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Encyclopedia > Stillbirth

A stillbirth occurs when a fetus which has died in the womb or during labour or delivery exits its mother's body. The term is often used in distinction to live birth or miscarriage. A human fetus A fetus (or foetus, or fœtus – see below) is a developing mammal after the embryonic stage and before birth. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Female internal reproductive anatomy The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence of a newborn infant from its mothers uterus. ... Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence of a newborn infant from its mothers uterus. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Human anatomy or anthropotomy is a special field within anatomy. ... A live birth of a human being occurs when a fetus is expelled and separated from the mothers body and subsequently shows some sign of life, such as voluntary movement, heartbeat, or pulsation of the umbilical cord, but for however brief thistime. ... Miscarriage or spontaneous abortion is the natural or accidental termination of a pregnancy at a stage where the embryo or the fetus is incapable of surviving, generally defined at a gestation of prior to 20 weeks. ...


Some sources reserve the term "stillbirth" for a fetus which has died after reaching mid-second trimester to full term gestational age. For example, in the United Kingdom, "stillbirth" is used to describe an infant delivered without life after 24 weeks gestation. The sources that use this definition tend to use the term "miscarriage" if the death occurs earlier in development. In contrast, other sources use the term "stillbirth" regardless of the stage of fetal development. For the term trimester used in academic settings, see Academic term The human gestation period of approximately 40 weeks between the time of the last menstrual cycle and delivery is traditionally divided into three periods of three months, or trimesters. ... This page is a candidate to be copied to Wiktionary. ... Gestational age is age of a fetus (or newborn infant) from presumed conception. ...

Contents

Human stillbirth

Causes

The causes of a large percentage of human stillbirths remain unknown, even in cases where extensive testing and autopsy have been performed. The term used to describe these is sudden antenatal death syndrome or SADS. In cases where the cause is known, some possibilities of the cause of death are: Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin for wise man or knowing man) under the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... The Anatomy Lesson of Dr. Nicolaes Tulp, by Rembrandt, depicts an autopsy An autopsy, also known as a post-mortem examination or an obduction, is a medical procedure that consists of a thorough examination of a human corpse to determine the cause and manner of a persons death and... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...

Infection is also the title of an episode of the television series Babylon 5; see Infection (Babylon 5). ... A congenital disorder is a medical condition that is present at birth. ... Figure 1: A representation of a condensed eukaryotic chromosome, as seen during cell division. ... Fetal (U.S. English; Foetal UK English) development is the process in which a fetus (U.S. English; Foetus UK English) develops during gestation, from the times of conception until birth. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... Not to be confused with Niacin, which is the oxide of Nicotine, and has a very different biological effect. ... Functional group of an alcohol molecule. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Look up Cannabis in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... Contraindicated is a medical term to indicate a situation in which a medication or treatment should not be administered. ... The term trimester redirects here. ... A postmature birth occurs when a human pregnancy lasts longer than 42 weeks, or more than three weeks past the expected delivery date. ... Placental abruption (Also known as abruptio placenta) in biology, is the separation of the placental lining from the uterus of a female. ... In medicine, a trauma patient has suffered serious and life-threatening physical injury resulting in secondary complications such as shock, respiratory failure and death. ... Radiation Hazard symbol. ... Rh disease (also known as Rh (D) disease, Rhesus disease, RhD Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn, Rhesus D Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn or RhD HDN) is one of the causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN). ... In placental mammals, the umbilical cord is a tube that connects a developing embryo or fetus to its placenta. ...

Prenatal diagnosis

A decrease or cease of fetal activity may be an indication of fetal distress or death, though it is not entirely uncommon for a healthy fetus to exhibit such changes, particularly near the end of a pregnancy when there is considerably little space in the womb for the fetus to move about. Still, medical examination, including a nonstress test, is recommended in the event of any change in the strength or frequency of fetal movement, especially a complete cease; most midwives and obstetricians recommend the use of a kick chart to assist in detecting any changes. Fetal distress or death can be confirmed or negated via fetoscopy/doptone, ultrasound, and/or electronic fetal monitoring. If the fetus is alive but inactive, extra attention will be given to the placenta and umbilical cord during ultrasound examination to ensure that there is no compromise of oxygen and nutrient delivery. In medicine (obstetrics), fetal distress is the presence of signs in a pregnant woman—before or during childbirth—that the fetus is not well or is becoming excessively fatigued. ... The term trimester redirects here. ... Female internal reproductive anatomy The uterus or womb is the major female reproductive organ of most mammals, including humans. ... In medicine, physical examination is the process by which the physician investigates the body of a patient for signs of disease to aid in determining the correct diagnosis. ... Part of the formal antenatal test for fetal well being. ... Sine waves of various frequencies; the bottom waves have higher frequencies than those above. ... Midwifery is a blanket term used to describe a number of different types of health practitioners, other than doctors, who provide prenatal care to expecting mothers, attend the birth of the infant and provide postnatal care to the mother and infant. ... This article needs cleanup. ... A kick chart is a form or graph used by a pregnant woman in the later stages to record the activity of her foetus. ... Fetoscopy is an endoscopic procedure during pregnancy to allow access to the fetus, the amniotic cavity, the umbilical cord, and the fetal side of the placenta. ... Obstetric ultrasonograph of a fetus at 16 weeks. ... The cardiotocograph is more commonly known as Electronic Fetal Monitoring (EFM). ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present only in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy). ... In placental mammals, the umbilical cord is a tube that connects a developing embryo or fetus to its placenta. ...


Prenatal maternal treatment

An in utero fetal death does not present an immediate health risk to the mother and labour will usually begin spontaneously after two weeks, so the mother may choose to wait and deliver the child naturally. After two weeks, the mother is at risk of developing blood clotting problems, and induction is recommended at this point. In many cases, the mother will find the idea of carrying a dead fetus emotionally traumatizing and will elect to be induced. Cesarean delivery is not recommended unless complications develop during vaginal birth. In Utero is the third and final studio album from the American grunge band Nirvana, released in September 1993. ... For spontaneous, see Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis Spontaneous combustion Spontaneous emission Spontaneous fission spontaneous generation Spontaneous human combustion Spontaneous Music Ensemble Spontaneous order Spontaneous process Spontaneous reaction Spontaneous remission Spontaneous symmetry breaking This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Human blood smear: a - erythrocytes; b - neutrophil; c - eosinophil; d - lymphocyte. ... Coagulation is the thickening or congealing of any liquid into solid clots. ... Induction is a way of artificially bringing on labour in a woman. ... Psychological trauma is a type of damage to the psyche that occurs as a result of a traumatic event. ... A caesarean section (cesarean section AE), is a surgical incision through a mothers abdomen (laparotomy) and uterus (hysterotomy) to deliver one or more fetuses. ... Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence of a newborn infant from its mothers uterus. ...


Impact on family

As with any loss or traumatic event, particularly those involving one's offspring, a grieving period is to be expected; the mother often experiences a heightened sense of grief after a stillbirth, due to her close proximity to the child at the time of death. Grief reactions can range from normal depression, including misplaced guilt and/or blame, to psychosis, such as experiencing phantom fetal movement or newborn crying, inability to face taking down a nursery, "replacement child syndrome" in which the next child is saddled with the expectations of the "ideal" first child, or "vulnerable child syndrome" in which all subsequent children are seen as fragile and prone to harm or illness. In biology, offspring are the product of reproduction, a new organism produced by one or more parents. ... A funeral in Sarajevo in 1992 Grief is a multi-faceted response to loss. ... For other uses, see Child (disambiguation). ... Depression, or a depressed mood, may in everyday English refer to a state of melancholia, unhappiness or sadness, or to a relatively minor downturn in mood that may last only a few hours or days. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... To Blame is to hold another person or group responsible for perceived faults, be those faults real, imagined, or merely invented for perjorative purposes. ... Psychosis is a generic psychiatric term for a mental state in which thought and perception are severely impaired. ... In medicine, the term syndrome is the association of several clinically recognizable features, signs, symptoms, phenomena or characteristics which often occur together, so that the presence of one feature alerts the physician to the presence of the others. ... For other uses of the word Vulnerability, please refer to vulnerability (computer science). ... This article needs more context around or a better explanation of technical details to make it more accessible to general readers and technical readers outside the specialty, without removing technical details. ...


Everyone responds differently to grief and loss: some individuals cope better with their grief if presented with the option of spending personal time with their child, sometimes bathing, dressing, and taking photos of them; and many parents wish to keep memorabilia such as clothing, hospital bracelets, and/or footprints/ultrasound photos. Often, missing these opportunities (due to traumatic stress, illness, or other factor) or being denied them can compound the loss, and it is important that these options be expressly offered or suggested by the health care providers or others involved with the family. Many hospitals provide families with a "memory box"; these are donated to hospitals, primarily by local organizations concerned with stillbirth and child loss. The spiritual needs of the bereaved parents are also very important. They may wish to have someone pray for them and their baby. It is important to ask if they would like a member of the clergy to help. A souvenir stall in London, England A souvenir (from the French for memory) is an object that is treasured for the memories associated with it. ... A physician visiting the sick in a hospital. ... Post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD) is a term for certain psychological consequences of exposure to, or confrontation with, stressful experiences that the person experiences as highly traumatic. ... Health care or healthcare is the prevention, treatment, and management of illness and the preservation of mental and physical well-being through the services offered by the medical, nursing, and allied health professions. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Clergy is the generic term used to describe the formal religious leadership within a given religion. ...

If the family has other children, developmental psychology generally suggests that: giving them the opportunity to meet their stillborn sibling allows them to experience the child as a real person and helps them understand death; it is natural for children to ask many questions, which should be answered openly and honestly, and they should be encouraged to share their thoughts and feelings, especially if they seem to be withdrawing; children tend to apply literal interpretations to what they are told, so accurate terminology should be used when discussing the stillborn child, death, and similar subjects, so that the child does not become confused or develop phobias (such as developing a sleeping phobia when a stillborn is referred to as "asleep") This article or section is incomplete and may require expansion and/or cleanup. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... More traditional systems for analysing language divided linguistic expressions into two classes: literal and figurative. ... Terminology, in its general sense, simply refers to the usage and study of terms, that is to say words and compound words generally used in specific contexts. ... See also -phob-, which discusses non-clinical uses of the suffix -phobia. See Phobia (album) for the Breaking Benjamin album. ...


Families may require assistance and/or options in regard to:

  • Early hospital arrangements
  • Funeral plans
  • Crisis intervention, grief counseling, and referral to other support services

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A crisis is a turning point or decisive moment in events. ... // Psychotherapy is a range of techniques based on dialogue, communication and behavior change and which are designed to improve the mental health of a client or patient, or to improve group relationships (such as in a family). ...

Prevalence

Stillbirth is a relatively common, but often completely random occurrence. Based on statistical data, it has been found that the mean stillbirth rate in the United States is approximately 1 in 115 births, which is roughly 26,000 stillbirths each year, or one every 20 minutes. In developing countries where medical care can be substandard or completely unavailable, this rate is much higher. Template:Otherusescccc A graph of a bell curve in a normal distribution showing statistics used in educational assessment, comparing various grading methods. ... In statistics, mean has two related meanings: Look up mean in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A rate is a special kind of ratio, of two measurements with different units. ... A year is the time between two recurrences of an event related to the orbit of the Earth around the Sun. ... A minute is a unit of time equal to 1/60th of an hour and to 60 seconds. ...  High human development Medium human development Low human development Unavailable A developing country has a relatively low standard of living, an undeveloped industrial base, and a moderate to low Human Development Index (HDI) score. ... See drugs, medication, and pharmacology for substances that are used to treat patients. ...


In Australia the stillbirth rate is approximately 1 in every 200 babies.[2]


In England, Wales and Northern Ireland the stillbirth rate is 1 in every 200 babies. In Scotland the stillbirth rate is 1 in every 167 babies. (From The National Statistical Office and other sources.) Motto: (French for God and my right) Anthem: God Save the King/Queen Capital London (de facto) Largest city London Official language(s) English (de facto) Unification    - by Athelstan AD 927  Area    - Total 130,395 km² (1st in UK)   50,346 sq mi  Population    - 2006 est. ... Motto: (Welsh for Wales forever) Anthem: (Welsh for Land of My Fathers) Capital Cardiff (Caerdydd) Largest city Cardiff (Caerdydd) Official language(s) Welsh, English Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Rhodri Morgan AM Unification    - by Gruffudd ap Llywelyn 1056... Motto:  (Latin for Who will separate us?)[1] Anthem: UK: God Save the Queen Regional: (de facto) Londonderry Air Capital Belfast Largest city Belfast Official language(s) English (de facto), Ulster Scots, Irish3, Northern Ireland Sign Language, Irish Sign Language Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of... Motto: (Latin for No one provokes me with impunity)1 Anthem: Multiple unofficial anthems Capital Edinburgh Largest city Glasgow Official language(s) English, Gaelic, Scots 2 Government Constitutional monarchy  - Queen Queen Elizabeth II  - Prime Minister of the UK Tony Blair MP  - First Minister Jack McConnell MSP Unification    - by Kenneth I...


Legal definitions of stillbirth

United Kingdom

In the United Kingdom, stillbirths must be registered by law. The Stillbirth Definition Act (1992) requires that any ‘child’ expelled or issued forth from its mother after the 24th week of pregnancy that did not breathe or show any other signs of life be registered as a stillbirth. This must be done within 42 days and a Stillbirth Certificate is issued to the parent(s).[1] Register or registration may mean: Registration (or licensing) is required of a number of occupations and professions where maintenance of standards is required to protect public safety. ... Equality and the balancing of our interests under law is symbolised by a blindfold and weighing scales For other senses of this word, see Law (disambiguation). ... 1992 (MCMXCII) was a leap year starting on Wednesday. ... A certificate is an official document affirming some fact. ...


Australia

In Australia any stillborn fetus weighing more than 400 grams, or more than 20 weeks in gestation, must have its birth registered. Should the parents of a stillborn child have children later that live, when registering the newer children's birth they must add SB beside the name of the stillborn child. [citation needed] SB may mean: Aircalin IATA code Bachelor of Science, from the Latin Scientiae baccalaureus National Science Bowl, a national competition for the advancement of science in schools Saint Pierre and Miquelon: FIPS PUB 10-4 territory code Santa Barbara, California Shadowbane, an MMORPG Simultaneous Broadcast, in television Skagensbanen, a Danish...


United States

In the United States, there is no standard definition of the term 'stillbirth'.[3] The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention collects statistical information on "live births, fetal deaths, and induced termination of pregnancy" from 57 reporting areas in the United States. Each reporting area has different guidelines and definitions for what is being reported; many do not use the term "stillbirth" at all. The federal guidelines suggests (at page 1) that fetal death and stillbirth can be interchangeable terms. The CDC definition of "fetal death" is based on the definition promulgated by the World Health Organization in 1950: The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...

"Fetal death" means death prior to the complete expulsion or extraction from its mother of a product of human conception, irrespective of the duration of pregnancy and which is not an induced termination of pregnancy. The death is indicated by the fact that after such expulsion or extraction, the fetus does not breathe or show any other evidence of life, such as beating of the heart, pulsation of the umbilical cord, or definite movement of voluntary muscles. Heartbeats are to be distinguished from transient cardiac contractions; respirations are to be distinguished from fleeting respiratory efforts or gasps.[3]

The federal guidelines recommend reporting those fetal deaths whose birth weight is over 350g, or those over 19 weeks gestation. Forty-one areas use a definition very similar to the federal definition, thirteen areas use a shortened definition of fetal death, and three areas have no formal definition of fetal death. Only 11 areas specifically use the term 'stillbirth' , oftentimes synonymously with fetal death, however they are split between whether stillbirths are "irrespective of the duration of pregnancy", or whether some age or weight constraint is applied.


Canada

Beginning in 1959, "the definition of a stillbirth was revised to conform, in substance, to the definition of fetal death recommended by the World Health Organization." [4]


See also

Childbirth Childbirth (also called labour, birth, partus or parturition) is the culmination of a human pregnancy with the emergence of a newborn infant from its mothers uterus. ...

A live birth of a human being occurs when a fetus is expelled and separated from the mothers body and subsequently shows some sign of life, such as voluntary movement, heartbeat, or pulsation of the umbilical cord, but for however brief thistime. ... Perinatal mortality (PNM), also perinatal death, refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate. ... Perinatal mortality (PNM), also perinatal death, refers to the death of a fetus or neonate and is the basis to calculate the perinatal mortality rate. ... Molar pregnancy, sometimes simply referred as mole is a rare abnormal medical condition, a complication of pregnancy inside the category of gestational trophoblastic diseases. ... Maternal death,or maternal mortality, also obstetric death is the death of a woman in relation to a pregnancy. ...

Footnotes

  1. ^ Fried, P.A. (2002). The consequences of marijuana use during pregnancy: a review of the human literature.
  2. ^ Gordon, Adrienne (Dr). Department of Neonatal Medicine Protocol Book: Royal Prince Alfred Hospital. Retrieved on 2006-09-13.
  3. ^ a b Centers for Disease Control and Prevention. State Definitions and Reporting Requirements, 1997 Revision, National Center for Health Statistics. 
  4. ^ Statistics Canada (“Canada’s National Statistical Agency”), History, Vital Statistics - Stillbirth Database, in Vital Statistics – Stillbirth Database.

2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... September 13 is the 256th day of the year (257th in leap years). ... The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) in Atlanta, Georgia, is recognized as the leading United States agency for protecting the public health and safety of people. ...

External links

  • The Wisconsin Stillbirth Service Program (WiSSP), a branch of the University of Wisconsin-Madison's Clinical Genetics Center. One of the foremost authorities on the causes of stillbirth and responsible for many stillbirth evaluation protocols, including the widespread use of the Kleihauer-Betke test in deciding whether Rh disease is to blame for a stillbirth.
  • First-person story of one woman's journey through stillbirth

This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Rh disease (also known as Rh (D) disease, Rhesus disease, RhD Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn, Rhesus D Haemolytic Disease of the Newborn or RhD HDN) is one of the causes of hemolytic disease of the newborn (also known as HDN). ...

Grieving resources

Activism/Prevention

Factual/Reference


  Results from FactBites:
 
From Hurt to Healing: Dealing with the Loss of a Baby - March of Dimes (311 words)
A stillbirth is the death of a baby in the womb after the 20th week of pregnancy.
Stillbirths occur in about 1 in 200 pregnancies.
A stillbirth is a tragic and heartbreaking experience.
Stillbirth - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1239 words)
A stillbirth occurs when a fetus, of mid-second trimester to full term gestational age, which has died in the womb or during labour or delivery, exits the maternal body.
The Stillbirth Definition Act (1992) requires that any ‘child’ expelled or issued forth from its mother after the 24th week of pregnancy that did not breathe or show any other signs of life be registered as a stillbirth.
One of the foremost authorities on the causes of stillbirth and responsible for many stillbirth evaluation protocols, including the widespread use of the Kleihauer-Betke test in deciding whether Rh disease is to blame for a stillbirth.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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