FACTOID # 10: The total number of state executions in 2005 was 60: 19 in Texas and 41 elsewhere. The racial split was 19 Black and 41 White.
 
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Encyclopedia > Still

The term 'still' is a contraction of the verb 'to distill'.


A still is an apparatus used to distill miscible or immiscible (eg. steam distillation) liquids by heating and then cooling. It has been used to produce perfume and medicine, Water for Injection (WFI) for pharmaceutical use, generally to separate and purify different chemicals, and most famously, to produce distilled beverages containing alcohol. Strathisla whisky distillery in Keith, Scotland Distillation is a means of separating liquids through differences in their vapor pressures. ... The chemistry term miscible refers to the property of various liquids that allows them to be mixed together. ... Steam distillation is a special type of distillation (a separation process) for temperature sensitive materials like natural aromatic compounds. ... Perfume is a mixture of fragrant essential oils and aroma compounds, fixatives, and solvents used to give the human body, objects, and living spaces a lasting and pleasant smell. ... Medicine on the Web NLM (National Library of Medicine, contains resources for patients and healthcare professionals) Virtual Hospital (digital health sciences library by the University of Iowa) Online Medical Information- medical news, links and resources. ... Various distilled beverages in a Spanish bar A distilled beverage, also called spirits or liquor, is a preparation for consumption containing ethyl alcohol purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as wine, malt, or grain. ... In general usage, alcohol (from Arabic al-ghawl الغول) refers almost always to ethanol, also known as grain alcohol, and often to any beverage that contains ethanol (see alcoholic beverage). ...


History

Main article: distilled beverages Various distilled beverages in a Spanish bar A distilled beverage, also called spirits or liquor, is a preparation for consumption containing ethyl alcohol purified by distillation from a fermented substance such as wine, malt, or grain. ...


Distillation was developed circa 800 A.D. by the Arab-Yemeni (Iranian-born) alchemist Jabir ibn Hayyan, who also invented numerous other now-basic chemical apparatus and processes which are still in use today. Events December 25, Rome, coronation of Charles the Great (Charlemagne) as emperor by Pope Leo III. Celtic monks begin work on the Book of Kells on the Island of Iona. ... Anno Domini (Latin: In the Year of the Lord), or more completely Anno Domini Nostri Iesu Christi (In the Year of Our Lord Jesus Christ), commonly abbreviated AD or A.D., is the designation used to number years in the dominant Christian Era in the world today. ... The Arabs (Arabic: عرب ʻarab) are a large ethnic group widespread in the Middle East and North Africa, originating in the Arabian Peninsula of southwest Asia. ... Alchemy is an early protoscientific practice combining elements of chemistry, physics, astrology, art, semiotics, metallurgy, medicine, and mysticism. ... 15th century European portrait of Geber, Codici Ashburnhamiani 1166, Biblioteca Medicea Laurenziana, Florence Abu Musa Jabir Ibn Hayyan, in Latin Geber, was one of the most notable Islamic alchemists. ...


Since alcohol boils at a lower temperature than water, the result is a strong alcoholic drink. Usually a still is made of copper, as it does not give taste to the drink, resists acid, and conducts heat. It has been suggested that Saturation temperature be merged into this article or section. ... Water (from the Old English word wæter; c. ... General Name, Symbol, Number copper, Cu, 29 Chemical series transition metals Group, Period, Block 11, 4, d Appearance metallic brown Atomic mass 63. ... In databases, ACID stands for Atomicity, Consistency, Isolation, and Durability. ... A red-hot iron rod cooling after being worked by a blacksmith. ...


The use of a still is a relatively simple distillation apparatus as it necessarily incorporates only one condensation, whereas other types of distillation equipment have multiple stages which result in higher purification of the more volatile component (alcohol).


See also


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