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Encyclopedia > Stokely Carmichael
Stokely Carmichael

Carmichael amidst a demonstration near the United States Capitol protesting the House of Representatives' action denying Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr., his seat, 1967.
Alternate name(s): Kwame Ture
Date of birth: June 29, 1941(1941-06-29)
Place of birth: Flag of Trinidad and TobagoPort of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago
Date of death: November 15, 1998 (aged 57)
Place of death: Flag of GuineaConakry, Guinea
Movement: African-American Civil Rights Movement
Major organizations: Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee, Black Panther Party

Stokely Standiford Churchill Carmichael (June 29, 1941November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was a Trinidadian-American black activist active in the 1960s American Civil Rights Movement. He rose to prominence first as a leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and later as the "Honorary Prime Minister" of the Black Panther Party. Initially an integrationist, Carmichael later became affiliated with black nationalist and Pan-Africanist movements.[1] Image File history File links Stokely_Carmichael_1967. ... The United States Capitol is the capitol building that serves as the location for the United States Congress, the legislative branch of the U.S. federal government. ... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party... A rare spoken word album by Adam Clayton Powell, Jr. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Trinidad_and_Tobago. ... For other uses of the word Trinidad, see Trinidad (disambiguation) Motto Together we aspire, together we achieve Anthem Forged From The Love of Liberty Capital Port of Spain Largest town Chaguanas [1] Official languages English Demonym Trinidadian, Tobagonian Government Republic  -  President George Maxwell Richards  -  Prime Minister Patrick Manning Independence  -  from... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Guinea. ... Conakry or Konakry (Malinké: KÉ”nakiri) is the capital and largest city of Guinea. ... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For other uses, see 1941 (disambiguation). ... is the 319th day of the year (320th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... For other uses of the word Trinidad, see Trinidad (disambiguation) Motto Together we aspire, together we achieve Anthem Forged From The Love of Liberty Capital Port of Spain Largest town Chaguanas [1] Official languages English Demonym Trinidadian, Tobagonian Government Republic  -  President George Maxwell Richards  -  Prime Minister Patrick Manning Independence  -  from... Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... The Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (or SNCC, pronounced snick) was one of the principle organizations of the American Civil Rights Movement in the 1960s. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Pan-African people are all people with African physical features. ...

Contents

Personal life

Born in Port of Spain, Trinidad and Tobago, Carmichael moved to Harlem, New York City in 1952 at age eleven to rejoin his parents,[2] who had left him with his grandmother and two aunts to emigrate when he was two. He attended the elite[3]Tranquility School in Trinidad until his parents were able to send for him.[4] Port of Spain, population 49,000 (2000), is the capital of Trinidad and Tobago and the countrys second largest city by population, after San Fernando. ... For other uses, see Harlem (disambiguation). ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...


His mother, Mabel F. Carmichael,[3] was a stewardess for a steamship line, and his father Adolphus was a carpenter who also worked as a taxi driver.[2] The reunited Carmichael family eventually left Harlem to live in Morris Park in the East Bronx, at that time an aging Jewish and Italian neighborhood. According to a 1967 interview he gave to LIFE Magazine, he was the only black member of the Morris Park Dukes, a youth gang involved in alcohol and petty theft.[2] The East Bronx is that part of the New York City borough of the Bronx which lies east of the Bronx River; this roughly corresponds to the eastern half of the borough. ... A cover of Life Magazine from 1911 Life has been the name of two notable magazines published in the United States. ...


He attended the Bronx High School of Science, a specialized public high school for gifted students with a rigorous entrance exam, from which he graduated in 1960.[5] His experience with the intellectual riches of the high school convinced him to drop his friends from the Dukes gang.[2] The Bronx High School of Science (commonly called Bronx Science, Bronx Sci, or just Science, and officially known as H.S. 445) is a specialized New York City public high school. ...


In 1960, Carmichael went on to attend Howard University, a historically-black school in Washington, D.C., rejecting scholarship offers from several white universities. At Howard his professors included Sterling Brown and Nathan Hare. His apartment on Euclid Street was a gathering place for his activist classmates.[3] He graduated with a degree in philosophy in 1964. [2] Howard University is a university located in Washington, D.C., USA. A historically black university, Howard was established in 1867 by congressional order and named for Oliver O. Howard. ... In the United States, Historically black colleges and universities (HBCU) are colleges or universities that were established before 1964 with the intention of serving the African American community. ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


He joined the Nonviolent Action Group (NAG), the Howard campus affiliate of SNCC.[1] He was inspired by the sit-ins to become more active in the Civil Rights Movement. In his first year at the university, he participated in the Freedom Rides of the Congress of Racial Equality (CORE) and was frequently arrested, spending time in jail. In 1961, he served 49 days at the infamous Parchman Farm of Mississippi.[2] He was arrested many times for his activism. He lost count of his many arrests, sometimes giving the estimate of at least 29 or 32, and telling the Washington Post in 1998 he believed the total number was fewer than 36.[3] The Freedom Rides were a series of nonviolent, direct demonstrations performed in 1961 as part of the U.S. civil rights movement. ... “CORE” redirects here. ... Mississippi State Penitentiary, also known as Parchman Farm, is the oldest prison and the only maximum security prison in the state of Mississippi, USA. It is located on 18,000 acres (73 km²) in Parchman, Mississippi, and was built in 1904. ... ...


Black Power

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Carmichael participated in the Mississippi Freedom Summer, serving as a regional director for SNCC workers and helping to organize the Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party (MFDP). He was deeply disillusioned with the national Democratic Party when the party refused to seat the multi-racial MFDP delegation in place of the official all-white, pro-segregation Mississippi Democratic Party during the 1964 Democratic Party National Convention in Atlantic City, New Jersey. [6] This incident led him to seek alternative means for the political empowerment of African-Americans and to become increasingly influenced by the ideologies of Malcolm X and Kwame Nkrumah. Image File history File links AmericaAfrica. ... An African American (also Afro-American, Black American, or simply black) is a member of an ethnic group in the United States whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Africa. ... 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In 1966 Carmichael journeyed to Lowndes County, Alabama, where he brought together the county's African-American residents to form the Lowndes County Freedom Organization (LCFO). The organization was an effort to form a political party that would bring black residents of Lowndes — who were a majority in the county, but held no elected offices and were locked out of local politics — into power. The organization chose a black panther as its emblem, ostensibly in response to the Alabama Democratic Party's use of a White Rooster. In the press the LCFO became known as the "Black Panther Party" -- a moniker that would eventually provide inspiration for the more-well known Black Panther Party later founded by Huey P. Newton and Bobby Seale in Oakland, California.[7] Carmichael often satirically made references to the media's one-sided renaming of the party: Lowndes County is a county of the State of Alabama. ... A melanistic leopard, or black panther The black panther is the common name for a black specimen (a melanistic variant) of any of several species of cats. ... This article is about the U.S. State. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African American organization founded to promote civil rights and self-defense. ... Huey Newton Dr. Huey Percy Newton (February 17, 1942 – August 22, 1989), was co-founder and inspirational leader of the Black Panther Party for Self Defense, a black internationalist/racial equality organization that began in October 1966. ... Robert George (Bobby) Seale (born October 22, 1936 in Dallas, Texas), is an American civil rights activist, who along with Dr. Huey P. Newton, co-founded the Black Panther Party For Self Defense in 1966. ... Oakland redirects here. ...

In Lowndes County, we developed something called the Lowndes County Freedom Organization. It is a political party. The Alabama law says that if you have a Party you must have an emblem. We chose for the emblem a black panther, a beautiful black animal which symbolizes the strength and dignity of black people...Now there is a Party in Alabama called the Alabama Democratic Party. It is all white. It has as its emblem a white rooster and the words "white supremacy" for the write. Now the gentlemen of the Press, because they're advertisers, and because most of them are white, and because they're produced by that white institution, never called the Lowndes County Freedom Organization by its name, but rather they call it the Black Panther Party. Our question is, Why don't they call the Alabama Democratic Party the "White Cock Party"? It's fair to us...[8]

While he was in Lowndes, the number of registered black voters rose from 70 to 2,600 — 300 more than the number of registered white voters.[2]


Carmichael became chairman of SNCC later in 1966, taking over from John Lewis. A few weeks after Carmichael took office, James Meredith was shot by a sniper during his solitary "March Against Fear". Carmichael joined Dr. Martin Luther King, Jr., Floyd McKissick, Cleveland Sellers and others to continue Meredith's march. He was arrested once again during the march and, upon his release, he gave his first "Black Power" speech, using the phrase to urge black pride and socio-economic independence: For other persons named John Lewis, see John Lewis (disambiguation). ... Meredith walking to class accompanied by U.S. marshals James Howard Meredith (born June 25, 1933) is an American civil rights movement figure, although he vocally prefers not to be regarded as such. ... On June 5, 1966, James Meredith started a solitary March Against Fear for 220 miles from Memphis to Jackson, Mississippi, to protest against racism. ... Martin Luther King Jr. ... He defined Black Power as “political power, economic power and a new self image for Negroes” ... Cleveland Sellers is the Director of the African American Studies Program at the University of South Carolina. ... ‹ The template below is being considered for deletion. ... Black pride is a slogan used interchangeably to depict both the movement of and concept within politically active black communities, especially African Americans in the United States and secluding White communities. ...

It is a call for black people in this country to unite, to recognize their heritage, to build a sense of community. It is a call for black people to define their own goals, to lead their own organizations.

While Black Power was not a new concept, Carmichael's speech brought it into the spotlight and it became a rallying cry for young African Americans across the country. Heavily influenced by the work of Frantz Fanon and his landmark book Wretched of the Earth, along with others such as Malcolm X, under Carmichael's leadership SNCC gradually became more radical and focused on Black Power as its core goal and ideology. This became most evident during the controversial Atlanta Project in 1966. SNCC, under the local leadership of Bill Ware, engaged in a voter drive to promote the candidacy of Julian Bond for the Georgia State Legislature in an Atlanta district. However, unlike previous SNCC activities — like the 1961 Freedom Rides or the 1964 Mississippi Freedom Summer — Ware excluded Northern white SNCC members from the drive. Initially, Carmichael opposed this move and voted it down, but he eventually changed his mind - expelling whites from prominent positions and focusing SNCC entirely on Black Power.[9] African Americans, also known as Afro-Americans or black Americans, are an ethnic group in the United States of America whose ancestors, usually in predominant part, were indigenous to Sub-Saharan and West Africa. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was an author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... The Wretched of the Earth (French: Les Damnés de la Terre, first published 1961) is Frantz Fanons most famous work, written during and regarding the Algerian struggle for independence from colonial rule. ... Julian Bond, 2005 Horace Julian Bond (born January 14, 1940) is an American leader of the American Civil Rights Movement. ... The Georgia General Assembly is the state legislature of the U.S. state of Georgia. ... This article is about the state capital of Georgia. ... The Freedom Rides were a series of nonviolent, direct demonstrations performed in 1961 as part of the U.S. civil rights movement. ... Freedom Summer was a campaign in the United States launched during the summer of 1964 to attempt to register as many African American voters as possible in the southern states. ...


Carmichael saw nonviolence as a tactic as opposed to a principle, which separated him from moderate civil rights leaders like Martin Luther King, Jr.. Carmichael became critical of civil rights leaders who simply called for the integration of African Americans into existing institutions of the middle class mainstream. Carmichael believed that in order to genuinely integrate, Blacks first had to unite in solidarity and become self-reliant. Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... Children at a parade in North College Hill, Ohio Manifestations Slavery Racial profiling Lynching Hate speech Hate crime Genocide (examples) Ethnocide Ethnic cleansing Pogrom Race war Religious persecution Blood libel Paternalism Police brutality Movements Policies Discriminatory Race / Religion / Sex segregation Apartheid Redlining Internment Ethnocracy Anti-discriminatory Emancipation Civil rights Desegregation... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...

Now, several people have been upset because we’ve said that integration was irrelevant when initiated by blacks, and that in fact it was a subterfuge, an insidious subterfuge, for the maintenance of white supremacy. Now we maintain that in the past six years or so, this country has been feeding us a "thalidomide drug of integration," and that some Negroes have been walking down a dream street talking about sitting next to white people; and that that does not begin to solve the problem; that when we went to Mississippi we did not go to sit next to Ross Barnett; we did not go to sit next to Jim Clark; we went to get them out of our way; and that people ought to understand that; that we were never fighting for the right to integrate, we were fighting against white supremacy. Now, then, in order to understand white supremacy we must dismiss the fallacious notion that white people can give anybody their freedom. No man can given anybody his freedom. A man is born free. You may enslave a man after he is born free, and that is in fact what this country does. It enslaves black people after they’re born, so that the only acts that white people can do is to stop denying black people their freedom; that is, they must stop denying freedom. They never give it to anyone.[8]

According to Bearing the Cross (1986), David J. Garrow's Pulitzer Prize winning book about the Civil Rights movement, a few days after Carmichael used the "Black Power" slogan at the "Meredith March Against Fear," he reportedly told King, "Martin, I deliberately decided to raise this issue on the march in order to give it a national forum and force you to take a stand for Black Power." King responded, "I have been used before. One more time won't hurt." Ross Robert Barnett (January 22, 1898 – November 6, 1987) was the Democratic Governor of the U.S. state of Mississippi from 1960 to 1964. ... Sheriff Jim Clark of Selma, Alabama, was responsible for the violent arrests of civil rights protestors. ... David J. Garrow (born 1953) is an American historian and author of the book , which won the 1987 Pulitzer Prize for Biography. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ... Martin Luther King is perhaps most famous for his I Have a Dream speech, given in front of the Lincoln Memorial during the 1963 March on Washington for Jobs and Freedom This article is about the civil rights movement following the Brown v. ...

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In 1967, Carmichael stepped down as chairman of SNCC and was replaced by H. Rap Brown. The SNCC, which was a collective and, in keeping with the spirit of the times, worked by group consensus rather than hierarchically, was displeased with Carmichael's celebrity status. SNCC leaders had begun to refer to him as "Stokely Starmichael" and criticize his habit of making policy announcements independently, before achieving internal agreement, and gave him a formal letter of expulsion in 1967.[3] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 407 pixel Image in higher resolution (2759 × 1404 pixel, file size: 55 KB, MIME type: image/png) this is a boring map of africa!!!!!!!!!!!! World map depicting Africa; map adapted from PDF world map at CIA World Fact Book File... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ... 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Established in 1992, The Pan African Film Festival (PAFF) is a non-profit corporation dedicated to the promotion of cultural and racial tolerance and understanding through the exhibition of film, art and creative expression. ... George Padmore (1902-1959), born Malcolm Nurse was a Trinidadian communist and later a leading Pan-Africanist with anti-communist sympathies. ... Walter Rodney (March 23, 1942 - June 13, 1980) was a prominent Guyanese historian and political figure. ... Patrice Émery Lumumba (2 July 1925 – 17 January 1961) was an African anti-colonial leader and the first legally elected Prime Minister of the Republic of the Congo after he helped to win its independence from Belgium in June 1960. ... Captain Thomas Isidore Noël Sankara (December 21, 1949 – October 15, 1987) was the leader of Burkina Faso (formerly known as Upper Volta) from 1983 to 1987. ... Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was an author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972)[1], one of the most influential Pan-Africanists of the 20th century, served as the founder, and first President of Ghana. ... Marcus Mosiah Garvey, Jr. ... Malcolm X, born Malcolm Little, also known as Detroit Red and Al-Hajj Malik El-Shabazz (Omaha, Nebraska, May 19, 1925 – February 21, 1965 in New York City) was a Muslim Minister and National Spokesman for the Nation of Islam. ... William Edward Burghardt Du Bois (pronounced [1]) (February 23, 1868 – August 27, 1963) was an African American civil rights activist, leader, Pan-Africanist, sociologist, educator, historian, writer, editor, poet, and scholar. ... Cyril Lionel Robert James (4 January 1901–19 May 1989) was an Anglo-Trinidadian journalist, socialist theorist and writer. ... Book Cover The African origins of civilization Cheikh Anta Diop (29 December 1923–7 February 1986) was a Senegalese historian, anthropologist, and staunch defender of the world view known as Afrocentricity, which places emphasis on the human races African origins and on the study of pre-colonial African culture... H. Rap Brown in 1967 H. Rap Brown now known as Jamil Al-Amin (born October 4, 1943) came to prominence in the 1960s as a civil rights worker, black activist, chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee and the Justice Minister of the Black Panther Party. ...


After his time with the SNCC, Carmichael attempted to clarify his politics by writing the book Black Power (1967) with Charles V. Hamilton and became a strong critic of the Vietnam War. During this period he traveled and lectured extensively throughout the world; visiting Guinea, North Vietnam, China, and Cuba. As a part of the short-lived and ultimately unsuccessful 1968 attempt at merging the Black Panthers and SNCC, Carmichael was made an honorary prime minister of the Black Panthers.[10] After his expulsion from the SNCC, Carmichael became more clearly identified with the Black Panther Party.[3] Combatants Republic of Vietnam United States Republic of Korea Thailand Australia New Zealand The Philippines National Front for the Liberation of South Vietnam Democratic Republic of Vietnam People’s Republic of China Democratic Peoples Republic of Korea Strength US 1,000,000 South Korea 300,000 Australia 48,000... Anthem Tiến Quân Ca (Army March) Location of North Vietnam Capital Hanoi Language(s) Vietnamese Government Socialist republic First president Ho Chi Minh Historical era Cold War  - Independence proclaimed (from Japan) September 2, 1945  - Recognized 1954  - Disestablished July 2, 1976 Area 157,880 km² Population  -  est. ...


Self-imposed exile

However, Carmichael soon began to distance himself from the Panthers. In 1969, he and his then-wife, the South African singer Miriam Makeba, moved to Guinea-Conakry where he became an aide to Guinean prime minister Ahmed Sékou Touré and the student of exiled Ghanaian President Kwame Nkrumah. [5] She was appointed Guinea's official delegate to the United Nations.[11] Three months after his arrival in Africa, in July of 1969, he published a formal rejection of the Black Panthers, condemning the Panthers for not being separatist enough and their "dogmatic party line favoring alliances with white radicals".[2] Miriam Makeba performing at the Cape Town Jazz Festival in 2006. ... Look up Guinea on Wiktionary, the free dictionary Government Permanent UN Mission of the Republic of Guinea official government site News AllAfrica. ... A prime minister is the most senior minister of cabinet in the executive branch of government in a parliamentary system. ... This article or section seems not to be written in the formal tone expected of an encyclopedia entry. ... The Republic of Ghana is a nation in West Africa. ... Kwame Nkrumah (September 21, 1909 - April 27, 1972)[1], one of the most influential Pan-Africanists of the 20th century, served as the founder, and first President of Ghana. ... UN redirects here. ... Black separatism is a separatist political movement that seeks a separate homeland for black people, particularly African-Americans. ...


It was at this stage in his life that Carmichael changed his name to Kwame Ture to honor the African leaders Nkrumah and Touré who had become his patrons. At the end of his life, friends still referred to him interchangeably by both names, "and he doesn't seem to mind."[3]


Carmichael remained in Guinea after separation from the Black Panther Party. He continued to travel, write, and speak out in support of international leftist movements and in 1971 collected his work in a second book Stokely Speaks: Black Power Back to Pan-Africanism. This book expounds an explicitly socialist, Pan-African vision, which he seemingly retained for the rest of his life. From the late 1970's until the day he died, he answered his phone by announcing "Ready for the revolution!"[2] Religious socialism Key Issues People and organizations Related subjects Socialism refers to a broad array of ideologies and political movements with the goal of a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to control by the community. ... Pan-Africanism is a term which can have two separate, but related meanings. ...


While in Guinea, he was arrested one more time. Two years after Touré's death in 1984, the military regime which took his place arrested Carmichael and jailed him for three days on suspicion of attempting to overthrow the government. Despite common knowledge that President Touré engaged in torture of his political opponents, Carmichael had never criticized his namesake.[2] Lansana Conté (born 1934) has been the President of Guinea since 3 April 1984. ...


Carmichael and Makeba separated in 1973. After they divorced, he entered a second marriage with Marlyatou Barry, a Guinean doctor whom he also divorced. By 1998, his second wife and their son, Bokar, born in 1982, were living in Arlington, Virginia. Relying on a statement from the All-African Peoples Revolutionary Party, his 1998 obituary in the New York Times referenced two sons, three sisters, and his mother as survivors but without further details.[2] Arlington County is a county located in the U.S. state of Virginia (which calls itself a commonwealth), directly across the Potomac River from Washington, DC. By an act of Congress July 9, 1846, the area south of the Potomac was returned to Virginia effective in 1847 As of 2000... // The All-African People’s Revolutionary Party (A-APRP) is a group of socialist that was founded by Dr. Kwame Nkrumah. ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...


Death and legacy

After two years of treatment at the Columbia-Presbyterian Medical Center in New York, he died of prostate cancer at the age of 57 in Conakry, Guinea. He claimed that his cancer "was given to me by forces of American imperialism and others who conspired with them."[2] He claimed that the FBI had introduced the cancer to his body as an attempt at assassination.[12] After his diagnosis in 1996, benefits were held in Denver; New York; Atlanta;[4] and Washington, D.C.,[3] to help defray his medical expenses; and the government of Trinidad and Tobago, where he was born, awarded him a grant of $1,000 a month for the same purpose.[4] HRPC redirects here. ... Conakry or Konakry (Malinké: Kɔnakiri) is the capital and largest city of Guinea. ... The Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) is a federal criminal investigative, intelligence agency, and the primary investigative arm of the United States Department of Justice (DOJ). ... Assassin and Assassins redirect here. ... A benefit concert is a concert featuring musicians, comedians, or other performers that is held for a charitable purpose, often directed at a specific and immediate humanitarian crisis. ...


In 2007, the publication of previously secret Central Intelligence Agency documents revealed that Carmichael had been tracked by the CIA as part of their surveillance of black activists abroad, which began in 1968 and continued for years.[13] CIA redirects here. ...


In a final interview given to the Washington Post, he spoke with contempt for the economic and electoral progress made during the past thirty years. He acknowledged that blacks had won election to major mayorships, but stated that the power of mayoralty had been diminished and that such progress was essentially meaningless. A devout Marxist, he was disgusted by the growth of the black middle class.[3] ... Marxism is the political practice and social theory based on the works of Karl Marx, a 19th century philosopher, economist, journalist, and revolutionary, along with Friedrich Engels. ... The middle class (or middle classes) comprises a social group once defined by exception as an intermediate social class between the nobility and the peasantry. ...


Stokely Carmichael is credited with coining the phrase "institutional racism", which is defined as a form of racism that occurs in institutions such as public bodies and corporations, including universities. In the late 1960s Carmichael defined "institutional racism" as "the collective failure of an organization to provide an appropriate and professional service to people because of their color, culture or ethnic origin".[14] Institutional racism (or structural racism or systemic racism) refers to a form of racism which occurs specifically in institutions such as public bodies, corporations, and universities. ...


Civil rights leader Jesse Jackson gave a speech celebrating Ture's life, stating: "He was one of our generation who was determined to give his life to transforming America and Africa. He was committed to ending racial apartheid in our country. He helped to bring those walls down". [15] Jesse Louis Jackson, Sr. ... A world map showing the continent of Africa Africa is the worlds second-largest and second most-populous continent, after Asia. ...


See also

Prominent figures of the African-American Civil Rights Movement. ... This is a timeline of the American Civil Rights Movement. ...

References

  1. ^ a b Stokely Carmichael, King Encyclopedia, The Martin Luther King, Jr. Research and Education Institute, Stanford University. Accessed 20 November 2006.
  2. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Stokely Carmichael, Rights Leader Who Coined 'Black Power,' Dies at 57" November 16, 1998, New York Times. Accessed March 27, 2008.
  3. ^ a b c d e f g h i "The Undying Revolutionary: As Stokely Carmichael, He Fought for interracial relationships. Now Kwame Ture's Fighting For His Life," by Paula Spahn, April 8, 1998, Washington Post p. D 1. Accessed via online cache June 27, 2007.
  4. ^ a b c "Stokely Carmichael Biography" Accessed June 27, 2007.
  5. ^ a b [1], NY Times "Ready for Revolution" Book review. Accessed 17 March 2007.
  6. ^ [2], Britannica on "Black Power". Accessed 24 February 2007.
  7. ^ [3], H.K. Yuen Social Movement Archive. Accessed 24 February 2007.
  8. ^ a b [4], Stokely Carmichael, "Black Power" speech. Accessed 17 March 2007.
  9. ^ Atlanta in the Civil Rights Movement
  10. ^ [5], Charlie Cobb, From Stokely Carmichael to Kwame Ture. Accessed 17 March 2007.
  11. ^ "Miriam Makeba" undated biography at Answers.Com. Accessed June 27, 2007.
  12. ^ Statement of Kwame Ture undated between 1996 diagnosis and 1998 death. Accessed June 27, 2007.
  13. ^ "Some Examples of CIA Misconduct", June 26, 2007 Associated Press report published in the Washington Post. AP report also published same date here in the New York Times. Accessed June 27, 2007.
  14. ^ Richard W. Race, Analyzing ethnic education policy-making in England and Wales (PDF), Sheffield Online Papers in Social Research, University of Sheffield, p.12. Accessed 20 June 2006.
  15. ^ Black Panther Leader Dies, BBC, November 16, 1998. Accessed 20 June 2006.

The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ... ... ... The New York Times is an internationally known daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed in the United States and many other nations worldwide. ...

Further reading

  • Carmichael, Stokely, et al. Ready for Revolution: The Life and Struggles of Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Ture). Scribner 2005, 848 pages. ISBN 0-684-85004-4.
  • Carmichael, Stokely, et al. Black Power: The Politics of Liberation. Vintage; Reissue edition 1992, 256 pages. ISBN 0-679-74313-8.
  • Carmichael, Stokely, et al. Stokely Speaks: Black Power Back to Pan-Africanism. Random House 1971, 292 pages. ISBN 0-394-46879-1.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Stokely Carmichael
  • Stokely Carmichael
  • Stokely Carmichael Page. Stokely Carmichael spoke to an enthusiastic crowd at Garfield High School in Seattle, Washington on April 19, 1967. Audio and slideshow. Retrieved May 3, 2005.
  • Stokely Carmichael FBI FOIA
  • A final interview with Kwame Ture in the Washington Post published April 8, 1998
  • A script and mp3 audio of Stokely Carmichael's Black Power Speech

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Videos

  • Feb 17 1968 on PBS.org
  • consciousness and unconciousness

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stokely Carmichael - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (723 words)
Carmichael amidst a demonstration near the United States Capitol protesting the House of Representatives' action denying Rep. Adam Clayton Powell, Jr.
Stokely Carmichael (June 29, 1941 – November 15, 1998), also known as Kwame Ture, was a Trinidadian-American fl activist and leader of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and the Black Panther Party.
Carmichael saw this as unrealistic and an insult to the culture and identity of African Americans.
King Encyclopedia (910 words)
Stokely Carmichael (Kwame Toure), who served as chairman of the Student Nonviolent Coordinating Committee (SNCC) and prime minister of the Black Panther Party, was a major fl militant figure of the 1960s and a prominent advocate of Pan-Africanism.
Carmichael was born in Port-of-Spain, Trinidad, on 29 June 1941.
Carmichael died of cancer in Guinea on 15 November 1998 at the age of 57.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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