ... This article is about the usage and history of the terms concentration camp, internment camp and internment. ... // The first orphanages, called orphanotrophia, were founded in the 1st century amid various alternative means of orphan support. ... Bringing Them Home cover Bringing Them Home is the title of the Australian Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families. The enquiry was established by the federal Attorney-General, Michael Lavarch, on 11 May 1995, in response to efforts...

Contents

Emergence of the child removal policy

The policy of removing Aboriginal children from their parents is supposed by some to have emerged from an opinion based on Eugenics theory in late nineteenth and early twentieth-century Australia that the 'full-blood' tribal Aborigine would be unable to sustain itself, and was doomed to inevitable extinction.[5] An ideology at the time held that mankind could be divided into a civilisational hierarchy. This notion supposed that Northern Europeans were superior in civilisation and that Aborigines were inferior. According to this view, the increasing numbers of mixed-descent children in Australia, labelled as 'half-castes' (or alternatively 'crossbreeds', 'quadroons' and 'octoroons'), were widely seen to be a threat to racial purity. Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Tribal refers to a culture or society based on tribes or clans. ... Political Ideologies Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      An ideology is an organized collection of ideas. ... Northern Europe Northern Europe is the northern part of the European continent. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with miscegenation. ...


The earliest introduction of child removal to legislation is recorded in the Aboriginal Protection Act 1869 . The Central Board for the Protection of Aborigines had been advocating for such powers since 1860. The Act gave the state of Victoria a wide suite of powers over Aboriginal and 'half-caste' persons including the forcible removal of children, and especially 'at risk' girls.[6]


By the first half of the twentieth century, similar policies and legislation had been adopted by other states, and resulted in widespread removal of children from their parents. The stated aim was to culturally assimilate mixed-descent people into contemporary Australian society. In all states and territories legislation was passed in the early years of the twentieth century which gave Aboriginal protectors guardianship rights over Aborigines up to the age of sixteen or twenty-one. Policemen or other agents of the state (such as Aboriginal Protection Officers), were given the power to locate and transfer babies and children of mixed descent, from their mothers or families or communities into institutions. In these Australian states and territories, half-caste institutions (both government and missionary) were established in the early decades of the twentieth century for the reception of these separated children.[7] Cultural assimilation (often called merely assimilation) is an intense process of consistent integration whereby members of an ethno-cultural group, typically immigrants, or other minority groups, are absorbed into an established, generally larger community. ... For other uses, see Missionary (disambiguation). ...


Some commentators argue that the impetus for at least some of the various pieces of legislation was an observed need to provide protection for neglected, abused or abandoned mixed-descent children. Mixed-descent children were not wanted or welcome in some Aboriginal groups and communities. In the 1920's, the Baldwin Spencer report made it known that many mixed-descent children who had been born during construction of the Ghan railway were abandoned at early ages with no-one to provide for them. This incident and others spurred the need for State action to provide for and protect such children.[8] Current route map of the Ghan The Ghan, short for The Afghan, is the 48-hour, 2,979-km passenger service on the Adelaide-Alice Springs-Darwin Central Australian Railway in Australia. ...


The policy in practice

According to the Bringing Them Home Report, at least 100,000 children were removed from their parents, and the figure may be substantially higher (the report notes that formal records of removals were very poorly kept). It stated:

Nationally we can conclude with confidence that between one in three and one in ten Indigenous children were forcibly removed from their families and communities in the period from approximately 1910 until 1970. In certain regions and in certain periods the figure was undoubtedly much greater than one in ten. In that time not one family has escaped the effects of forcible removal (confirmed by representatives of the Queensland and WA Governments in evidence to the Inquiry). Most families have been affected, in one or more generations, by the forcible removal of one or more children.[9]

The report closely examined the distinctions between "forcible removal", "removal under threat or duress", "official deception", "uninformed voluntary release", and "voluntary release".[10] It noted that some removals were certainly voluntary. Mothers may have surrendered their children for any number of reasons (due to sickness, poverty, living arrangements, racism, etc). There was also evidence that some Aboriginal parents voluntarily sent their children to religious missions, in the hope that at least in this way they would be able to retain contact with their children and some knowledge of their whereabouts. Furthermore, the report acknowledged that in several cases the state took responsibility for children that were genuinely orphaned or in a state of neglect.[citation needed]


Conversely, evidence indicated that in a large number of cases children were brutally and forcibly removed from their parent or parents, possibly even from the hospital shortly after their birth. Aboriginal Protection Officers often made the judgment on removal. In some cases, families were required to sign legal documents to relinquish care to the state, though this process was subverted in a number of instances. In Western Australia, the Aborigines Act 1905 removed the legal guardianship of Aboriginal parents and made their children all legal wards of the state, so no parental permission was required.[11] Slogan or Nickname: Wildflower State or the Golden State Other Australian states and territories Capital Perth Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Ken Michael Premier Alan Carpenter (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 15  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2005-06)  - Product ($m)  $107,910 (4th)  - Product per capita  $53,134/person...


The report also identified instances of official misrepresentation and deception, such as when caring and able parents were incorrectly described by Aboriginal Protection Officers as not being able to properly provide for their children, or when parents were told by government officials that their children had died, even though this was not the case. One first hand account referring to events in 1935 stated: 1935 (MCMXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar). ...

"I was at the post office with my Mum and Auntie [and cousin]. They put us in the police ute and said they were taking us to Broome. They put the mums in there as well. But when we'd gone [about ten miles] they stopped, and threw the mothers out of the car. We jumped on our mothers' backs, crying, trying not to be left behind. But the policemen pulled us off and threw us back in the car. They pushed the mothers away and drove off, while our mothers were chasing the car, running and crying after us. We were screaming in the back of that car. When we got to Broome they put me and my cousin in the Broome lock-up. We were only ten years old. We were in the lock-up for two days waiting for the boat to Perth." [12]

The report discovered that removed children were, in most cases, placed into institutional facilities operated by religious or charitable organisations, although a significant number, particularly females, were "fostered" out. Children taken to such places were frequently punished if caught speaking local indigenous languages, and the intention was specifically to prevent them being socialised in Aboriginal cultures, and raise the boys as agricultural labourers and the girls as domestic servants.[13] Aboriginal Australia contains a large number of tribal divisions and language groups, and, corresponding to this, a wide variety of diversity exists within cultural practices. ...


A common aspect of the removals was the failure by these institutions to keep records of the actual parentage of the child, or such details as the date or place of birth. As is stated in the report:

the physical infrastructure of missions, government institutions and children's homes was often very poor and resources were insufficient to improve them or to keep the children adequately clothed, fed and sheltered."[14]

Further, the report found that incidence of sexual abuse were disturbingly high. Overall 17% of females and 8% of males reported experiencing some form of sexual abuse while under institutional or foster care.[15] “Bad Touch” redirects here. ...


Social impact on members of the Stolen Generation

The social impacts of forced removal have been measured and found to be quite severe. Although the stated aim of the "resocialisation" programme was to improve the integration of Aboriginals into modern society, a study conducted in Melbourne and cited in the official report found that there was no tangible improvement in the social position of "removed" Aborigines as compared to "non-removed", particularly in the areas of employment and post-secondary education. Most notably, the study indicated that removed Aboriginals were actually less likely to have completed a secondary education, three times as likely to have acquired a police record and were twice as likely to use illicit drugs. The only notable advantage "removed" Aboriginals possessed was a higher average income, which the report noted was most likely due to the increased urbanisation of removed individuals, and hence greater access to welfare payments than for Aboriginals living in tribal communities.[16] The City of Melbournes coat of arms The central business district of Melbourne, viewed from the north Alternate meanings: Melbourne (disambiguation) Melbourne is the capital and largest city of the state of Victoria, and the second largest city in Australia, with a population of 52,117 in the Central...


By around the age of 18 the children were released from government control and where it was available were sometimes allowed to view their government file. According to the testimony of one Aboriginal person:

“I was requested to attend at the Sunshine Welfare Offices, where they formerly discharged me from State wardship. It took the Senior Welfare Officer a mere twenty minutes to come clean, and tell me everything that my heart had always wanted to know…that I was of 'Aboriginal descent', that I had a Natural mother, father, three brothers and a sister, who were alive…He placed in front of me 368 pages of my file, together with letters, photos and birthday cards. He informed me that my surname would change back to my Mother's maiden name of Angus.” [17]

The Bringing Them Home report condemned the policy of disconnecting children from their "cultural heritage". Said one witness to the commission:

"I've got everything that could be reasonably expected: a good home environment, education, stuff like that, but that's all material stuff. It's all the non-material stuff that I didn't have — the lineage... You know, you've just come out of nowhere; there you are". [18]

On the other hand, some Aboriginal people do not condemn the government’s past actions, as they see that part of their intention was to offer opportunities for education and an eventual job. According to the testimony of one Aboriginal person:

“I guess the government didn't mean it as something bad but our mothers weren't treated as people having feelings…Who can imagine what a mother went through? But you have to learn to forgive.”[19]

Historical debates over the Stolen Generation

Main article: History wars

Despite the lengthy and detailed findings set out in the Bringing Them Home report, the nature and extent of the removals documented in the report have been debated and disputed within Australia, with some commentators questioning the findings and asserting that the Stolen Generation has been exaggerated. Not only has the number of children removed from their parents been questioned (critics often quote the ten percent estimate, which they say does not constitute a 'generation'), but also the intent and effects of the government policy. The History wars are an ongoing public debate over the interpretation of the history of the white colonisation of Australia and its influence on responses to the current situation of the original inhabitants of the land. ...


Some conservative journalists, such as Andrew Bolt, have publicly questioned the very existence of the Stolen Generation. Bolt considers that it is a "preposterous and obscene" myth and that there was actually no policy in any state or territory at any time for the systematic removal of "half-caste" Aboriginal children. He has also labeled the Stolen Generation as a "theory"[20] and "propaganda".[21] Professor of politics at La Trobe University, Robert Manne, has responded that Bolt's failure to address the wealth of documentary and anecdotal evidence demonstrating the existence of the Stolen Generation amounts to a clear case of historical denialism.[22] Bolt has publicly challenged Robert Manne to produce ten cases in which the evidence justifies the claim that they were "stolen" as opposed to having been removed for legitimate reasons such as neglect, abuse, abandonment, etc. He argues that Robert Manne's inability to produce as few as ten credible cases is a good indicator of how unreliable the claims that there was policy of systematic removal are.[23] Andrew Bolt (born 26 September 1959) is an Australian newspaper columnist and conservative pundit. ... The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Political Science is the field concerning the theory and practice of politics and the description and analysis of political systems and political behaviour. ... La Trobe University is a multi-campus university in Victoria, Australia. ... Robert Manne is a professor of politics at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia and one of Australias foremost public intellectuals. ... Denialism is a term used to describe the position of governments, business groups, interest groups or individuals who reject propositions that are strongly supported by scientific or historical evidence and seek to influence policy processes and outcomes accordingly. ...


Some commentators such as the former president of Australia's Human Rights Commission, Sir Ronald Wilson, have alleged that the Stolen Generation was nothing less than a case of attempted genocide, because it was believed that doing this would cause Aborigines to die out.[24]


In April 2000 a scandal occurred when the then Aboriginal Affairs Minister in the conservative Howard Government, John Herron, tabled a report in the Australian Parliament that questioned whether or not there ever actually had been a "Stolen Generation", on the semantic distinction that as "only 10% of Aboriginal children" has been removed, they did not constitute an entire "generation". After a week of scathing media commentary and the attempted invasion of parliament by scores of protestors, Mr Herron apologised for the "understandable offence taken by some people" as a result of his comments, although he refused to alter the report as it had been tabled, and in particular the (disputed) figure of 10%. [citation needed] 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December This is a timeline for events in April, 2000. ... Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ... Dr John Joseph Herron (born 4 September 1932)[1], Australian politician, ambassador and medical doctor, was a Liberal member of the Australian Senate from 1 July 1990 to 5 September 2002, representing Queensland. ... Parliament House, Canberra The Parliament of Australia is a bicameral parliament consisting of the Queen of Australia, the House of Representatives (the lower house) and the Senate (the upper house or house of review). Section 1 of the Constitution of Australia provides that: The legislative power of the Commonwealth shall...


Public awareness and recognition

Widespread awareness of the Stolen Generation, and the practices which created it, only began to enter the public arena in the late 1980s through the efforts of Aboriginal activists, artists and musicians, (Midnight Oil's famous track "The Dead Heart" being one example of the latter.) The extensive public interest in the Mabo case had the side effect of throwing the media spotlight on all issues related to Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders in Australia, and most notably the Stolen Generation. The 1980s refers to the years from 1980 to 1989. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action to bring about social or political change. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Mabo v Queensland (No 2) (commonly known as Mabo) is a landmark Australian court case which was decided by the High Court of Australia on June 3, 1992. ... Torres Strait Islanders are the indigenous people of the Torres Strait Islands, part of Queensland, Australia. ...


This inquiry commenced in May 1995, presided over by Sir Ronald Wilson, the president of the (Australian) Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission, and Mick Dodson, the Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Social Justice Commissioner at the Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC). During the ensuing 17 months, the Inquiry visited every state and Territory in Australia, heard testimony from 535 Aboriginal Australians, and received submissions of evidence from over 600 more. In April 1997 the official Bringing Them Home Report was released. Sir Ronald Wilson Sir Ronald Wilson, AC , KBE , CMG , QC , LL.M , LL.B ( 23 August 1922- 15 July 2005) was born on 23 August 1922 . ... Professor Michael James Mick Dodson AM,(b. ... The Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (HREOC) is a national independent statutory body of the Australian Government. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ...


Between the commissioning of the National Inquiry and the release of the final report in 1997, the conservative government of John Howard had replaced the Keating government. The report proved to be a considerable embarrassment for the Howard administration, as it recommended that the Australian Government formally apologise to the affected families, a proposal actively rejected by Howard, on the grounds that a formal admission of wrongdoing would lead to massive compensation litigation. Howard was quoted as saying "Australians of this generation should not be required to accept guilt and blame for past actions and policies."[25] As a result Commissioner Dodson resigned from the Council for Aboriginal Reconciliation, saying in a newspaper column that "I despair for my country and regret the ignorance of political leaders who do not appreciate what is required to achieve reconciliation for us as a nation."[26] Ths article deals with conservatism as a political philosophy. ... John Winston Howard (born 26 July 1939) is an Australian politician and the 25th Prime Minister of Australia. ...


As a result of the report, formal apologies were tabled and passed in the state parliaments of Victoria, South Australia and New South Wales, and also in the parliament of the Northern Territory. On 26 May 1998 the first "National Sorry Day" was held, and reconciliation events were held nationally, and attended by over a million people. As public pressure continued to increase, Howard drafted a motion of "deep and sincere regret over the removal of Aboriginal children from their parents" which was passed by the federal parliament in August 1999. Howard went on to say that the Stolen Generation represented "...the most blemished chapter in the history of this country." [27] “VIC” redirects here. ... Capital Adelaide Government Constitutional monarchy Governor Marjorie Jackson-Nelson Premier Mike Rann (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 11  - Senate seats 12 Gross State Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $59,819 (5th)  - Product per capita  $38,838/person (7th) Population (End of September 2006)  - Population  1,558,200 (5th)  - Density  1. ... “NSW” redirects here. ... Slogan or Nickname: The Territory, The NT, The Top End Motto(s): none Other Australian states and territories Capital Darwin Government Constitutional monarchy Administrator Ted Egan Chief Minister Clare Martin (ALP) Federal representation  - House seats 2  - Senate seats 2 Gross Territorial Product (2004-05)  - Product ($m)  $10,418 (8th)  - Product... is the 146th day of the year (147th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... The National Sorry Day is an Australian event, held each year on May 26 since 1998. ... This article is about the year. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ...


In July 2000, the issue of the Stolen Generation came before the United Nations Commission on Human Rights in Geneva who heavily criticised the Howard government for its manner of attempting to resolve the issues related to the Stolen Generation. Australia was also the target of a formal censure by the UN Committee for the Elimination of Racial Discrimination. [28] [29] 2000 : January - February - March - April - May - June - July - August - September - October - November - December This is a timeline for events in July, 2000. ... United Nations Commission on Human Rights - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Geneva (pronunciation //; French: Genève //, German:   //, Italian: Ginevra //, Romansh: Genevra) is the second most populous city in Switzerland (after Zürich), and is the most populous city of Romandy (the French-speaking part of Switzerland). ... This article is about the United Nations, for other uses of UN see UN (disambiguation) Official languages English, French, Spanish, Russian, Chinese, Arabic Secretary-General Kofi Annan (since 1997) Established October 24, 1945 Member states 191 Headquarters New York City, NY, USA Official site http://www. ...


Global media attention turned again to the Stolen Generation issue during the Sydney 2000 Summer Olympics. A large "aboriginal tent city" was established on the grounds of Sydney University to bring attention to Aboriginal issues in general. The Aboriginal athlete Cathy Freeman (who was chosen to light the Olympic Flame and went on to win the gold medal for the 400 metre sprint) disclosed in interviews that her own grandmother was a victim of forced removal. The internationally successful rock group Midnight Oil obtained worldwide media interest when they performed at the Olympic closing ceremony wearing black sweatsuits with the word "SORRY" emblazoned across them. This article is about the metropolitan area in Australia. ... The 2000 Summer Olympics or the Millennium Games/Games of the New Millennium, officially known as the Games of the XXVII Olympiad, were the Summer Olympic Games held in 2000 in Sydney, New South Wales, Australia. ... Catherine Astrid Salome Freeman OAM (born February 16, 1973) is an Australian athlete who is particularly associated with the 400 m race. ... The Olympic Flame at the Athens 2004 Summer Olympics The Olympic Flame, Olympic Fire, Olympic Torch, Olympic Light, Olympic Eye, and Olympic Sun is a symbol of the Olympic Games. ...


Prior to the Sydney Olympics a mockumentary called The Games was broadcast on ABC TV. In the episode shown on 3 July the actor John Howard made a recording "for international release" of an apology to the Stolen Generation, ostensibly on behalf of the Australian people.[30] This article or section cites very few or no references or sources. ... The Games was an Australian mockumentary TV series about the run-up to the Sydney Olympics in 2000. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... John Howard (born October 22, 1952) is an Australian stage and screen actor. ...


Legal status and compensation

The legal circumstances regarding the Stolen Generation remain unclear. Although some compensation claims are pending, it is not possible for a court to rule on behalf of plaintiffs simply because they were removed, as at the time, such removals were entirely legal under Australian law. Likewise, even though the actions may have contravened International Law, ruling on such a basis is outside the jurisdiction of Australian courts. At least two compensation claims have passed through the Australian courts and failed. The presiding judge noted in his summary judgement that he was not ruling that there would never be valid cases for compensation with regard to the Stolen Generation, only that in these specific two cases he could not find evidence of illegal conduct by the officials involved.[citation needed] Categories: Australia | Law by country ...


Bruce Trevorrow

On 1 August 2007, in a decision in the Supreme Court of South Australia by Justice Thomas Gray, Bruce Trevorrow, a member of the Stolen Generation was awarded $525,000 compensation ($450,000.00 for general damages and $75,000.00 for exemplary damages) after a 10 year battle with the Government of South Australia in the courts.[31] The SA Government has said they will pay Mr Trevorrow the compensation which has been awarded, but has not yet indicated if it will appeal the decision's findings of law and fact.[32] is the 213th day of the year (214th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... The Supreme Court of South Australia building from Victoria Square. ... Punitive damages are damages awarded to a successful plaintiff in a civil action, over and above the amount of compensatory damages, to: punish the conduct of the civil defendant; deter the civil defendant from committing the invidious act again; and deter others from doing the same thing. ... The form of the Government of South Australia is prescribed in its Constitution, which dates from 1856, although it has been amended many times since then. ...


The West Australian newspaper reported Bruce Trevorrow's story as follows: The West Australian (often simply called The West) is Perths only locally edited daily newspaper, and is owned by ASX-listed West Australian Newspapers Limited. ...

Mr Trevorrow was separated from his mother in December 1957 after he was admitted to Adelaide's Children's Hospital with gastroenteritis. More than six months later, his mother wrote to the State's Aboriginal Protection Board, which had fostered him out, asking when she could have her son back. "I am writing to ask if you would let me know how Bruce is and how long before I can have him back home," she wrote in July 1958. "I have not forgot I got a baby in there". The Court was told the board lied to her, writing her son was "making good progress" and that the doctors still needed him for treatment.[33]

See also Bacterial gastroenteritis and Diarrhea inflammation or infection of the gastrointestinal tract, primarily the stomach and intestines. ... Foster care is a system by which a certified, stand-in parent(s) cares for minor children or young people who have been removed from their biological parents or other custodial adults by state authority. ...

Rabbit Proof Fence book and film

In 2002 the Australian film Rabbit-Proof Fence was released, based on the book Follow The Rabbit Proof Fence by Doris Pilkington Garimara. It concerns the author's mother, and two other young mixed-race Aboriginal girls, who ran away from Moore River Native Settlement, north of Perth, in which they were placed in 1931, in order to return to their Aboriginal families. Also see: 2002 (number). ... Map of the actual Rabbit proof fence showing the trip from Moore River to Jigalong. ... Doris Pilkington is the European name Australian Aboriginal novelist Nugi Garimara. ... The Moore River Native Settlement was the name of the now defunct Aboriginal settlement located 135 km north of Perth and 10 km west of Mogumber in Western Australia, near the headwaters of the Moore River. ... Location of Perth within Australia This article is about the metropolitan area of Perth, Western Australia. ... Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In an interview with the ABC, Doris recalls how she was removed from her mother at the age of about three or four. She was not re-united with her mother until she was twenty-five, and up until that time she believed that her mother had given her away. When they were re-united Doris was unable to speak her mother's language and had been taught to regard her culture as evil.[34] The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ...


Kanyani SBS Television documentary

In August 2007 SBS Television Australia screened a profile on a member of the Stolen Generation.

Bob Randall is a member of the Yankunytjatjara people, and one of the listed traditional owners of Uluru. He was taken away from his mother as a child. He remained at the government reservation until he was 20, working at various jobs, including as a carpenter, stockman and crocodile hunter. He helped establish the Adelaide Community College, and lectured on Aboriginal cultures. He served as the director of the Northern Australia Legal Aid Service, and established Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander centres at the Australian National University, University of Canberra and University of Wollongong. He was named 'Indigenous Person of the Year', and inducted in the NT music hall of fame for such classic songs as Brown Skin Baby, Red Sun and Black Moon, about the Coniston massacre. He is also the author of two books: his autobiography "Songman", and a children's book 'Tracker Tjginji". (From Australia, in English) (Documentary) WS [35] Yankunytjatjara (also Yankuntatjara, Jangkundjara, Kulpantja) is an Australian Aboriginal language. ... , also known as Ayers Rock, is a large sandstone rock formation in the southern part of the Northern Territory, central Australia. ... The Australian National University, or ANU, is a public university located in Canberra, Australia. ... The University of Canberra is an Australian university, located in Canberra, the capital of Australia. ... The University of Wollongong is a large University with approximately 21,000 students in the city of Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia. ... The Coniston massacre was the last known massacre of Indigenous Australians; people of the families from the Warlpiri, Anmatyerre and Kaytetye groups were killed. ...

See also

Auber Octavius Neville (October 20, 1875–April 18, 1954) was a bureaucrat in Western Australia. ... Katherine Mary Clutterbuck (born 1860 in Wiltshire, England, died 1946 in Nedlands, Western Australia), known universally as Sister Kate, was an Anglican Nun, who pioneered a cottage home system for looking after orphan babies and children in Western Australia. ... Cultural genocide is a term used to describe the deliberate destruction of the cultural heritage of a people or nation for political or military reasons. ... Eugenics is the self-direction of human evolution: Logo from the Second International Congress of Eugenics, 1921, depicting it as a tree which unites a variety of different fields. ... The history of Australia began when people first migrated to the Australian continent from the north, at least 40,000-45,000 years ago. ... The History wars are an ongoing public debate over the interpretation of the history of the white colonisation of Australia and its influence on responses to the current situation of the original inhabitants of the land. ... The Moseley Royal Commission, officially titled the Royal Commission Appointed to Investigate, Report and Advise Upon Matters in Relation to the Condition and Treatment of Aborigines. ...

Notable persons

  • Ken Colbung, Political activist and leader.
  • Belinda Dann, Born as Quinlyn Warrakoo, forced name change to Belinda Boyd. Deceased at 107 years of age making her the longest lived member of the stolen generation.
  • Polly Farmer, Australian rules footballer.
  • Sue Gordon, Perth Children's Court magistrate.
  • May O'Brien, Head of Aboriginal Education.
  • Doris Pilkington Garimara, Author of Rabbit Proof Fence.
  • Bob Randall, Indigenous Australian of the Year.
  • Rob Riley (deceased), director of the Aboriginal Legal Service.
  • Cedric Wyatt, Chief Executive Officer of the Department of Aboriginal Affairs in WA.

Ken Colbung (born 2 September 1931), also known by his indigenous name Nundjan Djiridjarkan, is an indigenous Australian leader. ... Belinda Dann (born 4th July 1900 in Lunlungai community, Derby, Western Australia, died 9th October 2007 aged 107 in Port Hedland, Western Australia) was born as Quinlyn Warrakoo to an Irish cattle station manager and a Nykina mother. ... Graham Polly Farmer (born March 10, 1935) is a retired Australian rules football player and coach. ... Dr. Sue Gordon (AM), is an indigenous Australian magistrate from Western Australia. ... Doris Pilkington is the European name Australian Aboriginal novelist Nugi Garimara. ... The late Robert Riley was an Aboriginal activist advancing Indigenous issues in Australia. ... Languages Several hundred Indigenous Australian languages (many extinct or nearly so), Australian English, Australian Aboriginal English, Torres Strait Creole, Kriol Religions Primarily Christian, with minorities of other religions including various forms of Traditional belief systems based around the Dreamtime Related ethnic groups see List of Indigenous Australian group names Indigenous... This List of Indigenous Australian group names contains names and collective designations which have been applied, either formerly or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians. ... The Torres Strait Islander Flag. ... Numerous Indigenous Australians have been notable for their contributions to politics, including participation in governments and activism in Australia. ... Numerous Indigenous Australians and noted sportspeople. ... Numerous Indigenous Australians are noted for their participation in, and contributions to, the visual arts in Australia and abroad. ... // Mark Bin Bakar -- actor & comedian Stephen Page Frances Rings Kylie Belling -- actor Ernie Dingo -- actor and television presenter Stan Grant (journalist) television presenter David Gulpilil -- actor Tom E. Lewis -- actor, musician Deborah Mailman -- actor Leah Purcell -- actor Everlyn Sampi -- actor Justine Saunders -- actor Caitlin Stasey -- actor Ivan Sen -- filmmaker Robert... Numerous Indigenous Australians are notable for their contributions to Australian literature and journalism. ... This is a list of Indigenous Australian musicians. ... Aboriginal Australia contains a large number of tribal divisions and language groups, and, corresponding to this, a wide variety of diversity exists within cultural practices. ... This article is about Australian Aboriginal cosmogony, cosmology and spirituality. ... opens chapter nine of The Dreaming Universe (1994) entitled The Dreamtime with a quote from The Last Wave, a film by Peter Weir: Aboriginals believe in two forms of time. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Australian Aboriginal kinship is the system of law governing social interaction, particularly marriage, in traditional Aboriginal culture. ... Australian Aboriginal avoidance practices refers to those relationships in traditional Aboriginal society where certain people were required to avoid others in their family or clan. ... Indigenous Australians had distinct ways of dividing the year up. ... Australian Aboriginal enumeration refers to the way some Australian Aborigines traditionally counted. ... Marn Grook (also spelt marngrook) is an Australian Aboriginal ball game, which is claimed to have had an influence on the modern game of Australian rules football, most notably in the spectacular jumping and high marking exhibited by the players of both games. ... Kurdaitcha (or kurdaitcha man) is a ritual executioner in Aboriginal Australian culture. ... Many of the Australian Aboriginal cultures have a strong element of astronomy. ... Songlines - the British based world music magazine featuring the greatest artists in the current music scene on the web at [Songlines http://www. ... A message stick is a form of communication traditionally used by Indigenous Australians. ... The Deadlys are an annual celebration of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander achievement in music, sport, entertainment and community. ... NAIDOC National Aboriginal Islander Day Observance Committee ... A Bora is the name given both to an initiation ceremony of Indigenous Australians, and to the site on which the initiation is performed. ... The Outstation movement refers to the relocation of Indigenous Australians from towns to remote outposts on traditional tribal land. ... Riji are the pearl shells traditionally worn by Aboriginal men in the north-west part of Australia, around present day Broome. ... First international Biggest win Biggest defeat The Australian Indigenous national football team is the official football (soccer) team for the Indigenous Australian People. ... This List of Indigenous Australian group names contains names and collective designations which have been applied, either formerly or in the past, to groups of Indigenous Australians. ... The Pama-Nyungan languages are the most widespread family of Australian languages. ... Many Australian Aboriginal cultures have or traditionally had a sign language counterpart to their spoken language. ... Avoidance speech, or mother-in-law languages, is a feature of many Australian Aboriginal languages and some North American languages whereby in the presence of certain relatives it is taboo to use everyday speech style, and instead a special speech style must be used. ... . ... These words of Australian Aboriginal origin include some which are almost universal in the English-speaking world, such as kangaroo and boomerang. ... The Gunwinyguan languages form the second largest family of Australian Aboriginal languages. ... Australian Aboriginal English (AAE) is a term referring to the various varieties of the English language used by Indigenous Australians. ... Kriol is an Australian creole that developed out of the contact between European settlers and the indigenous people in the northern regions of Australia. ... There are two languages indigenous to Torres Strait Islanders. ... The Northern Land Council (NLC) is in the Top End of the Northern Territory of Australia. ... The Central Land Council is in the southern half of the Northern Territory of Australia. ... The Aboriginal Medical Service (AMS) was established in Redfern from 1971. ... Australians for Native Title and Reconciliation (ANTaR) is an independent, national network of mainly non-Indigenous organisations and individuals working in support of justice for Indigenous Australians. ... Reconciliation Australia is the non-government, not-for-profit foundation established in January 2001 to provide a continuing national focus for reconciliation. ... European Network for Indigenous Australian Rights (ENIAR) is a European wide non-profit organisation that promotes awareness of Australian Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander issues and to provide information for Indigenous Australians about European and international organisations. ... The Australian Institute of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Studies (AIATSIS) is an independent Australian Government statutory authority. ... The National Indigenous Council is an appointed advisory body to the Australian Government through the Ministerial Taskforce on Indigenous Affairs. ... The Aborigines Advancement League (also known as the Aboriginal Advancement League) is the oldest Aboriginal organisation in Australia[1]. It is primarily concerned with Aboriginal welfare issues and the preservation of Aboriginal culture and heritage, and is based in Melbourne. ... Bush Tucker is a colloquial Australian term for any food native to Australia and eaten before European colonisation. ... Bush medicine is the term used in Australia by Aboriginal people to describe their traditional medicinal knowledge and practices. ... Aboriginal millstone - vital in making flour or pastes for bread. ... Australian Aboriginal fibrecraft refers to the various ways Australian Aborigines created fibres traditionally. ... A soakage, or soak, is a source of water in Australian deserts. ... A 19th century engraving showing Aboriginal people and humpy. ... Sewn and incised possum-skin cloak of Wurundjeri origin (Melbourne Museum) Possum-skin cloaks were a form of clothing worn by Australian Aborigines in the south-east of the continent – present-day Victoria and southern New South Wales. ... Buka, or Boka, is the name for the cloak traditionally worn by Noongar people, the Indigenous people of south-western Australia. ... Indigenous Australian peoples traditionally classified food sources in a methodical way. ... Australian Aborigines had many ways to source sweet foods. ... Fire-stick farming is a term coined by Australian archeologist Rhys Jones in 1969 to describe the practice of Indigenous Australians where fire was used regularly to burn vegetation to facilitate hunting and to change the composition of plant and animal species in an area. ... The woomera in this picture is the wooden object at left A woomera is an Australian Aboriginal spear-throwing device. ... This article is about the wooden implement. ... The coolamon in this picture is at top left. ... A Waddy is an Australian Aboriginal war club. ... Spinifex (Triodia) plant Spinifex resin refers to the gum traditionally made by Australian Aborigines by burning the Spinifex plant and extracting its resin. ... Aboriginal hollowed log coffin Indigenous Australian art is art produced by Indigenous Australians, covering works that pre-date European colonisation as well as contemporary art by Aboriginal Australians based on traditional culture. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Papunya Tula, or Papunya Tula Artists Pty Ltd, is an artists cooperative, formed in 1972 to market the paintings of a group of Aboriginal Australian men who had begun painting traditional designs using western art materials at the Papunya settlement, 240 km northwest of Alice Springs in Central Australia in... Indigenous Australian music includes the music of Australian Aborigines and Torres Strait Islanders, who are collectively called Indigenous Australians; it incorporates a wide variety of distinctive traditional music styles practised by Indigenous Australian peoples, as well as a range of contemporary musical styles both derivative of and fusion with European... Aboriginal rock is a rather nebulous term for a style of music which mixes traditional rock music elements (guitar, drums, bass etc) with the instrumentation of Indigenous Australians (Didjeridu, clap-sticks etc). ... A didgeridoo. ... Vibe Australia Pty Ltd (Vibe) is an Aboriginal media, communications and events management agency. ... The National Aboriginal & Torres Strait Islander Art Award (NATSIAA) is one of the most prestigious art awards in Australia. ... The prehistory of Australia is a term which may be used to describe the period of approximately 40-45,000 years (or more, as is contended by some studies) between the first human habitation of the Australian continent and the first definitive sighting of Australia by Europeans in 1606, which... // A 19th century engraving of an Indigenous Australian encampment, showing the indigenous mode of life in the cooler parts of Australia at the time of European settlement. ... Some Indigenous Australians are remembered in history for leadership prior to European colonisation, some for their resistance to that colonisation, others for assisting Europeans explore the country. ... The Aboriginal History of Western Australia is the history of the indigenous inhabitants of the western third of the Australian continent, from their own perspective. ... The 1946 Pilbara strike was a landmark strike by Indigenous Australian pastoral workers in the Pilbara region of Western Australia for human rights recognition and payment of fair wages and working conditions. ... Shows location of Gurindji (blue, near top left) in the Northern Territory The Gurindji Strike lasted from 1966 to 1975 at Wave Hill cattle station in the Northern Territory of Australia. ... This is a list of massacres of Indigenous Australians. ... Umbarra, King Merriman, from the Djirringanj of Bermagui with King plate King plates were a form of regalia used chiefly in pre-Federation Australia by white colonial authorities to recognise local Aboriginal leaders. ... Proclamation of the Day of Mourning. ... The Aboriginal Tent Embassy in Canberra has existed intermittently since 1972. ... The Caledon bay crisis refers to a series of killings in Caledon Bay in the Northern Territory of Australia in 1932-1934. ... From as early as the 1830s, a Native Police Corps was established in the Australian colony of New South Wales (now Victoria). ... Proclamation of the Day of Mourning. ... The Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Commission (ATSIC) (1990–2005) was the Australian Government body through which Aboriginal Australians and Torres Strait Islanders were formally involved in the processes of government affecting their lives. ... The Pintupi Nine refers to a group of nine Pintupi people who were discovered living a traditional semi-nomadic desert-dwelling life in the Gibson Desert in 1984. ... A picture of the last four Tasmanian Aborigines c. ... Native title is a concept in the law of Australia that recognises the continued ownership of land by local Indigenous Australians. ... Petrol sniffing is a form of substance abuse where a person deliberately inhales petrol fumes for the intoxicating effect. ... The Royal Commission into Aboriginal Deaths in Custody (1987-1991) investigated allegations of murder of Australian Aboriginals in prison. ...

References

  1. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/stolen/stolen68.html Listing and interpretation of state acts regarding 'aborigines'.
  2. ^ Bringing them home: The 'Stolen Children' report. Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission (2005). Retrieved on 2006-10-08.
  3. ^ Ryan, Peter. A better place, Quadrant, January 2003, Volume XLVII Number 1-2
  4. ^ Barrett, Rebecca. Stolen generation debate re-ignited, Australian Broadcasting Corporation, February 23, 2001
  5. ^ Russell McGregor, Imagined Destinies. Aboriginal Australians and the Doomed Race Theory, 1880-1939, Melbourne: MUP, 1997
  6. ^ M.F. Christie, Aboriginal People in Colonial Victoria, 1835-86, pp.175-176.
  7. ^ http://www.tim-richardson.net/misc/stolen_generation.html
  8. ^ http://www.nationalobserver.net/2001_winter_legal.htm
  9. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/other/IndigLRes/stolen/stolen08.html
  10. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/stolen/stolen04.html
  11. ^ Aborigines Act of 1905
  12. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/stolen/stolen04.html/
  13. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/stolen/stolen68.html Listing and interpretation of state acts regarding 'aborigines'.
  14. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/stolen/stolen18.html
  15. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/stolen/stolen18.html
  16. ^ Bereson, Itiel. Decades of Change: Australia in the Twentieth Century. Richmond, Victoria: Heinemann Educational Australia, 1989
  17. ^ Confidential submission 133, Victoria
  18. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/hreoc/stolen/stolen04.html
  19. ^ Confidential evidence 305, South Australia
  20. ^ Stolen generations: My Melbourne Writers' Festival speech - Andrew Bolt, Herald Sun
  21. ^ Another stolen life - Andrew Bolt, Herald Sun
  22. ^ The cruelty of denial - Robert Manne
  23. ^ [1]
  24. ^ "A Stolen Generation Cries Out", Reuters, May 1997. 
  25. ^ http://www.austlii.edu.au/au/special/rsjproject/rsjlibrary/car/arc/speeches/opening/howard.htm
  26. ^ http://www.theage.com.au/news/national/2000/12/08/FFXDTEAWFGC.html
  27. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/7.30/stories/s115691.htm
  28. ^ http://www.smh.com.au/news/0007/22/text/pageone8.html
  29. ^ http://www.theage.com.au/news/20000718/A12986-2000Jul17.html
  30. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/thegames/howard.htm
  31. ^ The Advertiser, Adelaide, Thursday August 2 2007
  32. ^ SA Govt will not contest Stolen Generations compo payment, ABC News Thu Aug 2, 2007 4:35pm AEST Accessed 3 August 2007
  33. ^ The West Australian, Thursday August 2 2007
  34. ^ http://www.abc.net.au/message/tv/ms/s731524.htm
  35. ^ SBS TV

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 281st day of the year (282nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Quadrant is an Australian literary and cultural journal founded in 1956 by Richard Krygier, a Polish-Jewish refugee who had been active in social-democrat politics in Europe, James McAuley, a Catholic poet. ... The Australian Broadcasting Corporation or ABC is Australias national non-profit public broadcaster. ... Andrew Bolt (born 26 September 1959) is an Australian newspaper columnist and conservative pundit. ... The Herald Sun is a newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, that is published by The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, a subsidiary of Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... Andrew Bolt (born 26 September 1959) is an Australian newspaper columnist and conservative pundit. ... The Herald Sun is a newspaper in Melbourne, Australia, that is published by The Herald and Weekly Times Ltd, a subsidiary of Rupert Murdochs News Corporation. ... Robert Manne is a professor of politics at La Trobe University, Melbourne, Australia and one of Australias foremost public intellectuals. ...

External links

  • The agony of Australia's Stolen Generation - The first of Australia's Stolen Generations to win compensation. BBC News
  • Bringing Them Home: Report of the National Inquiry into the Separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from Their Families. The official Australian government report.
  • The (Australian) Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission website
  • The (Australian) Human Rights and Equal Opportunities Commission's education module on the separation of Aboriginal and Torres Strait Islander Children from their Families
  • Summary of the Stolen Generation from the Australian Parliamentary Library website
  • An Index to the Chief Protector of Aborigines Files 1898 - 1908
  • Rob Riley, CEO ALS 1990-1995 Telling Our Story ALSWA
  • Essay by Allan Noble
  • A Trans-Generational Effect of The Aborigines Act 1905 (WA): The Making of the Fringedwellers in the South-West of Western Australia
  • Essay by Robert Manne
  • Robert Maane's list
  • Essay by Kenneth Maddock Argues that the child removal policy was not genocidal
  • WHY ARE WE NOT SO SORRY by Australian League of Rights
  • White Over Black: Discourses of Whiteness in Australian Culture in Borderlands eJournal Focuses on debates about representing Australia’s colonial history, specifically in regard to child removal.
  • Mark Stephen Copland, Calculating Lives: The Numbers and Narratives of Forced Removals in Queensland 1859 - 1972 Electronic full-text version of Ph.D Thesis.
  • Home page of the Kimberley Stolen Generation Aboriginal Corporation
  • Biographical Entry - The Australian Dictionary of Biography Online
  • Guide to Institutions Attended by Aboriginal People in Western Australia Compiled by researchers employed by the State Solicitor’s Office
  • Sister Kate's on the WA Government Heritage Register
  • West Australian Government history of Noongar in the South West
  • Aboriginal Western Australia and Federation
  • Sue Gordon becomes a force for her people
  • Fremantle Arts Centre Press - My Place by Sally Morgan
  • Human Rights and Equal Opportunity Commission - Bringing them Home - The Report
  • History News Network article on Rabbit Proof Fence and Sister Kates
  • GENOCIDE IN AUSTRALIA, by COLIN TATZ, AIATSIS Research Discussion Papers No 8
  • WA's Black Chapter
  • Journey of Healing: Rabbit Proof Fence
  • THE SYSTEMATIC REMOVAL OF INDIGENOUS CHILDREN FROM THEIRFAMILIES IN AUSTRALIA AND CANADA: THE HISTORY – SIMILARITIES AND DIFFERENCES

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stolen Generation Robert Manne essay (4214 words)
In the period before, roughly speaking, 1940, the period this essay focuses on, the part-Aboriginal children were taken from their mothers and families under separate legislation which gave unlimited guardianship to the Aboriginal protectors in their state of origin, frequently without even giving to the parents the right of appeal to a court of law.
Increasingly after 1940 these part-Aboriginal children were taken from their mothers and families under the general child welfare legislation which was, however, in their cases interpreted in such a way that the practices of child removal seem to have continued much as before.
Australians, like others, generally thought that the races of mankind could be fitted neatly into a civilisational hierarchy overlain by some idea of moral worth and of fitness to survive.
Generation - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (291 words)
A generation can also be a stage or degree in a succession of natural descent as a grandfather, a father, and the father's son comprise three generations, however it is usually accepted that every generation skips a generation.
Their definition of "generation" is given as a cohort-group, in which are all persons born in a limited span of consecutive years, whose length approximates the span of a phase of life given to be approximately 22 years, and whose boundaries are fixed by peer personality.
In biology, the process by which populations of organisms acquire and pass on novel traits from generation to generation is known as the theory of evolution.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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