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Encyclopedia > Stilicho
Stilicho (right) with his wife Serena and son Eucherius
Stilicho (right) with his wife Serena and son Eucherius

Flavius Stilicho (occasionally written as Stilico) (ca. 359August 22, 408) was a high-ranking general (magister militum) and Patrician of the Western Roman Empire, notably of semi-barbarian birth. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 627 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (696 × 665 pixel, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stilicho ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 627 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (696 × 665 pixel, file size: 115 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stilicho ... Shield the Broken (The Red Skies) Battle of Amida: Shapur II of Persia conquers Amida from the Romans. ... is the 234th day of the year (235th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Theodosius II succeeds his father Arcadius as Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire In the summer of this year, the usurper Constantine III captures Spain, destroying the loyalist forces defending it. ... Magister militum (Latin for Master of the Soldiers) was a top-level command used in the later Roman Empire, dating from the reign of Constantine. ... This article is about the social and political class in ancient Rome. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Look up Barbarian in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...

Contents

Early Life

The date and place of Stilicho's birth are unknown. His mother was a Roman while his father was a Vandal. Jerome (St.), the contemporary Roman Catholic historian and Doctor of the Church, had referred to him as a semi-barbarus. Despite his father's origins there is little to suggest that Stilicho considered himself anything other than a Roman, although like many of the Germans he was possibly an Arian rather than Catholic/Orthodox. Roman or Romans may refer to: A thing or person of or from the city of Rome. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... “Saint Jerome” redirects here. ... Arian may refer to: Arian, being well endowed. ... Separate articles treat Eastern Orthodox Christianity and Orthodox Judaism. ...


Career (to 400)

He joined the Roman army and rose through the ranks during the reign of Theodosius I, who ruled the Eastern half of the Roman Empire from Constantinople, and who was to become the last emperor to rule both the Eastern and Western halves of the Empire jointly. In 384, Theodosius sent him as an envoy to the court of the Persian king Shapur III to negotiate a peace settlement relating to the partition of Armenia. Upon his return to Constantinople at the successful conclusion of peace talks, Stilicho was promoted to general and was tasked with defending the empire against attacks from the Visigoths, a role that he undertook for some twenty years. The emperor recognized that Stilicho could be a valuable ally, and to form a blood tie with him, Theodosius married his adopted niece Serena to Stilicho. The marriage took place around the time of Stilicho's mission to Persia, and ultimately Serena gave birth to a son who was named Eucherius. An engraving depicting what Theodosius may have looked like, ca. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ... Forum of Theodosius I built in Constantinople. ... Shapur III was king of Persia from 383 to 388. ... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... Serena portrayed with his husband Stilicho e his son Eucherius, ca. ...


After the assassination of the Western Emperor Valentinian II in 392, Stilicho helped raise the army that Theodosius would lead to victory at the Battle of the Frigidus, and was one of the Eastern leaders in that battle. One of his comrades during the campaign was the Visigothic warlord Alaric, who commanded a substantial number of Gothic auxiliaries. Alaric would go on to become Stilicho's chief adversary during his later career as the head of the Western Roman armies. Stilicho distinguished himself at the Frigidus, and Theodosius, exhausted by the campaign, saw him as a man worthy of responsibility for the future safety of the Empire. The last emperor of a united Rome appointed Stilicho guardian of his son, Honorius shortly before his death in 395. A marble statue of Emperor Valentinian II, Aphrodisias Geyre (Aydin, Anatolia), 387–390. ... August 22 - Arbogast elevates Eugenius as Emperor, after assassinating Valentinian II in response to Valentinians removal of Arbogast as military leader in Gaul. ... Combatants Eastern Roman Empire Visigoths Western Roman Empire Franks Commanders Theodosius I, Stilicho, Alaric Eugenius†, Arbogast† Casualties Unknown Eugenius killed, Arbogast commits suicide The Battle of the Frigidus, also called the Battle of the Frigid River, was fought between September 5-6 394, between the army of the Eastern Emperor... Migrations The Visigoths (Western Goths) were one of two main branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe (the Ostrogoths being the other). ... An 1894 photogravure of Alaric I taken from a painting by Ludwig Thiersch. ... Flavius Honorius (September 9, 384–August 15, 423) was Roman Emperor (393- 395) and then Western Roman Emperor from 395 until his death. ... Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ...


Following the death of Theodosius, Honorius became emperor of the Western Empire, and his brother Arcadius of the Eastern half. Neither proved to be effective emperors, and Stilicho came to be the de facto commander-in-chief of the Roman armies in the West. In this capacity, Stilicho proved his abilities energetically, although political manuverings by agents of the two imperial courts would hinder him throughout his career. An emperor is a (male) monarch, usually the sovereign ruler of an empire or another type of imperial realm. ... Idealising bust of Arcadius in the Theodosian style combines elements of classicism with the new hieratic style (Istanbul Archaeology Museum) Wikimedia Commons has media related to: Arcadius For the Greek grammarian, see Arcadius of Antioch. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Byzantine Empire. ...


His first brush with such court politics came in 395. The Visigoths living near the Danube were under pressure from the Huns, and had recently elected Alaric as their king. Alaric broke his treaty with Rome and led his people on a raid into Thrace. The army that had been victorious at the Frigidus was still assembled, and Stilicho led it toward Alaric's forces. As this army, a combination of formations from both halves of the empire, marched into the Eastern Empire, Arcadius recalled the Eastern formations to Constantinople. Arcadius was acting on advice from his Praetorian Prefect, Rufinus, who was an old enemy of Stilicho. Stilicho loyally obeyed the order and sent off his Eastern troops, and returned west. Rufinus gained little from his political victory over Stilicho, as the returning troops (under Gainas) killed him upon their arrival in Constantinople (27 November 395). Events After the death of emperor Theodosius I, the Roman Empire is divided in an eastern and a western half. ... The Huns were an early confederation of Central Asian equestrian nomads or semi-nomads. ... Thracian Tomb of Kazanlak  Thrace (Bulgarian: , Greek: , Attic Greek: ThrāíkÄ“ or ThrēíkÄ“, Latin: , Turkish: ) is a historical and geographic area in southeast Europe. ... Flavius Rufinus (c. ... Indium gallium arsenide (InGaAs) is a semiconductor composed of indium, gallium and arsenic. ...


Two years later, in 397, Alaric began to make trouble anew. Stilicho landed forces in Macedonia, and gained the tactical superiority over Alaric at Elis. This time Eutropius, who had succeeded Rufinus as Arcadius' advisor, persuaded the Eastern Roman emperor to order Stilicho to turn back. Firmly against civil war, Stilicho again obeyed. Events Council of Carthage: Definitive declaration of the biblical canon Candida Casa founded by Saint Ninian. ... Elis, or Eleia (Greek, Modern: Ήλιδα Ilida, Ancient/Katharevousa: Ήλις, also Ilis, Doric: Άλις) is an ancient district within the modern prefecture of Ilia. ...


Trouble was fermenting in North Africa. Gildo, who controlled Mauretania, the granary of the Western Roman Empire, rebelled against Rome after he had been egged on by Eutropius. Stilicho promptly dispatched an army of 5,000 troops under Mascezel. Gildo had 70,000 Africans, but his forces were undisciplined. They were defeated quickly with very little bloodshed taking place, and Gildo was captured. He either committed suicide or was executed (398). Gildo (d. ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus The Western Roman Empire in 395. ...


Towards the end of the fourth century, Stilicho found time to mount a successful naval expedition against the wild Picts, who had caused trouble in Britain. A replica of the Hilton of Cadboll Stone. ...


In 399 Stilicho, a Christian, destroyed the Sibylline Books, which were the old pagan prophesies of ancient Rome. For this action, he was severely criticized by the pagans. The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ...


After the downfalls of Rufinus and Eutropius, Flavius Anthemius became the new praetorian prefect of the Eastern Roman Empire. Superior in all respects to his immediate predecessors, Anthemius fostered good relations towards the Western Roman Empire. He wanted no trouble with Stilicho, and later the two capable leaders even shared joint consulships.


Great Battlefield Victories (401-405)

In 401, two barbarian leaders planned the joint invasion of the Roman Empire - Alaric and the Ostrogoth, Radagaisus. Radagaisus, with Alans, Sueves, and Vandals, attacked first, and invaded Raetia (Rhaetia). Stilicho rushed his soldiers to the area, crossed the Ister River, and crushed Radagaisus. Wasting no time, Stilicho turned his attention towards Alaric and his Visigoths, who had invaded Italy. Bravely hastening on in advance of his main body of troops (30,000), he hurled his crack units in a surprise night attack against Alaric's position around Milan. Alaric had to raise the siege of the city. One of his chieftains implored him to retreat, but Alaric refused. On Easter Sunday at Pollentia (6 April 402), Stilicho defeated Alaric and captured his camp along with his wife. Alaric managed to escape with most of his men. This battle was the last victory celebrated in a triumphal march in Rome, which was saved for the time being. // Events Pope Innocent I succeeds Pope Anastasius I. The Vandals start their westward trek from Dacia and Hungary (or 400). ... Map of Ostrogothic Kingdom The Ostrogoths (Greuthung, Gleaming Goths or Eastern Goths), along with the Visigoths (Noble Goths or Western Goths) were branches of the Goths, an East Germanic tribe that played a major role in the political events of the late Roman Empire. ... From 405-406 CE Radagaisus led a collection of Germanic tribes in an unsuccessful assault on the Roman Empire. ... The Roman Empire ca. ... Raetia as province of the Roman Empire, ca. ... The Ister is a 2004 film directed by David Barison and Daniel Ross. ... This article is about the city in Italy. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Wycliffe Tyndale · Luther · Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      Easter, the Sunday of... This article is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Events Stilicho recalls troops from the frontiers of the Roman Empire to defend Italy against the Visigoths. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


The Visigoths tried again. In 403 at Verona, Stilicho again bested Alaric, who as Gibbon said only escaped by the speed of his horse. A truce was made and the Gothic leader went to Illyricum. Alaric would no longer dare to attack Rome while Stilicho was at the helm. Alaric I leaves Italy after his first unsuccessful invasion. ... Verona is a city and provincial capital in Veneto, Northern Italy. ... Genera Hylobates Hoolock Nomascus Symphalangus Gibbons are the small apes that are grouped in the family Hylobatidae. ... This article is about an ancient civilization in southeastern Europe; see also Illyria (software), Illyria (character in the TV series Angel). ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5...


Radagaisus, though, raised new forces in Germany and perhaps Scandinavia; he boasted that he would take Rome. In 405, he led a huge force of Germanic invaders, estimated at 100,000-300,000, and invaded Italy. This was the largest force that ever invaded the old Roman Empire; it consisted of Ostrogoths, Vandals, Sueves, Alans, and Burgundians. A horde of perhaps 100,000 besieged the city of Florence. Stilicho first attacked and drove off the Germans; then he followed them in pursuit. The barbarians were caught at Fiesole, surrounded, and starved. Then the Romans stormed the camp and obliterated all oppostion, and Radagaisus was captured. From 405-406 CE Radagaisus led a collection of Germanic tribes in an unsuccessful assault on the Roman Empire. ... // Events Japanese court officially adopts the Chinese writing system (approximate date). ... Motto Senatus Populusque Romanus (SPQR) The Roman Empire at its greatest extent. ... This article deals with the continental Ostrogoths. ... The Vandals were an East Germanic tribe (Germanic as defined by Tacitus) that entered the late Roman Empire during the 5th century. ... The Suebi or Suevi were a Germanic people whose origin was near the Baltic Sea . ... The Alans, Alani, Alauni or Halani were an Iranian nomadic group among the Sarmatian people, warlike nomadic pastoralists of varied backgrounds, who spoke an Iranian language and to a large extent shared a common culture. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ... Florence as seen from Fiesole Fiesole is a town and comune (township) of Firenze province in the Italian region of Tuscany, 43°49N 11°18E, on a famously scenic height 346 m (1140 ft) above Florence, 8 km (5 mi) NE of that city. ... Roman or Romans has several meanings, primarily related to the Roman citizens, but also applicable to typography, math, and a commune. ... From 405-406 CE Radagaisus led a collection of Germanic tribes in an unsuccessful assault on the Roman Empire. ...


Stilicho was a military genius who had again saved Rome. He continually defeated larger armies and inflicted great losses upon his opponents while conserving his own military manpower. Stilicho's glory was at its height.


Downfall (406-408)

Stilicho had never lost a battle. But the situation for the Roman Empire was unravelling. Barbarians had crossed the Rhine frontier into Gaul on 31 December 406, never to retreat. Then in 407, a usurper, Constantine, was declared emperor by his troops in England. Despite Stilicho's successes, many criticized him for Alaric's historic escapes (especially Orosius). Olympius, a jealous Greek official, plotted Stilicho's death in 408. He turned Emperor Honorius against Stilicho, then spread rumors that he was intriguing with his old adversary Alaric, that he had invited the barbarians into Gaul, and that he planned to place his son on the imperial throne. The pagans were certainly against Stilicho, not only beacuse he was a Christian, but because he had ordered the destruction of the Sibylline Books. Events December 31 - Vandals, Alans and Suebians cross the Rhine, beginning an invasion of Gallia Roman legions in Britain mutiny against the Roman Emperor and select Marcus as new Roman Emperor. ... // Events Gunderic becomes king of the Vandals and the Alans after the death of his father Godgisel Gratianus of Britain is assassinated and Constantine III takes his place at the head of the mutinous Roman garrison in Britain. ... Paulus Orosius (c. ... Events Theodosius II succeeds his father Arcadius as Emperor of the Eastern half of the Roman Empire In the summer of this year, the usurper Constantine III captures Spain, destroying the loyalist forces defending it. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A Christian () is a person who... The Sibylline Books or Sibyllae were a collection of oracular utterances, set out in Greek hexameters, purchased from a sibyl by the semi-legendary last king of Rome, Tarquinius Superbus, and consulted at momentous crises through the history of the Republic and the Empire. ...


Instigated by Olympius, the Roman army at Ticinum mutinied on August 13, killing at least seven senior imperial officers (Zosimus 5.32). This was followed by events which John Matthews observed "have every appearance of a thoroughly co-ordinated coup d'etat organized by Stilicho's political opponents."1 Stilicho retired to Ravenna, where he was taken into captivity. Although it was within his ability to contest the charges, Stilicho did not do so. A man of character, he was far too loyal to Rome to use his predominantly German contingents against Romans; he did not want a civil war. Stilicho courageously ordered his men not to resist. Without benefit of a fair trial, he was executed by Heraclian on 22 August 408. His son Eucherius was murdered in Rome shortly afterwards. The emperor Honorius restored his wife Thermantia, Stilicho's daughter, to her mother Serena. Honorius had earlier married Maria, Stilicho's older daughter. After Maria's death in early 408, the emperor married Stilicho's other daughter, Thermantia. Ticinum (the modern Pavia) is an ancient city of Gallia Transpadana, founded on the banks of the river of the same name (now the Ticino river) a little way above its confluence with the Padus (Po). ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ... A coup d’état (pronounced ), or simply coup, is the sudden overthrow of a government through unconstitutional means by a part of the state establishment — mostly replacing just the high-level figures. ...


Postmortem

In the disturbances which followed the downfall and execution of Stilicho, the wives and children of barbarian foederati throughout Italy were slain by the local Romans. The natural consequence was that these men (estimates describe their numbers as perhaps 30,000 strong) flocked to the protection of Alaric, clamoring to be led against their cowardly enemies. The Visigothic warlord accordingly crossed the Julian Alps and began a campaign through the heart of Italy. By September 408, the barbarians stood before the walls of Rome. Foederatus early in the history of the Roman Republic identified one of the tribes bound by treaty (foedus), who were neither Roman colonies nor had they been granted Roman citizenship (civitas) but were expected to provide a contingent of fighting men when trouble arose. ... Edelweiss, Julian Alps, Slovenia The Julian Alps is part of the Alps that stretch from north-eastern Italy to Slovenia, where they rise to 2864 metres at Triglav. ...


Without a strong general like Stilicho to control the by-now mostly barbarian army, Honorius could do little to break the siege, and adopted a passive strategy trying to wait out Alaric, hoping to regather his forces to defeat the Visigoths in the meantime. Unfortunately, after three separate sieges of the Eternal City in two years (in hopes of being paid off), Alaric stormed into the city through the open Salarian Gate (August 410). For the first time in eight centuries a foreign invader had entered Rome. The Goths stayed three days, but Alaric did not enjoy his victory for long. He died suddenly just two months after taking Rome (October 410). The Eternal City can refer to several things: It is best known as the nickname for Rome, Italy. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events Alaric I deposes Priscus Attalus as Roman Emperor. ...


Olympius received his comeuppance. As he was useless against Alaric, he fell from power in 409, and was lashed to death.


Rome did recover for a time, and Constantius was an able general and even became co-emperor with Honorius for a short time. After Constantius, Aetius, the "last of the Romans", defeated Attila and the Huns in a decisive battle. But on 4 September 476 it was all over for the western half of the empire. Constantius can refer to a number of Roman emperors: Constantius Chlorus - emperor 305-306 Constantius II - emperor 337-361 Constantius III - co-emperor in 421 This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise share the same title. ... Aëtius would hold the Huns at bay during the Battle of Chalons Flavius Aëtius or simply Aetius, (c. ... Events August - The usurper Basiliscus is deposed and Zeno is restored as Eastern Roman Emperor. ...


Controversy

A chief debate regarding Stilicho is whether his defense of the empire was more out of self-interest than loyalty to Rome or Theodosius. Many historians argue that his chief goal was elevating his son to emperor, perhaps while reuniting the whole empire, but Eucherius never had more than a minor role in the government. Furthermore, Stilicho was too loyal to instigate war with the Eastern Empire, no matter what the reason was. In fact, a later government inquiry into Stilicho's dealings did not find a shred of evidence of any disloyalty. Self-interest can refer to any of the following concepts: Egoism Selfishness Ethical egoism Psychological egoism Individualism Objectivist ethics Hedonism Epicureanism Enlightened self-interest This is a disambiguation page: a list of articles associated with the same title. ...


While it is true that Stilicho wanted The Eastern Empire to return Illyricum to the Western Roman Empire, he certainly did not want to risk civil war. Stilicho was far too faithful and Roman for that. Illyricum had been given to the East by Emperor Gratian in 379. The province was important as a source of recruitment, and after the devastating religious civil war (Revolt of Arbogast and Eugenius, 392-394) which culminated in the Battle of the Frigidus, it was hard to raise troops. Stilicho knew that he commanded the last field army of Rome. A coin of Gratian. ... January 19 - Theodosius I is elevated as Roman Emperor at Sirmium. ... Arbogast refers to: Arbogast, a Frankish general in the late Roman Empire Antoine Arbogast, a French mathematician Arbogast, an Irish saint This is a disambiguation page, a list of pages that otherwise might share the same title. ... Eugenius wearing imperial insigna, on a coin celebrateing the VIRTVS ROMANORVM, the (military) value of the Romans. Flavius Eugenius (d. ...


Among the problems for Stilicho were praetorian prefects like the Gallic traitor Rufinus (who had plotted with Alaric before his revolt near Constantinople in 395), the scheming Armenian eunuch Eutropius, and finally Olympius. Olympius was a crafty Greek palace official who had turned the emperor Honorius against Stilicho. Previously Olympius had caused trouble in Constantinople in 399. In 408 Olympius falsely convinced the weak Honorius that Stilicho had planned to place his son Eucherius on the eastern throne following the death of Eastern Roman Emperor Acadius during that spring. Tyrannius Rufinus or Rufinus of Aquileia (between 340 and 345–410 CE) was a monk, historian, and theologian. ... Eutropius was an Ancient Roman Pagan historian who flourished in the latter half of the 4th century. ...


The reviews of the sources are mixed. Zosimus (New History), the eastern historian who lived after Stilicho's time, attacked the great leader. But Zosimus was biased against Christians, and was critical of the Christian rulers like Constantine, Theodosius, and Stilicho. His believed that the Christian emperors and leaders had caused the pagan gods to abandon their protection of Rome. Modern writer Ferrill (1986) savaged Stilicho for obviously different reasons (strategical). But Ferrill has to praise the incompetent Honorius to lower Stilicho's stature, a blunder. A contemporary of Stilicho - Claudian, the last great writer of imperial Rome - thoroughly praised his victories in the court of Honorius. Also Gibbon's hero was the undaunting Stilicho, who was always coming to the rescue. The definitve modern study is probably Santo Mazzarino (1942), but this Italian work is not translated into English (Stilicone: La Crisi Imperiale dopo Teodosio, Stilicho - the Imperial Crisis after Theodosius). Mazzarino did write a later book that was translated into English in 1966, [[La fine del mondo antico]] (The End of the Ancient World). Here he commented briefly about Stilicho, and referred to him as the very able commander of the West. For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ... This article is about the religous people known as Christians. ... // Constantine is a common name derived from the Latin word constans, meaning constant or steadfast. ... Theodosius (from greek friend of God) is a common name to three emperors of ancient Rome and Byzantium: Theodosius I (379-395) Theodosius II (408-450) Theodosius III (715-717) Categories: Disambiguation | Late Antiquity ... Claudius Claudianus, Anglicized as Claudian, was the court poet to the Emperor Honorius and Stilicho. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ...


In short, Stilicho was a determined, energenic, and honorable man who was too busy fixing the empire's problems to have time to deal with folks like Olympius. When realization finally struck Stilicho in August 408, there was nothing left for him to do. The government was against him just two years following his greatest triumph. He is truly a tragic figure of history.


Fictional treatments

Stilicho has appeared in a number of fictional works, both as a protagonist and as an antagonist.

  • In the early novels of Jack Whyte's Arthurian series. In these books he had a notable connection to the Britannicus family, whom Whyte ties to the legends of Merlin, Arthur, and Camelot.
  • In Eagle in the Snow by Wallace Breem. He is depicted as one of the last noble and capable leaders of the Empire, and willingly accepts his unjust execution over starting another civil war.
  • In the first of William Napier's Attila trilogy (2005). He is killed on the orders of Princess Galla Placida, who suspects him of plotting with young Attila, their royal hostage.

Jack Whyte (Johnstone, Renfrewshire, Scotland, 1939) is an author and writer born and raised in Scotland, but living in Canada since 1967. ... Eagle in the Snow (ISBN 1590710118) is a modern classic of historical fiction. ... Wallace Breem (1926–1990) was a British librarian and author, the Librarian and Keeper of Manuscripts of the Inner Temple Law Library at his death, but perhaps more widely known for his historical novels, including the classic Eagle in the Snow (1970). ...

Notes

  1. John Matthews, Western Aristocracies and Imperial Court AD 364–425 (Oxford: University Press, 1990), p.281.

Sources

Besides the relevant legal records in the Codex Theodosianus, the major primary source for the events of Stilicho's reign, or at least events prior to 404, are the panegyrics addressed to him by the poet Claudian. For events after 404, Zosimus is a main source, although as a pagan, he felt a strong distaste for a Christian like Stilicho. The Codex Theodosianus (Book of Theodosius) was a compilation of the laws of the Roman Empire under the Christian emperors since 312. ... A Panegyric is a formal public speech delivered in high praise of a person or thing, a generally high studied and undiscriminating eulogy. ... Claudius Claudianus, Anglicized as Claudian, was the court poet to the Emperor Honorius and Stilicho. ... For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ...


Further reading

  • Bury, J.B. History of the Later Roman Empire.
  • Claudian. "De Bello Gildonico"
  • Claudian. "De Consulatu Stilichonis"
  • Claudian. "In Eutropium"
  • Claudian. "In Rufinum"
  • Ferrill, Arther. The Fall of the Roman Empire: The Military Explanation.
  • Gibbon, Edward. The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire.
  • Zosimus. Historia Nova.
  • Santo Mazzarino. Stilicone: La Crisi Imperiale dopo Teodosio. (Stilicho - the Imperial Crisis after Theodosius - English Translation not available) (1942) (Rizzoli ISBN 9788817336161)
  • Santo Mazzarino. La fine del mondo antico. Le cause della caduta dell'impero romano (1959) (now: Rizzoli, 2002, ISBN 9788817100465)
    • (English translation by George Holmes as The end of the ancient world. New York, Alfred A. Knopf, 1966, (West Hanover : Halliday Lithograph corp.)
  • Santo Mazzarino. Serena e le due Eudossie. Roma, Istituto Nazionale di Studi Romani, 1946 ISBN 9788873112211

Edward Gibbon (1737–1794). ... The History of The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire, a major literary achievement of Eighteenth Century, was written by the British historian, Edward Gibbon. ... For the pope of this name see Pope Zosimus Zosimus, Greek historical writer, nourished at Constantinople during the second half of the 5th century A.D. According to Photius, he was a count, and held the office of advocate of the imperial treasury. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The span of recorded history is roughly 5,000-5,500 years, with cuneiform possibly being the oldest form of writing. ... George Holmes is Chichele Professor of Medieval History Emeritus at the University of Oxford. ... Colophon of the publisher Alfred A. Knopf. ... Serena portrayed with his husband Stilicho e his son Eucherius, ca. ... Eudocia, or Eudoxia (439–466/474?) was the eldest daughter of Roman emperor Valentinian III and his wife, Licinia Eudoxia and the Granddaughter of Eastern emperor Theodosius II and of his wife, the poet Aelia Eudocia. ... Solidus minted in Thessalonica to celebrate the marriage of Valentinian III to Licinia Eudoxia, daughter of the Eastern Emperor Theodosius II. On the reverse, the three of them in wedding dresses. ...

External link

  • Claudian at LacusCurtius (A collection of Claudian's works in both Latin and English, including his panegyrics for Stilicho.)

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stilicho - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1277 words)
The emperor recognized that Stilicho could be a valuable ally, and to form a blood tie with him, Theodosius married his adopted niece Serena to Stilicho.
Stilicho distinguished himself at the Frigidus, and Theodosius, exhausted by the campaign, saw him as a man worthy of responsibility for the future safety of the Empire.
Stilicho may have schemed to obtain the province of Dalmatia for the West, even though the troops he used to achieve the victory were from the east.
stilicho - Article and Reference from OnPedia.com (439 words)
Stilicho was tasked with defending the West against attacks from the Visigoths, a role he endured for some twenty years.
Although it was within his ability to contest the charges, Stilicho did not resist, either because of guilt or for fear of the consequences to the already-precarious state of the Western Empire.
Besides the relevant legal records in the Codex Theodosianus, the major primary source for the events of Stilicho's reign are the panegyrics addressed to him by the poet Claudian.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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