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Encyclopedia > Stoicism

Stoicism is a school of Hellenistic philosophy, founded by Zeno of Citium in Athens in the early third century BC. It proved to be a popular and durable philosophy, with a following throughout Greece and the Roman Empire from its founding until all the schools of philosophy were ordered closed in AD 529 by the Emperor Justinian I, who perceived their pagan character to be at odds with his Christian faith.[1] The core doctrine of Stoicism concerns cosmic determinism and human freedom, and the belief that virtue is to maintain a will that is in accord with nature. Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with Neo-Platonism. ... Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (sometime called Zeno Apathea) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... For other uses, see Roman Empire (disambiguation). ... This article is about the Roman emperor. ... Pagan may refer to: A believer in Paganism or Neopaganism Bagan, a city in Myanmar also known as Pagan Pagan (album), the 6th album by Celtic metal band Cruachan Pagan Island, of the Northern Mariana Islands Pagan Lorn, a metal band from Luxembourg, Europe (1994-1998) Pagans Mind, is... This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... // For the racing driver, see Will Power. ...

In the life of the individual man, virtue is the sole good; such things as health, happiness, possessions, are of no account. Since virtue resides in the will, everything really good or bad in a man's life depends only upon himself. He may become poor, but what of it? He can still be virtuous. A tyrant may put him in prison, but he can still persevere in living in harmony with Nature. He may be sentenced to death, but he can die nobly, like Socrates. Therefore every man has perfect freedom, provided he emancipates himself from mundane desires.[2]

Contents

Basic tenets

Stoicism teaches the development of self-control and fortitude as a means of overcoming destructive emotions; the philosophy holds that becoming a clear and unbiased thinker allows one to understand the universal reason (logos). A primary aspect of Stoicism involves improving the individual’s spiritual well-being: "Virtue consists in a will which is in agreement with Nature."[2] This principle also applies to the realm of interpersonal relationships; "to be free from anger, envy, and jealousy",[3] and to accept even slaves as "equals of other men, because all alike are sons of God."[4] Look up Emotion in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ...


The Stoic ethic espouses a deterministic perspective, in regards to those who lack Stoic virtue; Cleanthes once opined that the wicked man is "like a dog tied to a cart, and compelled to go wherever it goes."[2] A Stoic of virtue, by contrast, would amend his will to suit the world and remain, in the words of Epictetus, "sick and yet happy, in peril and yet happy, dying and yet happy, in exile and happy, in disgrace and happy."[3] For positing a "completely autonomous" individual will, and at the same time a universe that is "a rigidly deterministic single whole". The term deterministic may refer to: the more general notion of determinism from philosophy, see determinism a type of algorithm as discussed in computer science, see deterministic algorithm scientific determinism as used by Karl Popper and Stephen Hawking deterministic system in mathematics deterministic system in philosophy deterministic finite state machine... Cleanthes (c. ...


Stoicism became the foremost popular philosophy among the educated elite in the Greco-Roman Empire,[5] to the point where, in the words of Gilbert Murray, "nearly all the successors of Alexander [...] professed themselves Stoics."[6] Gilbert Murray (or George Gilbert Aime) (January 2, 1866 - 1957) was a British classical scholar and diplomat. ... In general Diadochi (in Greek Διάδοχοι, transcripted Diadochoi) means successors, such that the neoplatonic refounders of Platos Academy in Late Antiquity referred to themselves as diadochi (of Plato). ...


History

Zeno of Citium

Stoicism first appeared in Athens in the Hellenistic period around 301 BC and was introduced by Zeno of Citium. He taught in the famous Stoa Poikile (the painted porch) from which his philosophy got its name. Central to his teachings was the law of morality being the same as nature. During its initial phase, Stoicism was generally seen as a back-to-nature movement critical of superstitions and taboos. The philosophical detachment also encompassed pain and misfortune, good or bad experiences, as well as life or death. Zeno often challenged prohibitions, traditions and customs. Another tenet was the emphasis placed on love for all other beings. Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links Metadata No higher resolution available. ... This article is about the capital of Greece. ... The term Hellenistic (derived from Héllēn, the Greeks traditional self-described ethnic name) was established by the German historian Johann Gustav Droysen to refer to the spreading of Greek culture over the non-Greek peoples that were conquered by Alexander the Great. ... Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (sometime called Zeno Apathea) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. ... Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Superstition is a set of behaviors that may be faith based, or related to magical thinking, whereby the practitioner believes that the future, or the outcome of certain events, can be influenced by certain of his or her behaviors. ... This article is about cultural prohibitions in general, for other uses, see Taboo (disambiguation). ...


Zeno's ideas developed from those of the Cynics, whose founding father, Antisthenes, had been a disciple of Socrates. Zeno's most influential follower was Chrysippus, who was responsible for the molding of what we now call Stoicism. This article is about the ancient Greek school of philosophy. ... Portrait bust of Antisthenes Antisthenes (Greek: , c. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... Chrysippus of Soli (279-207 BC) was Cleanthess pupil and eventual successor to the head of the stoic philosophy (232-204 BC). ...


The Stoics provided a unified account of the world, consisting of formal logic, materialistic physics and naturalistic ethics. Of these, they emphasized ethics as the main focus of human knowledge, though their logical theories were to be of more interest for many later philosophers. Later Roman Stoics focused on promoting a life in harmony within the universe, over which one has no direct control. Modern philosophy, contrary to original Stoicism, often associates Stoicism with determinism, as opposed to the Arminian doctrine of free will. Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... A magnet levitating above a high-temperature superconductor demonstrates the Meissner effect. ... Naturalism is any of several philosophical stances, typically those descended from materialism and pragmatism, that reject the validity of explanations or theories making use of entities inaccessible to natural science. ... For other uses, see Ethics (disambiguation). ... This article is about the general notion of determinism in philosophy. ... Arminianism is a Protestant Christian theology founded by the Dutch theologian Jacobus Arminius. ... Free-Will is a Japanese independent record label founded in 1986. ...


Stoic logic

The Stoics believed in the certainty of knowledge, which can be attained through the use of reason. Truth can be distinguished from fallacy, even if in practice only an approximation can be made. According to the Stoics, the senses are constantly receiving sensations: pulsations which pass from objects through the senses to the mind, where they leave behind an impression (phantasia). The mind has the ability (synkatathesis) to approve or reject an impression, to enable it to distinguish a representation of reality which is true from one which is false. Some impressions can be assented to immediately, but others can only achieve varying degrees of hesitant approval which can be labelled belief or opinion (doxa). It is only through the use of reason that we can achieve clear comprehension and conviction (katalepsis). Certain and true knowledge (episteme), achievable by the Stoic sage, can be attained only by verifying the conviction with the expertise of one's peers and the collective judgement of humankind. A related article is titled uncertainty. ... For other uses, see Knowledge (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Time Saving Truth from Falsehood and Envy, François Lemoyne, 1737 For other uses, see Truth (disambiguation). ... Senses Senses are a UK based alternative rock band from Coventry. ... For other uses, see Mind (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Reality (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Believe. ... Doxa (δόξα) is a Greek word meaning common belief or popular opinion, from which are derived the modern terms of orthodoxy and heterodoxy. ... Katalepsis is a term that originally refers to the Stoic philosophers and was to them, a landmark ideological premise regarding ones state of mind as it relates to grasping fundamental philosophical concepts. ... A related article is titled uncertainty. ... As distinguished from techne, the Greek word episteme (literally: science) is often translated as knowledge. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ...

Make for yourself a definition or description of the thing which is presented to you, so as to see distinctly what kind of a thing it is in its substance, in its nudity, in its complete entirety, and tell yourself its proper name, and the names of the things of which it has been compounded, and into which it will be resolved. For nothing is so productive of elevation of mind as to be able to examine methodically and truly every object which is presented to you in life, and always to look at things so as to see at the same time what kind of universe this is, and what kind of use everything performs in it, and what value everything has with reference to the whole.[7]

Stoic physics and cosmology

According to the Stoics, the universe is a material, reasoning, substance, known as God or Nature, which the Stoics divided into two classes, the active and the passive. The passive substance is matter, which "lies sluggish, a substance ready for any use, but sure to remain unemployed if no one sets it in motion."[8] The active substance, which can be called Fate, or Universal Reason (Logos), is a material, intelligent aether or primordial fire, which acts on the passive matter: For other uses, see Universe (disambiguation). ... This article discusses the term God in the context of monotheism and henotheism. ... This article is about the physical universe. ... This article is about matter in physics and chemistry. ... For other uses, see Destiny (disambiguation). ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... Hinduism (Tattva) and Buddhism (Mahābhūta) Vayu / Pavan — Air / Wind Agni/Tejas — Fire Akasha — Aether Prithvi / Bhumi — Earth Ap / Jala — Water Chinese (Wu Xing) Japanese (Godai) Earth (地) | Water (水) | Fire (火) | Air / Wind (風) | Void / Sky / Heaven (空) Bön Māori According to ancient and medieval science, Aether (Greek αἰθήρ, aithēr[1...

The universe itself is god and the universal outpouring of its soul; it is this same world's guiding principle, operating in mind and reason, together with the common nature of things and the totality which embraces all existence; then the foreordained might and necessity of the future; then fire and the principle of aether; then those elements whose natural state is one of flux and transition, such as water, earth, and air; then the sun, the moon, the stars; and the universal existence in which all things are contained.[9]

Everything is subject to the laws of Fate, for the Universe acts only according to its own nature, and the nature of the passive matter which it governs. The souls of people and animals are emanations from this primordial fire, and are, likewise, subject to Fate: This page is about the core essence of a being. ... The word Animals when used alone has several possible meanings in the English language. ...

Constantly regard the universe as one living being, having one substance and one soul; and observe how all things have reference to one perception, the perception of this one living being; and how all things act with one movement; and how all things are the cooperating causes of all things which exist; observe too the continuous spinning of the thread and the structure of the web.[10]

Individual souls are perishable by nature, and can be "transmuted and diffused, assuming a fiery nature by being received into the Seminal Reason (logos spermatikos) of the Universe."[11] Since right Reason is the foundation of both humanity and the universe, it follows that the goal of life is to live according to Reason, that is, to live a life according to Nature. This page is about the core essence of a being. ... For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... Natural law or the law of nature (Latin: lex naturalis) is an ethical theory that posits the existence of a law whose content is set by nature and that therefore has validity everywhere. ...


Stoic ethics and virtues

The ancient Stoics are often misunderstood because the terms they used pertained to different concepts in the past than they do today. The word stoic has come to mean unemotional or indifferent to pain, because Stoic ethics taught freedom from passion by following reason. But the Stoics did not seek to extinguish emotions, only to avoid emotional troubles by developing clear judgment and inner calm through diligent practice of logic, reflection, and concentration. Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ...


Borrowing from the Cynics, the foundation of Stoic ethics is that good lies in the state of the soul itself; in wisdom and self-control. Stoic ethics stressed the rule: "Follow where reason leads." One must therefore strive to be free of the passions, bearing in mind that the ancient meaning of passion was "anguish" or "suffering"[12], that is, "passively" reacting to external events — somewhat different from the modern use of the word. A distinction was made between pathos (plural pathe) which is normally translated as "passion", propathos or instinctive reaction (e.g. turning pale and trembling when confronted by physical danger) and eupathos, which is the mark of the Stoic sage (sophos). The eupatheia are feelings resulting from correct judgment in the same way as the passions result from incorrect judgment. This page is about the school of philosophy. ... For other uses, see Soul (disambiguation). ... // [edit] Primary Passions The Stoics named four primary passions. ...


The idea was to be free of suffering through apatheia (απαθεια) (Greek) or apathy, where apathy was understood in the ancient sense — being objective or having "clear judgment" — rather than simple indifference, as apathy implies today. Suffering, or pain in this sense,[1] is a basic affective experience of unpleasantness and aversion associated with harm or threat of harm in an individual. ... For other uses of objectivity, see objectivity (disambiguation). ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


The Stoic concepts of passion and apatheia is somewhat similar but not related to the Buddhist noble truths: all life has suffering (Dukkha), suffering is rooted in passion and desire (Samudaya), meditation and virtue can free one from suffering (Nirodha and Marga). It is also analogous to the concepts in Bhagavad Gita, a Hindu scripture, which stresses rising above the dualities such as pleasure-pain, win-lose, to perform one's duties. A statue of the Sakyamuni Buddha in Tawang Gompa, India. ... The Four Noble Truths (Pali: Cattāri ariyasaccāni, Sanskrit: Catvāri āryasatyāni, Chinese: Sìshèngdì, Thai: อริยสัจสี่, Ariyasaj Sii) are one of the most fundamental Buddhist teachings. ... Dukkha (Pāli दुक्ख ; according to grammatical tradition from Sanskrit uneasy, but according to Monier-Williams more likely a Prakritized form of unsteady, disquieted) is a central concept in Buddhism, the word roughly corresponding to a number of terms in English including sorrow, suffering, affliction, pain, anxiety, dissatisfaction, discomfort, anguish, stress... The Four Noble Truths ( Pali, cattari ariya saccani) are taught in Buddhism as the fundamental insight or enlightenment of Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical Buddha), which led to the formulation of the Buddhist philosophy. ... For other senses of this word, see Meditation (disambiguation). ... The Four Noble Truths ( Pali, cattari ariya saccani) are taught in Buddhism as the fundamental insight or enlightenment of Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical Buddha), which led to the formulation of the Buddhist philosophy. ... The Four Noble Truths ( Pali, cattari ariya saccani) are taught in Buddhism as the fundamental insight or enlightenment of Sakyamuni Buddha (the historical Buddha), which led to the formulation of the Buddhist philosophy. ... Bhagavad Gīta भगवद्गीता, composed ca the fifth - second centuries BC, is part of the epic poem Mahabharata, located in the Bhisma-Parva chapters 23–40. ... This article discusses the adherents of Hinduism. ...


For the Stoics, reason meant not only using logic, but also understanding the processes of nature — the logos, or universal reason, inherent in all things. Living according to reason and virtue, they held, is to live in harmony with the divine order of the universe, in recognition of the common reason and essential value of all people. The four cardinal virtues of the Stoic philosophy are wisdom (Sophia), courage (Andreia), justice (Dikaiosyne), and temperance (Sophrosyne), a classification derived from the teachings of Plato. For other uses, see Reason (disambiguation). ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... For the apocryphal book of the Bible, see Book of Wisdom. ... For other uses, see Courage (disambiguation). ... This article is about the concept of justice. ... Temperance is the practice of moderation. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ...


Following Socrates, the Stoics held that unhappiness and evil are the results of ignorance. If someone is unkind, it is because they are unaware of their own universal reason. Likewise, if they are unhappy, it is because they have forgotten how nature actually functions. The solution to evil and unhappiness then, is the practice of Stoic philosophy — to examine one's own judgments and behaviour and determine where they have diverged from the universal reason of nature. This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... For other uses, see Evil (disambiguation). ...


The doctrine of "things indifferent"

In philosophical terms, things which are indifferent are outside the application of moral law, that is without tendency to either promote or obstruct moral ends. Actions neither required nor forbidden by the moral law, or which do not affect morality, are called morally indifferent. The doctrine of things indifferent (ἀδιάφορα, adiaphora) arose in the Stoic school as a corollary of its diametric opposition of virtue and vice ( καθήκοντα kathekon and ἁμαρτήματα hamartemata, respectively "convenient actions," or actions in accordance with nature, and mistakes). As a result of this dichotomy, a large class of objects were left unassigned and thus regarded as indifferent. Morality (from the Latin manner, character, proper behavior) has three principal meanings. ... Adiaphoron, pl. ... A theorem is a statement which can be proven true within some logical framework. ... Kathekon (Greek:Καθήκον) (plural: kathekonta) is a Greek concept, forged by the founder of Stoicism, Zeno of Citium. ... A dichotomy is a division into two non-overlapping or mutually exclusive and jointly exhaustive parts. ...


Eventually three sub-classes of "things indifferent" developed: things to be preferred because they assisted life according to nature; things to be avoided because they hindered it; and things indifferent in the narrower sense.


The principle of ἀδιάφορα was also common to the Cynics and Sceptics. The conception of things indifferent is, according to Kant, extra-moral. The doctrine of things indifferent was revived during the Renaissance by Philip Melanchthon. Occams Razor non sunt multiplicanda entia praeter necessitatem or plurality should not be posited without necessity is a central tenet of skeptical thought. ... Immanuel Kant Immanuel Kant (April 22, 1724 – February 12, 1804) was a Prussian philosopher, generally regarded as one of Europes most influential thinkers and the last major philosopher of the Enlightenment. ... This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... Melancthon, in a portrait engraved by Albrecht Dürer, 1526 Philipp Melanchthon (February 16, 1497 - April 19, 1560) was a German theologian and writer of the Protestant Reformation and an associate of Martin Luther. ...


Spiritual exercise

Philosophy for a Stoic is not just a set of beliefs or ethical claims, it is a way of life involving constant practice and training (or askesis, see ascetic). Stoic philosophical and spiritual practices included logic, Socratic dialogue and self-dialogue, contemplation of death, training attention to remain in the present moment (similar to some forms of Eastern meditation), daily reflection on everyday problems and possible solutions, hypomnemata, and so on. Philosophy for a Stoic is an active process of constant practice and self-reminder. The word ascetic derives from the ancient Greek term askesis (practice, training or exercise). ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... The hypomnemata is a special type of notebook used by philosophers, theologians, and students to fomulate opinions and keep a personal record about the experience of the self. ...


In Meditations, Marcus Aurelius defines several such practices. For example, in Book II, part 1: Marcus Aurelius wrote Meditations in Greek while positioned at Aquincum on campaign in Pannonia in modern-day Hungary This article is about the writings by Marcus Aurelius. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ...

Say to yourself in the early morning: I shall meet today ungrateful, violent, treacherous, envious, uncharitable men. All of these things have come upon them through ignorance of real good and ill... I can neither be harmed by any of them, for no man will involve me in wrong, nor can I be angry with my kinsman or hate him; for we have come into the world to work together...

Social Philosophy

A distinctive feature of Stoicism is its cosmopolitanism. All people are manifestations of the one universal spirit and should, according to the Stoics, live in brotherly love and readily help one another. In Discourses, Epictetus comments on man's relationship with the world: "Each human being is primarily a citizen of his own commonwealth; but he is also a member of the great city of gods and men, where of the city political is only a copy." This sentiment echoes that of Socrates, who said "I am not an Athenian or a Greek, but a citizen of the world." Cosmopolitanism is the idea that all of humanity belongs to a single moral community. ... Look up brotherhood in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Discourses of Epictetus are a series of extracts of the teachings of the Stoic philosopher Epictetus written down by Arrian c. ... Epictetus (Greek: Επίκτητος; ca. ... This page is about the Classical Greek philosopher. ... For other uses, see Athens (disambiguation). ...


They held that external differences such as rank and wealth are of no importance in social relationships. Thus, before the rise of Christianity, Stoics advocated the brotherhood of humanity and the natural equality of all human beings. Stoicism became the most influential school of the Greco–Roman world, and produced a number of remarkable writers and personalities, such as Cato the Younger and Epictetus. Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ...


In particular, they were noted for their urging of clemency toward slaves. Seneca exhorted, "Kindly remember that he whom you call your slave sprang from the same stock, is smiled upon by the same skies, and on equal terms with yourself breathes, lives, and dies." A pardon is the forgiveness of a crime and the penalty associated with it. ... Wiktionary has related dictionary definitions, such as: slave Slave may refer to: Slavery, where people are owned by others, and live to serve their owners without pay Slave (BDSM), a form of sexual and consenual submission Slave clock, in technology, a clock or timer that synchrnonizes to a master clock...


They were also early advocates of the idea of equality of the sexes, and believed that wives should be held in common, rather than acquired like possessions. Feminism is a body of social theory and a political movement primarily based on, and motivated by, the experiences of women. ... Wives are a hardcore/punk trio from Los Angeles, California, USA consisting of guitarist Randy Randall, bassist/vocalist Dean Spunt, and drummer Jeremy Villalobos. ...


Stoicism and Christianity

Due to being non-Abrahamic in its outlook and historically prior to the Incarnation, Stoicism was naturally regarded by the Fathers of the Church as 'pagan philosophy' (as was Plato). Nonetheless, some of the central philosophical concepts of Stoicism were employed by the early Christian writers. Examples include the terms "logos", "virtue", "Spirit", and "conscience".[13] But the parallels go well beyond the sharing (or borrowing) of terminology. Both Stoicism and Christianity assert an inner freedom in the face of the external world, a belief in human kinship with God, and a sense of the innate depravity--or "persistent evil"--of humankind.[13] Both encourage askesis with respect to the passions and inferior emotions (viz. lust, envy and anger) so that the higher possibilities of one's humanity can be awakened and developed. The major difference between the two philosophies is Stoicism's pantheism where God is never fully transcendant but always immanent. God as the world-creating entity is personalised in Christian thought but Stoicism equates God with the totality of the universe. Also, Stoicism, unlike Christianity, posits no beginning or end to the universe, and no continued individual existence beyond death.[13] Even so, Stoic writings such as the Meditations of Marcus Aurelius have been highly regarded and widely read by Christians throughout the centuries. St. Ambrose of Milan was known for applying Stoic philosophy to his theology. Symbols of the three main Abrahamic religions: Judaism, Christianity and Islam Map showing the prevalence of Abrahamic (purple) and Eastern (yellow) religions in each country. ... Christ en majesté, Matthias Grünewald, 16th c. ... The Church Fathers or Fathers of the Church are the early and influential theologians and writers in the Christian church, particularly those of the first five centuries of Christian history. ... For other uses, see Plato (disambiguation). ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Saint Ambrose, Latin Sanctus Ambrosius, Italian SantAmbrogio (circa 340 - April 4, 397), bishop of Milan, was one of the most eminent fathers of the Christian church in the 4th century. ...


The central Stoic idea of logos had an encounter with early Orthodox Christianity through Arius and his supporters. The ecumenical rejection of this belief was evidenced and deemed heretical at the Council at Nicea.[14] Stoicism influenced Anicius Manlius Severinus Boethius's Consolation of Philosophy, which was highly influential in the Middle Ages in its promotion of Christian morality via secular philosophy.[citation needed] This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... For other people of the same name, see Boethius (disambiguation). ... This early printed book has many hand-painted illustrations depicting Lady Philosophy and scenes of daily life in fifteenth-century Ghent (1485) Consolation of Philosophy (Latin: Consolatio Philosophiae) is a philosophical work by Boethius written in about the year 524 AD. It has been described as the single most important... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ...


For example, the Serenity Prayer: The Serenity Prayer is the common name for an originally untitled prayer written by the theologian Reinhold Niebuhr in the 1930s or early 1940s. ...

God, give us grace to accept with serenity the things that cannot be changed, courage to change the things that should be changed, and the wisdom to distinguish the one from the other.

Modern usage

The word "stoic" now commonly refers to someone indifferent to pain, pleasure, grief, or joy. The modern usage as "person who represses feelings or endures patiently" is first cited in 1579 as a noun, and 1596 as an adjective.[15] In contrast to the term "epicurean", the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy's entry on Stoicism notes, "the sense of the English adjective ‘stoical’ is not utterly misleading with regard to its philosophical origins."[16] In linguistics, a noun or noun substantive is a lexical category which is defined in terms of how its members combine with other grammatical kinds of expressions. ... In grammar, an adjective is a word whose main syntactic role is to modify a noun or pronoun (called the adjectives subject), giving more information about what the noun or pronoun refers to. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c340-c270 BC), founded around 307 BC. Epicurus was an atomic materialist, following in the steps of Democritus. ...


Stoic quotations

Below is a selection of quotations by major Stoic philosophers illustrating major Stoic beliefs:


Epictetus: Epictetus (Greek: Επίκτητος; ca. ...

  • "Freedom is secured not by the fulfilling of one's desires, but by the removal of desire." (iv.2.175)
  • "Where is the good? In the will. Where is the evil? In the will. Where is neither of them? In those things which are independent of the will." (ii.16.1)
  • "Man is disturbed not by things, but by the views he takes of them." (Ench. 5)
  • "If, therefore, any be unhappy, let him remember that he is unhappy by reason of himself alone." (iii.24.2)
  • "I am formed by nature for my own good: I am not formed for my own evil." (iii.24.83)
  • "Permit nothing to cleave to you that is not your own; nothing to grow to you that may give you agony when it is torn away." (iv.1.112)

Marcus Aurelius: Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ...

  • "Get rid of the judgment, get rid of the 'I am hurt,' you are rid of the hurt itself." (viii.40)
  • "Everything is right for me, which is right for you, O Universe. Nothing for me is too early or too late, which comes in due time for you. Everything is fruit to me which your seasons bring, O Nature. From you are all things, in you are all things, to you all things return." (iv.23)
  • "If you work at that which is before you, following right reason seriously, vigorously, calmly, without allowing anything else to distract you, but keeping your divine part pure, as if you were bound to give it back immediately; if you hold to this, expecting nothing, but satisfied to live now according to nature, speaking heroic truth in every word which you utter, you will live happy. And there is no man able to prevent this." (iii.12)
  • "How ridiculous and how strange to be surprised at anything which happens in life!" (xii.13)
  • "Outward things cannot touch the soul, not in the least degree; nor have they admission to the soul, nor can they turn or move the soul; but the soul turns and moves itself alone." (iv.3)
  • "Because your own strength is unequal to the task, do not assume that it is beyond the powers of man; but if anything is within the powers and province of man, believe that it is within your own compass also" (vi.19)
  • "Or is it your reputation that's bothering you? But look at how soon we're all forgotten. The abyss of endless time that swallows it all. The emptiness of those applauding hands. The people who praise us; how capricious they are, how arbitrary. And the tiny region it takes place. The whole earth a point in space - and most of it uninhabited." (iv.3)

Seneca the Younger: Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ...

  • "The point is, not how long you live, but how nobly you live." (Ep. 101.15)
  • "That which Fortune has not given, she cannot take away." (Ep. 59.18)
  • "Let Nature deal with matter, which is her own, as she pleases; let us be cheerful and brave in the face of everything, reflecting that it is nothing of our own that perishes." (De Provid.)
  • "Virtue is nothing else than right reason." (Ep. 66.32)

Stoic philosophers

See also: Category:Stoic philosophers

Antipater of Tarsus was a Stoic philosopher, the disciple and successor of Diogenes and the teacher of Panaetius. ... Marcus Porcius Catō Uticensis (95 BC–46 BC), known as Cato the Younger (Cato Minor) to distinguish him from his great-grandfather Cato the Elder), was a politician and statesman in the late Roman Republic, and a follower of the Stoic philosophy. ... Chrysippus of Soli (279-207 BC) was Cleanthess pupil and eventual successor to the head of the stoic philosophy (232-204 BC). ... Cleanthes (c. ... Diodotus, (Greek: ), was a Stoic philosopher, who flourished in the 1st century BC, and was a friend of Cicero. ... Diogenes of Babylon, also known as Diogenes of Seleucia, or Diogenes the Stoic, was a Stoic philosopher, lived c. ... Epictetus (Greek: Επίκτητος; ca. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... Panaetius (Greek: ) of Rhodes, lived c. ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Musonius Rufus, a Roman Stoic philosopher of the 1st century AD, was born in Volsinii, Etruria about AD 20-30. ... Gaius Rubellius Plautus (33–62 AD), through his mother Claudia Julia, was a relative to the Julio-Claudian dynasty. ... Publius Clodius Thrasea Paetus, Roman senator and Stoic philosopher, lived during the reign of Nero. ... Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (sometime called Zeno Apathea) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. ... Aristo (or Ariston) of Chios, (Greek: ), was a Stoic philosopher and colleague of Zeno of Citium, who flourished about 260 BC. He was also called Phalanthus, from his baldness. ... Herillus (Greek: ) of Carthage, who lived in the 3rd century BC, was a Stoic philosopher and a pupil of Zeno of Citium. ...

Books

Primary Sources

  • A. A. Long and D. N. Sedley, The Hellenistic Philosophers (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1987)
  • Harvard University Press Epictetus Discourses Books 1 and 2, Loeb Classical Library Nr. 131, June 1925.
  • Harvard University Press Epictetus Discourses Books 3 and 4, Loeb Classical Library Nr. 218, June 1928.
  • Gill C. Epictetus, The Discourses, Everyman 1995.
  • Long, George Enchiridion by Epictetus, Prometheus Books, Reprint Edition, January 1955.
  • Long George Discourses of Epictetus, Kessinger Publishing, January 2004.
  • Moses, Hadas (ed.), Essential Works of Stoicism (1961: Bantam)
  • Lucius Annaeus Seneca the Younger (transl. Robin Campbell), Letters from a Stoic: Epistulae Morales Ad Lucilium (1969, reprint 2004) ISBN 0-14-044210-3
  • Marcus Aurelius Antoninus, Meditations, translated by Maxwell Staniforth; ISBN 0-14-044140-9, or translated by Gregory Hays; ISBN 0-679-64260-9.
  • Oates Whitney Jenning The Stoic and Epicurean philosophers, The Complete Extant Writings of Epicurus, Epictetus, Lucretius and Marcus Aurelius, Random House, 9th printing 1940.

George Long (November 4, 1800 - August 10, 1879), English classical scholar, was born at Poulton-le-Fylde, Lancashire, and educated at Macclesfield grammar-school and Trinity College, Cambridge. ... Marcus Aurelius Imperator Caesar Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (April 26, 121 - March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ...

Studies

  • Bakalis Nikolaos, Handbook of Greek Philosophy: From Thales to the Stoics Analysis and Fragments, Trafford Publishing, May 2005, ISBN 1-4120-4843-5
  • Lawrence C. Becker, A New Stoicism (Princeton: Princeton Univ. Press, 1998) ISBN 0-691-01660-7
  • Tad Brennan, The Stoic Life (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2005; paperback 2006)
  • Pierre Hadot, Philosophy as a Way of Life: Spiritual Exercises from Socrates to Foucault, (Blackwell, 1995) ISBN 0-631-18033-8
  • Brad Inwood, (ed.), The Cambridge Companion to The Stoics (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2003)
  • A. A. Long, Stoic Studies (Cambridge University Press, 1996; repr. University of California Press, 2001) ISBN 0-520-22974-6
  • Vlassis G. Rassias, "Theois Syzen. Eisagoge ston Stoicismo", Athens, 2001, ISBN 960-7748-25-5
  • John Sellars, Stoicism (Berkeley: University of California Press, 2006) ISBN 1-84465-053-7
  • William O. Stephens, Stoic Ethics: Epictetus and Happiness as Freedom (London: Continuum, 2007) ISBN 0-8264-9608-3
  • Steven Strange (ed.), Stoicism: Traditions and Transformations (Cambridge: Cambridge Univ. Press, 2004) ISBN 0-521-82709-4

See also

This article is about the ancient Greek school of philosophy. ... Neostoicism - a philosophical movement, joining Stoicism and Christianity. ... Kathekon (Greek:Καθήκον) (plural: kathekonta) is a Greek concept, forged by the founder of Stoicism, Zeno of Citium. ... In ethics, the plank of Carneades is a thought experiment first proposed by Carneades of Cyrene; it explores the concept of self-defense. ... The ekpyrotic universe or ekpyrotic scenario is a cosmological theory of the origin of the universe. ... // [edit] Primary Passions The Stoics named four primary passions. ...

References

  1. ^ Agathias, Histories, 2.31.
  2. ^ a b c Russell, Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy. p. 254
  3. ^ a b Russell, Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy. p. 264
  4. ^ Russell, Bertrand. A History of Western Philosophy. p. 253
  5. ^ H.D. Amos and A.G.P. Lang, "These Were the Greeks"
  6. ^ Gilbert Murray, The Stoic Philosophy (1915), p.25. In Bertrand Russell, History of Western Philosophy (1946).
  7. ^ Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, iii. 11.
  8. ^ Seneca, Epistles, lxv. 2.
  9. ^ Chrysippus, in Cicero, de Natura Deorum, i.
  10. ^ Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, iv. 40.
  11. ^ Marcus Aurelius, Meditations, iv. 21.
  12. ^ American Heritage Dictionary - passion
  13. ^ a b c Ferguson, Everett. Backgrounds of Early Christianity. 2003, page 368.
  14. ^ Jaroslav Pelikan, The Emergence of the Catholic Tradition (100-600), pp 193-203
  15. ^ Harper, Douglas (November 2001). Online Etymology Dictionary - Stoic. Retrieved on September 2, 2006.
  16. ^ Baltzly, Dirk (2004-12-13). Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy - Stoicism. Retrieved on September 2, 2006.

Bertrand Arthur William Russell, 3rd Earl Russell, OM, FRS, (18 May 1872 – 2 February 1970), was a British philosopher, logician, mathematician, advocate for social reform, and pacifist. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 347th day of the year (348th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

RealAudio is a proprietary audio format developed by RealNetworks. ... Zeno of Citium Zeno of Citium (The Stoic) (sometime called Zeno Apathea) (333 BC-264 BC) was a Hellenistic philosopher from Citium, Cyprus. ... Persaeus (Greek: ), of Citium, son of Demetrius, (lived 306-243 BC), was a Stoic philosopher, and a friend and favourite student of Zeno of Citium. ... Aristo (or Ariston) of Chios, (Greek: ), was a Stoic philosopher and colleague of Zeno of Citium, who flourished about 260 BC. He was also called Phalanthus, from his baldness. ... Sphaerus (Greek: ), of Borysthenes[1] or the Bosphorus,[2] was a Stoic philosopher, lived c. ... Cleanthes (c. ... Chrysippus of Soli (279-207 BC) was Cleanthess pupil and eventual successor to the head of the stoic philosophy (232-204 BC). ... Zeno of Tarsus, Stoic philosopher and pupil of Chrysippus, belonged to the period of the Middle Stoa. ... Crates, of Mallus in Cilicia, a Greek grammarian and Stoic philosopher of the 2nd century BC, leader of the literary school and head of the library of Pergamum. ... Diogenes of Babylon, also known as Diogenes of Seleucia, or Diogenes the Stoic, was a Stoic philosopher, lived c. ... Antipater of Tarsus was a Stoic philosopher, the disciple and successor of Diogenes and the teacher of Panaetius. ... Panaetius of Rhodes (c. ... Dardanus (Greek: ), of Athens, was a Stoic philosopher, lived c. ... Mnesarchus (Greek: ), of Athens, was a Stoic philosopher, lived c. ... Hecato of Rhodes, Greek Stoic philosopher and disciple of Panaetius (Cicero, De officiis, 3. ... The bust of Posidonius as an older man depicts his character as a Stoic philosopher. ... Diodotus, (Greek: ), was a Stoic philosopher, who flourished in the 1st century BC, and was a friend of Cicero. ... Geminus of Rhodes was a Greek astronomer and mathematician. ... Antipater (Greek: ) of Tyre was a Stoic philosopher, and a contemporary of Cato the Younger. ... Athenodoros Cananites (Greek: ̉Αθηνόδωρος Κανανίτης, sometimes transliterated Athenodoros) (c. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... Lucius Annaeus Cornutus, Stoic philosopher, flourished in the reign of Nero. ... Musonius Rufus, a Roman Stoic philosopher of the 1st century AD, was born in Volsinii, Etruria about AD 20-30. ... Cleomedes was a Greek astronomer who is known chiefly for his book On the Circular Motions of the Celestial Bodies. ... Epictetus (Greek: Επίκτητος; ca. ... Hierocles, (Greek: ), a Stoic philosopher, who lived in the 2nd century AD. Nothing is known about his life. ... Marcus Aurelius Antoninus Augustus (called the Wise) (April 26, 121[2] – March 17, 180) was Roman Emperor from 161 to his death in 180. ... The term Stoic Categories refers to Stoic ideas regarding Categories. ... // [edit] Primary Passions The Stoics named four primary passions. ... Neostoicism - a philosophical movement, joining Stoicism and Christianity. ... Adiaphoron, pl. ... Ataraxia (Ἀταραξία) is a Greek term used by Pyrrho and Epicurus for freedom from worry or any other preoccupation, and for Epicurus to achieve Hêdonê, the great pleasure. ... This article is about the philosophical concept. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Katalepsis is a term that originally refers to the Stoic philosophers and was to them, a landmark ideological premise regarding ones state of mind as it relates to grasping fundamental philosophical concepts. ... This article is about logos (logoi) in ancient Greek philosophy, mathematics, rhetoric, Theophilosophy, and Christianity. ... Kathekon (Greek:Καθήκον) (plural: kathekonta) is a Greek concept, forged by the founder of Stoicism, Zeno of Citium. ... This article or section contains information that has not been verified and thus might not be reliable. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary using the Transwiki process. ... Prolepsis (from the Greek prolambanein, to anticipate) can be: A figure of speech in which a future event is referred to in anticipation. ... Bust, traditionally thought to be Seneca, now identified by some as Hesiod. ... The Discourses of Epictetus are a series of extracts of the teachings of the Stoic philosopher Epictetus written down by Arrian c. ... The Enchiridion, or handbook of Epictetus, was written in 135 A.D. The text (translated by Elizabeth Carter circa 1750), which is brief, can be found at http://classics. ... The Epistulae morales ad Lucilium is a bundle of letters which were written by Seneca the Younger. ... Marcus Aurelius wrote Meditations in Greek while positioned at Aquincum on campaign in Pannonia in modern-day Hungary This article is about the writings by Marcus Aurelius. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Eastern philosophy refers very broadly to the various philosophies of Asia, including Indian philosophy, Chinese philosophy, Persian philosophy, Japanese philosophy, and Korean philosophy. ... Western philosophy is a modern claim that there is a line of related philosophical thinking, beginning in ancient Greece (Greek philosophy) and the ancient Near East (the Abrahamic religions), that continues to this day. ... The history of philosophy is the study of philosophical ideas and concepts through time. ... This page lists some links to ancient philosophy, although for Western thinkers prior to Socrates, see Pre-Socratic philosophy. ... Buddhist Teachings deals extensively with problems in metaphysics, phenomenology, ethics, and epistemology. ... Hellenistic philosophy is the period of Western philosophy that was developed in the Hellenistic civilization following Aristotle and ending with Neo-Platonism. ... The holiest Jain symbol is the right facing swastika, or svastika, shown above. ... Hindu philosophy - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia /**/ @import /skins-1. ... Philosophy seated between the seven liberal arts – Picture from the Hortus deliciarum of Herrad von Landsberg (12th century) Medieval philosophy is the philosophy of Europe and the Middle East in the era now known as medieval or the Middle Ages, the period roughly extending from the fall of the Roman... It is proposed that this article be deleted, because of the following concern: Filled with OR and completely unsourced. ... Early Muslim philosophy is considered influential in the rise of modern philosophy. ... Jewish philosophy refers to the conjunction between serious study of philosophy and Jewish theology. ... 17th-century philosophy in the West is generally regarded as seeing the start of modern philosophy, and the shaking off of the mediæval approach, especially scholasticism. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Philosophy is a broad field of knowledge in which the definition of knowledge itself is one of the subjects investigated. ... This page aims to list articles on Wikipedia that are related to philosophy, beginning with the letters A through C. This is so that those interested in the subject can monitor changes to the pages by clicking on Related changes in the sidebar. ... The alphabetical list of p is so large it had to be broken up into several pages. ... Philosophies: particular schools of thought, styles of philosophy, or descriptions of philosophical ideas attributed to a particular group or culture - listed in alphabetical order. ... This is a list of topics relating to philosophy that end in -ism. ... A philosophical movement is either the appearance or increased popularity of a specific school of philosophy, or a fairly broad but identifiable sea-change in philosophical thought on a particular subject. ... This is a list of philosophical lists. ... Aesthetics is commonly perceived as the study of sensory or sensori-emotional values, sometimes called judgments of sentiment and taste. ... Ethics is the branch of axiology – one of the four major branches of philosophy, alongside metaphysics, epistemology, and logic – which attempts to understand the nature of morality; to define that which is right from that which is wrong. ... Theory of knowledge redirects here: for other uses, see theory of knowledge (disambiguation) According to Plato, knowledge is a subset of that which is both true and believed Epistemology or theory of knowledge is the branch of philosophy that studies the nature, methods, limitations, and validity of knowledge and belief. ... Logic (from Classical Greek λόγος logos; meaning word, thought, idea, argument, account, reason, or principle) is the study of the principles and criteria of valid inference and demonstration. ... Plato (Left) and Aristotle (right), by Raphael (Stanza della Segnatura, Rome) Metaphysics is the branch of philosophy concerned with explaining the ultimate nature of reality, being, and the world. ... Philosophy of action is chiefly concerned with human action, intending to distinguish between activity and passivity, voluntary, intentional, culpable and involuntary actions, and related question. ... The neutrality and factual accuracy of this article are disputed. ... The philosophy of information (PI) is a new area of research, which studies conceptual issues arising at the intersection of computer science, information technology, and philosophy. ... Philosophy of history or historiosophy is an area of philosophy concerning the eventual significance, if any, of human history. ... Philosophical anthropology is the philosophical discipline that seeks to unify the several empirical investigations and phenomenological explorations of human nature in an effort to understand human beings as both creatures of their environment and creators of their own values. ... Philosophy of Humor is a branch of philosophy that is concerned with the philosophical study of humor. ... Philosophy of law is a branch of philosophy and jurisprudence which studies basic questions about law and legal systems, such as what is the law?, what are the criteria for legal validity?, what is the relationship between law and morality?, and many other similar questions. ... Philosophy and literature is the literary treatment of philosophers and philosophical themes. ... // Philosophy of mathematics is the branch of philosophy that studies the philosophical assumptions, foundations, and implications of mathematics. ... A phrenological mapping of the brain. ... Some of the questions relating to the philosophy of music are: What, exactly is music (what are the necessary and sufficient conditions for it)? What is the relationship between music and emotion? Peter Kivy, Professor of Philosophy at Rutgers University, in particular, sets out to argue how music, which is... Metaphilosophy (from Greek meta + philosophy) is the study of the subject and matter, methods and aims of philosophy. ... Philosophy of physics is the study of the fundamental, philosophical questions underlying modern physics, the study of matter and energy and how they interact. ... 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The Philosophy of war examines war beyond the typical questions of weaponry and strategy, inquiring into the meaning and etiology of war, what war means for humanity and human nature as well as the ethics of war. ... Analytic philosophy (sometimes, analytical philosophy) is a generic term for a style of philosophy that came to dominate English-speaking countries in the 20th century. ... Aristotelianism is a tradition of philosophy that takes its defining inspiration from the work of Aristotle. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Averroism is the term applied to either of two philosophical trends among scholastics in the late 13th century, the first of which was based on the Arab philosopher Averroës or Ibn Rushd interpretations of Aristotle and the resolution of various conflicts between the writings of Aristotle and the Muslim... Continental philosophy is a term used in philosophy to designate one of two major traditions of modern Western philosophy. ... Critical theory, in sociology and philosophy, is shorthand for critical theory of society or critical social theory, a label used by the Frankfurt School, i. ... This page is about the school of philosophy. ... Deconstruction is a term in contemporary philosophy, literary criticism, and the social sciences, denoting a process by which the texts and languages of Western philosophy (in particular) appear to shift and complicate in meaning when read in light of the assumptions and absences they reveal within themselves. ... Deontological ethics or deontology (Greek: δέον (deon) meaning obligation or duty) is an approach to ethics that focuses on the rightness or wrongness of actions themselves, as opposed to the rightness or wrongness of the consequences of those actions. ... According to many followers of the theories of Karl Marx (or Marxists), dialectical materialism is the philosophical basis of Marxism. ... For other uses, see Dualism (disambiguation). ... In philosophy generally, empiricism is a theory of knowledge emphasizing the role of experience, especially sensory perception, in the formation of ideas, while discounting the notion of innate ideas. ... Epicureanism is a system of philosophy based upon the teachings of Epicurus (c. ... Existentialism is a philosophical movement that posits that individuals create the meaning and essence of their lives, as opposed to deities or authorities creating it for them. ... Hegelianism is a philosophy developed by Georg Wilhelm Friedrich Hegel which can be summed up by a favorite motto by Hegel, the rational alone is real, which means that all reality is capable of being expressed in rational categories. ... Hermeneutics may be described as the development and study of theories of the interpretation and understanding of texts. ... Humanism is a broad category of ethical philosophies that affirm the dignity and worth of all people, based on the ability to determine right and wrong by appeal to universal human qualities — particularly rationality. ... This section may require cleanup to meet Wikipedias quality standards. ... One of major longstanding schools of Islamic philosophy, حكمت اشراق or kihmat-al-Ishraq or Illuminationist Philosophy has been created and developed by Suhrawardi, famous Persian Philosopher. ... Kant redirects here. ... Liberalism is an ideology, philosophical view, and political tradition which holds that liberty is the primary political value. ... Logical positivism grew from the discussions of Moritz Schlicks Vienna Circle and Hans Reichenbachs Berlin Circle in the 1920s and 1930s. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... In philosophy, materialism is that form of physicalism which holds that the only thing that can truly be said to exist is matter; that fundamentally, all things are composed of material and all phenomena are the result of material interactions; that matter is the only substance. ... For other uses, see Monist (disambiguation). ... Mutazilah (Arabic المعتزلة al-mu`tazilah) is a theological school of thought within Islam. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... The New Philosophers (French nouveaux philosophes) were a group of French philosophers (for example, André Glucksmann and Bernard Henri-Lévy) who appeared in the early 1970s, as critics of the previously-fashionable philosophers (roughly speaking, the post-structuralists). ... This article is about the philosophical position. ... This article is about the philosophy of Ayn Rand. ... This article is about ontology in philosophy. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... This article is about the philosophical movement. ... Platonic idealism is the theory that the substantive reality around us is only a reflection of a higher truth. ... Positivism is a philosophy that states that the only authentic knowledge is scientific knowledge, and that such knowledge can only come from positive affirmation of theories through strict scientific method. ... Postmodern philosophy is an eclectic and elusive movement characterized by its criticism of Western philosophy. ... Post-structuralism is a body of work that followed in the wake of structuralism, and sought to understand the Western world as a network of structures, as in structuralism, but in which such structures are ordered primarily by local, shifting differences (as in deconstruction) rather than grand binary oppositions and... Pragmatism is a philosophic school that originated in the late nineteenth century with Charles Sanders Peirce, who first stated the pragmatic maxim. ... The Pre-Socratic philosophers were active before Socrates or contemporaneously, but expounding knowledge developed earlier. ... Philosophical quietists want to release us from the deep perplexity that philosophical contemplation often causes. ... In epistemology and in its broadest sense, rationalism is any view appealing to reason as a source of knowledge or justification (Lacey 286). ... Contemporary philosophical realism, also referred to as metaphysical realism, is the belief in a reality that is completely ontologically independent of our conceptual schemes, linguistic practices, beliefs, etc. ... For the physics theory with a similar name, see Theory of Relativity. ... Scholasticism comes from the Latin word scholasticus, which means that [which] belongs to the school, and is the school of philosophy taught by the academics (or schoolmen) of medieval universities circa 1100–1500. ... Philosophical scepticism (UK spelling, scepticism) is both a philosophical school of thought and a method that crosses disciplines and cultures. ... Structuralism as a term refers to various theories across the humanities, social sciences and economics many of which share the assumption that structural relationships between concepts vary between different cultures/languages and that these relationships can be usefully exposed and explored. ... حكمت متعاليه Transcendent theosophy or al-hikmat al-muta’liyah, the doctrine and philosophy that has been developed and perfected by Persian Philosopher Mulla Sadra, is one of tow main disciplines of Islamic Philosophy which is very live & active even today. ... This article discusses utilitarian ethical theory. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Pagan and heathen redirect here. ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Ethnic religions may include officially sanctioned and organized civil religions with an organized clergy, but they are characterized in that adherents generally are defined by their ethnicity, and conversion essentially equates to cultural assimilation to the people in question. ... Neopaganism or Neo-Paganism is any of a heterogeneous group of new religious movements, particularly those influenced by ancient, primarily pre-Christian and sometimes pre-Judaic religions. ... Numina (presence, singular numen) conveys the sense of immanence, of the sacred spirit that informs places and objects in Roman religion. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The term Animism is derived from the Latin anima, meaning soul.[1][2] In its most general sense, animism is simply the belief in souls. ... Ancestor worship, also ancestor veneration, is a religious practice based on the belief that ones ancestors possess supernatural powers. ... This article is about the practice of shamanism; for other uses, see Shaman (disambiguation). ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Pantheism (Greek: πάν ( pan ) = all and θεός ( theos ) = God) literally means God is All and All is God. It is the view that everything is of an all-encompassing immanent abstract God; or that the universe, or nature, and God are equivalent. ... For other senses of this word, see ritual (disambiguation). ... Orthopraxy is a term derived from Greek () meaning correct practice (as orthodoxy means correct teaching), referring to emphasis on religious ritual as opposed to faith or grace etc. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ... In traditional societies, myth and ritual are two central components of religious practice. ... A sheep is led to the altar, 6th century BC Corinthian fresco. ... 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Personification of virtue (Greek ἀρετή) in Celsus Library in Ephesos, Turkey Virtue (Latin virtus; Greek ) is moral excellence of a person. ... For other uses, see Tradition (disambiguation). ... Polytheism is belief in or worship of multiple gods or deities. ... Prehistoric religion is a general term for the hypothetical religious belief system of prehistoric peoples. ... Ancient anthropomorphic Ukrainian stone stela (Kernosovka stela), possibly depicting a late Proto-Indo-European god, most likely Dyeus The existence of similarities among the deities and religious practices of the Indo-European peoples allows glimpses of a common Proto-Indo-European religion and mythology. ... For Baltic mythology, see Estonian mythology, related to Finnish mythology Latvian mythology Lithuanian mythology Categories: Mythology by culture ... Celtic polytheism refers to the religious beliefs and practices of ancient Celts until the Christianization of Celtic-speaking lands. ... 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The Eleusinian Mysteries (Greek: Ἐλευσίνια Μυστήρια) were initiation ceremonies held every year for the cult of Demeter and Persephone based at Eleusis in ancient Greece. ... Double-faced Mithraic relief. ... Religion in ancient Rome combined several different cult practices and embraced more than a single set of beliefs. ... Slavic mythology and Slavic religion evolved over more than 3,000 years. ... This article discusses the historical religious practices in the Vedic time period; see Dharmic religions for details of contemporary religious practices. ... The Religions of the Ancient Near East were mostly polytheistic, with some early examples of emerging Henotheism (Akhenaton, early Judaism). ... Canaanite religion was the group of Ancient Semitic religions, belief systems utilized by the people living in the ancient Levant throughout the Bronze Age and Iron Age. ... Ancient Semitic religion spans the polytheistic religions of the Semitic speaking peoples of the Ancient Near East. ... Assyrian demon Pazuzu. ... Ethnic religions may include officially sanctioned and organized civil religions with an organized clergy, but they are characterized in that adherents generally are defined by their ethnicity, and conversion essentially equates to cultural assimilation to the people in question. ... Folk religion consists of beliefs, superstitions and rituals transmitted from generation to generation of a specific culture. ... African traditional women and male priests, Togo, West Africa, 2006. ... Yoruba legends redirects here. ... // The religion of the San people, or Bushmen, of southern Africa consists of a spirit world and our material world. ... Native American spirituality includes a number of stories and legends that are mythological. ... Afro-American religions are a number of related religions that developed in the Americas among African slaves and their descendants in various countries of the Caribbean Islands and Latin America, as well as parts of the southern United States. ... Folk Christianity refers to a mix of animism and Christian beliefs, Roman Catholic, Protestant or both. ... Siberia is regarded as the locus classicus of shamanism [1]. It is inhabited by many different people. ... The mythologies and religions of the Turco-Mongol peoples (Turkic and Mongolian peoples, both groups speakers of Altaic languages) are related and have exerted strong influence on one another. ... Bön[1] (Tibetan: བོན་; Wylie: bon; Lhasa dialect IPA: [) is the oldest spiritual tradition of Tibet. ... The following is a list of religions and spiritual traditions. ... For other uses, see Cargo cult (disambiguation). ... This is a list of Neopagan movements and organizations. ... The Baltic countries were the last part of Europe to be Christianized, and vestiges of paganism blend into a neopaganism movement that is largely independent of Western Asatru. ... A group of Neo-druids from the Sylvan Grove of the OBOD at Stonehenge on the morning of the summer solstice 2005. ... Celtic Reconstructionist Paganism (CR) is a polytheistic, animistic, religious and cultural movement. ... The Church of All Worlds (CAW) is a religious group whose stated mission is to evolve a network of information, mythology, and experience that provides a context and stimulus for re-awakening Gaia, and re_uniting her children through tribal community dedicated to responsible stewardship and evolving consciousness. ... Feraferia is a Nevada City, California based Neopagan community, practicing Hellenic-inspired Goddess worship. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Mjolnir, the hammer of Thor, is one of the major symbols of Ásatrú. This article is about the reconstruction of Norse paganism in particular. ... Theodism, or Þēodisc GelÄ“afa (Old English: tribal belief) is a North American variant of Germanic Neopaganism which seeks to reconstruct the beliefs and practices of several historic Northern European tribes. ... Werner von Bülows World-Rune-Clock, illustrating the correspondences between Lists Armanen runes, the signs of the zodiac and the gods of the months Armanism and Ariosophy are the names of ideological systems of an esoteric nature, pioneered by Guido von List and Jörg Lanz von... The factual accuracy of this article is disputed. ... Kemetism (from , the native name of Ancient Egypt) is a term for neopagan revivals of Ancient Egyptian religion which developed in the United States from the 1970s. ... A group of British druids, congregating to celebrate the summer solstice at stonehenge. ... The flag of Nova Roma, based on the colours and symbols of the Roman Empire. ... Slavic neo-pagans, heathens or reconstructionists are religious groups or individuals who consider themselves to be the legitimate continuation of pre-Christian Slavic religion. ... Ways of the Strega published in 1994, described Raven Grimassis view of Stregheria and popularized Italian-based witchcraft. ... The Covenant of Unitarian Universalist Pagans (CUUPS) is an Independent Affiliate of the Unitarian Universalist Association (UUA). ... For other uses, see Wicca (disambiguation). ... British Traditional Wicca (abbreviated BTW) is a term used to describe some Wiccan Traditions which have their origins in the New Forest region of England. ... St Francis Xavier converting the Paravas: a 19th-century image of the docile heathen The historical phenomenon of Christianization, the conversion of individuals to Christianity or the conversion of entire peoples at once, also includes the practice of converting pagan practices, pagan religious imagery, pagan sites and the pagan calendar... Early Christianity developed in Roman Judea and in the milieu of Hellenistic Judaism, in the 2nd and 3rd centuries leading an underground existence as an illicit mystery religion, in the 4th century undergoing syncretism with Roman imperial cult and Hellenistic philosophy, a process completed by AD 391 with the ban... One aspect of Christianisation was the Christianisation of sites that had been pagan. ... The historicity of several saints has often been treated skeptically by most academics, either because there is a paucity of historical evidence for them, or due to striking resemblances that they have to pre-Christian deities. ... The term Christianised calendar refers to feast days which are Christianised survivals from pre-Christian times. ... Christianised rituals were among the cultural features of the Mediterranean world that were adapted by the Early Christians, as part of the thorough-going Christianization of culture, which included the landscape (see Christianised sites) and the calendar (see Christianised calendar). ... Battle of the Milvian Bridge, Raphael, Vatican Rooms. ... Hellenistic religion refers to any of the various systems of beliefs and practices of the Eurasian peoples who lived under the influence of ancient Greek culture during the Hellenistic period and the Roman Empire (ca. ... Statues in the Cathedral of Saint Martin, Utrecht, attacked in Reformation iconoclasm in the 16th century. ... Neoplatonism (also Neo-Platonism) is the modern term for a school of religious and mystical philosophy that took shape in the 3rd century AD, founded by Plotinus and based on the teachings of Plato and earlier Platonists. ... In the Roman empire, the legal status of religio licita (tolerated religion) meant that adherents of a certain religion enjoyed privileges such as collecting taxes, exemption from military service, and exemption from the official Imperial cult. ... The Imperial cult in Ancient Rome was the worship of the Roman Emperor as a god. ... Virtuous paganism is a concept of Christian theology parallel to the Righteous Among the Nations in Judaism. ...

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Stoicism [Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy] (2444 words)
The term "Stoicism" derives from the Greek word "stoa," referring to a colonnade, such as those built outside or inside temples, around dwelling-houses, gymnasia, and market-places.
Stoicism is essentially a system of ethics which, however, is guided by a logic as theory of method, and rests upon physics as foundation.
Briefly, their notion of morality is stern, involving a life in accordance with nature and controlled by virtue.
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