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Encyclopedia > Stirrup
Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan.
Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan.
For the bone, see stapes. For other uses of the word stirrup, see Stirrup (disambiguation).

The stirrup is a ring with a flat bottom fixed on a leather strap, usually hung from each side of a saddle to create a footrest for the rider on a riding animal (usually a horse or other equine, such as mule), suspended by an adjustable strap from the saddle for use as a support for the foot of a rider of a horse when seated in the saddle and as an aid in mounting. It greatly increases the rider's ability to control the mount, increasing the animal's usefulness in communication, transportation and warfare. It is considered one of the basic tools used to create and spread modern civilization. Some argue it is as important as the wheel or printing press. Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... Haniwa horse statuette, complete with saddle and stirrups, 6th century, Kofun period, Japan. ... The Haniwa (埴輪) are funerary figures (literally, clay rings), found in thousands of kofun era tombs (3rd-6th century CE) scattered throughout Japan. ... Tack is any of the various accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... The following text needs to be harmonized with text in the article History of Japan#Yamato period. ... The stapes or stirrup is the stirrup-shaped small bone or ossicle in the middle ear which attaches the incus to the fenestra ovalis, the oval window which is adjacent to the vestibule of the inner ear. ... Stirrup may describe one of the following: Stirrups are metal loops attached to a riding saddle. ... A strap is a strip, usually of fabric or leather. ... Tack is any of the various accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... A working animal is an animal that doesnt live in the wild but is kept by humans, and often trained, to perform various tasks, regardless whether they are also used for consumption of meat and milk or for other produce such as leather etc. ... Binomial name Equus caballus Linnaeus, 1758 The horse (Equus caballus, sometimes seen as a subspecies of the Wild Horse, Equus ferus caballus) is a large odd-toed ungulate mammal, one of ten modern species of the genus Equus. ... This article is about a tool used as a piece of equipment. ... Cities are a major hallmark of human civilization. ... It has been suggested that Wheel and Axle be merged into this article or section. ... The printing press is a mechanical device for printing many copies of a text on rectangular sheets of paper. ...


The English word "stirrup" stems from Old English stirap, stigrap, or Middle English stirop, styrope,[1] i.e. a mounting or climbing-rope; from Old English stigan, to mount, climb, and rap, rope, cf. Dutch stijgbeugel, literally mounting bow or loop, or German Steigbügel.[citation needed] It is possible that these words are older yet, a variation on the Ukrainian word stremeno or stremena (plural).[citation needed]

Contents

History

The stirrup was invented relatively late in history, considering that horses were domesticated approximately 4,500 BC. A toe loop that held the big toe was used in India possibly as early as 500 BC.[2] Later, a single stirrup was used as a mounting aid by a nomadic group known as the Sarmatians.[3] True stirrups were devised in Central Asia during the first century BC. There are a number of theories regarding the domestication of the horse. ... Communities of nomadic people move from place to place, rather than settling down in one location. ... Sarmatia and Scythia in 100 BC, also shown is the extent of the Parthian Empire. ... Map of Central Asia showing three sets of possible boundaries for the region Central Asia located as a region of the world Central Asia is a vast landlocked region of Asia. ...


The first dependable representation of a rider with paired stirrups was found in China in a Jin Dynasty tomb of about A.D. 322.[4][5] The stirrup spread throughout Eurasia by the horsemen of the central Asian steppes. It is uncertain when it was first adopted by the nomads. The first attested use is by the Alans.[citation needed] The Greeks and Romans did not use them but mounted by vaulting or from a mounting block. Some historians believe the Huns must have used them to enable their conquests, but there is no evidence for this.[citation needed] Elsewhere in Asia, the stirrup spread to Japan, with an early example in that island nation dated to the 7th century A.D.[citation needed] This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Category: ... Eurasia African-Eurasian aspect of Earth Eurasia is a landmass covering about 54,000,000 km² compared with the Americas (approximately 42,000,000 km²), Africa (approximately 30,000,000 km²), Antarctica (approximately 13,000,000 km²) and Oceania (9,000,000 km²). Eurasia is composed of the traditional continents... The steppe of Western Kazakhstan in early spring In physical geography, steppe (from Slavic step) is a plain without trees (apart from those near rivers and lakes); it is similar to a prairie, although a prairie is generally reckoned as being dominated by tall grasses, while short grasses are said... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... The Huns were a Turkic confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ...

Vendel Age stirrup from Uppland, Sweden

Stirrups reached Sweden in the 6th century, leading to the establishment of mounted Thegns during the Swedish Vendel Age. From this period have been found rich graves of mounted elite warriors, which include stirrups[6] The importance of the horse during this time is reflected in the later Norse sagas, where the 6th century Swedish king Adils is said to have been a great lover of horses and to have had the best horses of his days. Interestingly, all accounts of this king's warfare describe him as fighting on horseback, although the later Vikings never or rarely did so. To add a 6th century source, Jordanes claimed that the Swedes had the best horses beside the Thuringians, reflecting the importance of the horse during this time (see also the Battle on the Ice). Image File history File links JärnÃ¥ldern,_Stigbygel_av_järn,_Nordisk_familjebok. ... Image File history File links JärnÃ¥ldern,_Stigbygel_av_järn,_Nordisk_familjebok. ... The Vendel Age (550-793) was the name of a Swedish part of the Germanic Iron Age (or, more generally, the Age of Migrations). ... Uplandia, or Uppland, is a historical Province or Landskap on the eastern coast of Sweden. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Thegn or Thane, is an Anglo-Saxon word (þeg(e)n) meaning an attendant, servant, retainer or official. ... The Vendel Age (550-793) was the name of a Swedish part of the Germanic Iron Age (or, more generally, the Age of Migrations). ... The Norse sagas or Viking sagas (Icelandic: Íslendingasögur), are stories about ancient Scandinavian and Germanic history, about early Viking voyages, about migration to Iceland, and of feuds between Icelandic families. ... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... Adils pursuing Hrolf Kraki on the Fýrisvellir Eadgils (Beowulf), Adils the Great, or Athisl (Saxo Grammaticus) (all forms are based an older Aðgils, the Anglo-Saxon form is not etymologically identical but it was the only corresponding name used by the Anglo-Saxons) was a Swedish king of... This Buddhist stela from China, Northern Wei period, was built in the early 6th century. ... The Thuringii was a tribe which appeared later than most in the highlands of central Germany, a region which still bears their name to this day -- Thuringia. ... The Battle on the Ice (German: Schlacht auf dem Peipussee, Russian: Ледовое побоище - Battle of Chud Lake), also called the Battle of the Lake Peipus, took place in 1242. ...


By the 7th century, thanks primarily to invaders from Central Asia, such as the Mongols, stirrups spread across Asia to Europe.[7] By the 8th century, they appear to have been adopted by the Europeans.[8] Stirrups were first indirectly documented in Central Europe during the reign of Charles Martel, when verbs scandere and descendere among the Franks replace verbs denoting "leaping" upon a horse. [citation needed] A pair of stirrups have been found in an 8th century burial in Holiare, Slovakia. The stirrup of the early Middle Ages seems to have been light and semicircular or triangular in shape. By the 14th century the footplate became broader and the sides heavier and ornamented. By the 16th century this ornamentation increases and open metalwork is used. Honorary guard of Mongolia. ... (7th century — 8th century — 9th century — other centuries) Events The Iberian peninsula is taken by Arab and Berber Muslims, thus ending the Visigothic rule, and starting almost 8 centuries of Muslim presence there. ... Central Europe The Alpine Countries and the Visegrád Group (Political map, 2004) Central Europe is the region lying between the variously and vaguely defined areas of Eastern and Western Europe. ... For the 13th century titular King of Hungary, see Charles Martel dAnjou. ...


The Arab stirrup was very wide at the base, affording a rest for the entire sole of the foot; sometimes the heel area projected and terminated in a sharp point which could be used as a spur.[citation needed] Tariq ibn-Ziyad and Abd-al-Raḥmân`s conquests into Frankish lands and the occupation of Bordeaux was due to Arab horse armour and the use of the stirrup (this also applies to conquest of the Iberian Peninsula aka Andalusia). After The Battle of Tours the Franks slowly took back their realm. Centuries later the threat posed by Arab light cavalry also receded as the Christians adapted the Arab model to their heavy cavalry, giving rise to the familiar figure of the western European medieval armored knight. Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Muslim Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic-speaking people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories... Tariq ibn Ziyad or Taric ben Zeyad (d. ... Statue of Charlemagne (also called Karl der Große, Charles the Great) in Frankfurt, Germany. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Languages Arabic other languages (Arab minorities) Religions Predominantly Muslim Some adherents of Druze, Judaism, Samaritan, Christianity Related ethnic groups Mizrachi Jews, Sephardi Jews[], Ashkenazi Jews, Canaanites, other Semitic-speaking groups An Arab (Arabic: ‎; transliteration: ) is a member of a Semitic-speaking people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories... The Iberian Peninsula, or Iberia, is located in the extreme southwest of Europe. ... Motto: Andalucía por sí, para España y la humanidad (Andalusia by herself, for Spain, and for humankind) Capital Seville Official language(s) Spanish Area  â€“ Total  â€“ % of Spain Ranked 2nd  87,268 km²  17. ... Battle of Tours Conflict Muslim invasion of Europe Date October 25, 732 Place Between Tours and Poitiers Result Frankish victory The Battle of Tours (more often called the Battle of Poitiers) was fought on October 25, 732 between forces under the Frankish leader Charles Martel and an Islamic army led...


Advantages of stirrups

In the use of horses in warfare, the stirrup was the third revolutionary step in equipment, after the chariot and the saddle of the mounted horseman. Stirrups changed the basic tactics of mounted warfare and made cavalry more important. Braced against the stirrups, a knight could deliver a blow with a lance that employed the full weight and momentum of horse and rider together. Reacting to a sudden and urgent demand for cavalry, Charlemagne ordered his poorer vassals to pool their resources and provide a mounted and armed knight. The addition of stirrups also allowed a rider to use a longer (and vastly more powerful) lance by standing up on the stirrups. A modern-day knight on a draft horse in late medieval plate armor jousting at a Renaissance Fair War Horses have been used in human warfare for millennia, probably since the time of domestication of the horse. ... Hittite chariot (drawing of an Egyptian relief) Approximate historical map of the spread of the chariot, 2000 –500 BC. A chariot is a two-wheeled, horse-drawn vehicle. ... A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ... Soldiers or warriors who fought mounted on horseback in combat are commonly known as cavalry (from French cavalerie). ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... A portrait of Charlemagne by Albrecht Dürer that was painted several centuries after Charlemagnes death. ...


Professor Lynn White Jr., in Medieval Technology and Social Change (1966) suggested that the rising feudal class structure of the European Middle Ages derived ultimately from the use of stirrups: "Few inventions have been so simple as the stirrup, but few have had so catalytic an influence on history. The requirements of the new mode of warfare which it made possible found expression in a new form of western European society dominated by an aristocracy of warriors endowed with land so that they might fight in a new and highly specialized way." Lynn Townsend White, Jr. ... Feudalism comes from the Late Latin word feudum, itself borrowed from a Germanic root *fehu, a commonly used term in the Middle Ages which means fief, or land held under certain obligations by feodati. ...


In 1970, opposing Lynn White Jr.'s ideas, D. A. Bullough's article in the English Historical Review and Bernard S. Bachrach's article titled "Charles Martel, Mounted Shock Combat, the Stirrup, and Feudalism" in Studies in Medieval and Renaissance History pointed out that stirrups are actually no advantage in shock warfare, but are useful only in allowing a rider to lean to the left and right on the saddle without falling off. Therefore, they are not the reason for the switch from infantry to cavalry in Medieval militaries, and not the reason for the emergence of Feudalism. These ideas are generally accepted among modern historians.


Stirrup leathers

As the rider's whole weight must be carried at one side when (dis)mounting, the two straps, which may be part of a set of horse tack which the same saddle-maker produces, must be made of the strongest leather, and is therefore also suitable for use as a punitive strap. Should one stirrup be stretched out (usually the left one, because most mounting occurs on that side), the stirrups should be switched to the opposite sides. Tack is any of the various accessories worn by horses in the course of their use as domesticated animals. ... A strap is a strip, usually of fabric or leather. ...


Styles of stirrup

There are two basic methods of using stirrups. The stirrup itself is the same but the length of the stirrup leather is different.

The short stirrups of a jockey provide security and allows the rider to stay off the horse's back
The short stirrups of a jockey provide security and allows the rider to stay off the horse's back

Long stirrups allow the rider to extend his legs fully while keeping his seat in the saddle. When riding in the long stirrup the rider has an excellent feel for the horse and excellent ability to communicate with the horse via the legs. When riding with long stirrups the rider is very stable in his seat. This provides a sturdy base for activities where the rider is at risk of being unseated, such as sword fighting or lancing. Long stirrups were thus the choice of medieval knights and is the choice for dressage and western riders today. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (867 × 579 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) アジュディミツオー(競走馬、2005年12月29日、大井競馬場で撮影)撮影者Goki File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 534 pixel Image in higher resolution (867 × 579 pixel, file size: 64 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) アジュディミツオー(競走馬、2005年12月29日、大井競馬場で撮影)撮影者Goki File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not... Riding aids are the cues a rider gives to a horse to communicate what they want the animal to do. ... The silver Anglia knight, commissioned as a trophy in 1850, intended to represent the Black Prince. ... An upper-level dressage competitor performing an extended trot Dressage (a French term meaning training) is a path and destination of competitive horse training, with competitions held at all levels from amateur to the Olympics. ... Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ...


Short stirrups require the riders to keep their knees bent. When riding in a short stirrup the rider has the ability to stand up and get his seat clear of the saddle. This allows him more mobility and provides more security should the horse trip or fall (due to leverage) than a longer stirrup would, but at the cost of having less feel of the horse. When riding with short stirrups the rider often adopts what is known as a forward seat. In the forward seat the rider can lean over the horse's own center of balance, his withers, thus inhibiting the horse's balance and athletic maneuverings as little as possible and keeping his weight off the animal's back. Jockeys , eventers, and show jumping riders therefore use this type of stirrup. The horsemen of Central Asia, such as the Mongols, also used this type of stirrup as it allowed them to rise up and fire their bows from greater height. Toulouse-Lautrec - The Jockey (1899) This article is about the sports occupation. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ... Show jumping is a form of competition in which horses are jumped over a course of fences, low walls, and other obstacles (e. ... The name Mongols (Mongolian: Mongol) specifies one or several ethnic groups. ...

The long stirrups of the dressage rider allow for a long leg, thus giving the greatest amount of communication
The long stirrups of the dressage rider allow for a long leg, thus giving the greatest amount of communication

A rule of thumb is that the longer the stirrup, the great feel and precision in communication the rider will have, the shorter the stirrup, the more security. There are a spectrum of stirrup lengths, which the rider may chose depending on the purpose. For example, riders jumping low fences may wish for a stirrup that can support them over the fence while still providing enough leg for excellent communication, and so will have a moderately short stirrup. A rider travelling cross-country, over varying terrain while jumping, will have a stirrup even shorter, to provide a great deal of security. Jockeys need a great deal of security and must be completely off their horse's backs, to provide their mount optimum freedom of movement in a long, galloping stride. However, they do not require the great finesse of leg aids needed in the equestrian sports, and therefore will have the shortest possible stirrup length. Dressage riders are at the opposite end of the spectrum, requiring the most precise leg aids, while needing relatively little support from the stirrup (since they ride on level ground without fences), therefore choosing a very long stirrup length. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...


Modern Stirrups

Types of English-style stirrups

Standard modern stirrups
Standard modern stirrups

There have been many improvements on the usual stirrup design, mostly to increase its safety. One of the most dangerous problems with the stirrup is the fact that the rider can get his boot stuck in it in the event of a fall, which would result in him being dragged. Other modern stirrup designs have added hinges, supposedly to help the rider flex his ankle and get his weight into his heels. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ...

  • Standard iron: The most common stirrup iron, consisting of a tread, with two branches, and an eye at the top for the leather to run through.
  • Australian Simplex/Bent-leg Stirrups: Safety stirrups on which the outside branch is bent, rather than straight, to help the foot to release in the event of a fall.
  • Peacock Safety Stirrups: The outer branch of these stirrups are composed of a strong, thick rubber band and a leather loop, which will detach with sufficient pressure. However, there are several problems with these stirrups, such as the fact that the rubber band eventually wears thin and may inexpectedly break (and so the rider must check it regularly), and the tread of the stirrup is only supported by the inside stirrup bar, and so it is strained and the tread starts to bend.
  • Side-saddle stirrups: usually have a slightly larger eye.
  • Precision stirrups: have joints in the branches of the stirrups to allow for them to flex. These are especially good for riders with joint pain. Others are adjustable at the eye, allowing the leather to go through the eye perpendicular to the stirrup itself, which supposedly helps reduce strain.

Materials

Stirrups used in English-type riding are usually made of metal. Contrary to their name, stirrup irons are rarely made of iron anymore, and instead stainless steel is the metal of choice, due to its strength. Others may be made of nickel, which can easily bend or break and should be avoided.


Stirrups may also be made of synthetic material, and some western saddle stirrups are even made of strong plastic. Many western stirrups are made of leather-covered wood.


Fitting the Stirrup

It is very important that the stirrup be the correct width for the boot. A stirrup that is too narrow will increase the chance that the boot will get caught in it (which would be very dangerous should the rider fall), and a too-wide stirrup would make it harder for her to keep it under the foot, and the foot might slip right through. It is generally suggested that the stirrup be about 1 inch larger than the widest part of the sole of the rider's boots.


Additionally, the rider's boot should have a heel (both English and Western-style riders).


Placement of the Stirrup on the Foot

The stirrup "home" on a polo player, providing security, but little flexibility in the ankle.
The stirrup "home" on a polo player, providing security, but little flexibility in the ankle.

In general, the stirrup is placed on the ball of the foot, allowing the rider to let his weight flow down the back of the leg into the heel by way of the flexible ankle. This provides the rider with the support of the stirrup while still allowing for him to easily absorb the shock of the horse's motion. If the stirrup is too far forward, on the toes, the rider risks losing if he pushes with too much pressure (forcing it off the foot) or too little (allowing it to simply slide off). Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File linksMetadata No higher resolution available. ... The ball of the foot is where the toes join with the rest of the foot. ...


Additionally, some riders ride with the stirrup more "home," or shoved toward the heel. This is preferable for sports such as polo and eventing, where the speed and sudden changes of direction of the former, and the great change in terrain and solid fences of the latter, make the rider more likely to be jarred loose from the tack and increases the possibility of losing a stirrup. However, this placement decreases the flexibility of the ankle, and therefore the shock-absorbing ability of the rider. Additionally, it increases the chance that the rider's foot will become stuck in the stirrup should she fall, a very dangerous situation. This placement should therefore not be used if it is not needed, and in many cases (such as dressage) it would be detrimental. This article is about the ball sport on horseback. ... Eventing is an equestrian event which comprises dressage, cross-country and show-jumping. ...


Weakness in the Design

The stirrup design does have two inherent design flaws. The first is a safety issue: In stirrups with open fronts, it is possible for the rider's foot to slip through in whole or in part and cause the rider to be dragged in a fall. Modern English saddles are now designed with a stirrup bar from that allows the stirrup leathers to fall from the saddle if the rider starts to be dragged. Some English stirrups are also designed with breakaway sides. Western saddles have somewhat wider stirrups to minimize this risk. They also are sometimes are equipped with tapaderos, leather shields that close each stirrup from the front so that the rider's boot cannot slip through and so that brush encountered while working cattle on the open range cannot poke through the stirrup and injure or impede the horse or rider. The saddles known as English saddles (as opposed to Western saddles) are used throughout the world, not just in England or English-speaking countries. ... A Western Saddle Western Saddles are saddles used in — or based on the ones used in — cattle ranching in the United States. ...


The risk of being dragged by a foot caught in the stirrup spawned an adaptation in riding footwear: Riding boots have a raised heel of at least a half-inch, and in special designs like the western cowboy boot, often more. This "ridge" created by the raised heel will usually catch on the bottom of the stirrup, preventing the foot from slipping through the stirrup and dragging the rider. However, proper stirrup placement, on the ball of the foot, instead of jammed "home" clear up to the arch, also lowers the risk of a rider being dragged if they fall from the horse. Ad for Tony Lama featuring custom boots made for President Harry S. Truman. ...


The second design flaw of the stirrup has potential negative impact on the health of the human foot. The rider's whole weight is at times supported entirely by the stirrups. During these periods, excessive pressure can be exerted on the Peroneus Tertius tendon which runs along the bottom of the foot. In extreme cases, stirrups have been found to cause damage to the tuberosity of the 5th metatarsal bone. Over long periods of extreme use, this can cause various medical conditions ranging from simple impaired walking to severe pronation or supination of the foot. Normal riders, however, generally have no related problems, even over a lifetime of riding. Disciplines that require long hours in the saddle, such as endurance riding and, some types of western riding on a working ranch, often use a wider stirrup to provide more support to the foot. For other uses, see Foot (disambiguation). ... The Peroneus tertius muscle is a muscle of the human body. ... A tubercle is a round nodule, small eminence, or warty outgrowth found on bones, the lip of certain orchids, cacti, or as the small rounded nodule forming the characteristic lesion of tuberculosis. ... The metatarsus consists of the five long bones of the foot, which are numbered from the medial side (ossa metatarsalia I.-V.); each presents for examination a body and two extremities. ... In human and zoological anatomy (sometimes called zootomy), several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... In human and zoological anatomy (sometimes called zootomy), several terms are used to describe the location of organs and other structures in the body of bilateral animals. ... Endurance riding is an extremely strenuous form of horse racing, requiring the horse to complete, at the top levels, up to 100 miles. ... Western riding is shown in this sculpture, Great Western Tradition, by Doug Israelsen Western riding evolved from the cattle-working and warfare traditions brought to the Americas by the Spanish Conquistadors, and both equipment and riding style evolved to meet the working needs of the cowboy in the American West. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged with Ranching. ...


All stirrups require that the saddle itself be properly designed. The solid tree of the saddle distributes the weight of the rider over a greater surface area of the horse's back, reducing pressure on any one area. If a saddle is made without a solid tree, without careful design, the rider's weight in the stirrups can create pressure points on the horse's back and lead to soreness. A saddle is a seat for a rider fastened to an animals back. ...


Footnotes

  1. ^ Dictionary.com definition
  2. ^ Chamberlin, J. Edward. Horse: How the Horse Has Shaped Civilizations Bluebridge, 2006. ISBN 0-9742405-9-1
  3. ^ [1]
  4. ^ [2],[3]
  5. ^ "The invention and influences of stirrup"
  6. ^ [4]
  7. ^ "Stirrup", accessed December 4, 2006
  8. ^ Dien, Albert. "The Stirrup and its Effect on Chinese Military History"

Sources and External links


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