FACTOID # 25: If you're tired of sitting in traffic on your way to work, move to North Dakota.
 
 Home   Encyclopedia   Statistics   States A-Z   Flags   Maps   FAQ   About 
   
 
WHAT'S NEW
RELATED ARTICLES
People who viewed "Stigand" also viewed:
 

SEARCH ALL

FACTS & STATISTICS    Advanced view

Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 

 

(* = Graphable)

 

 


Encyclopedia > Stigand

'This man should not be confused with Stigand of Selsey, the last bishop of Selsey. Stigand, last Bishop of Selsey and first Bishop of Chichester. ... The Bishop of Chichester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester in the Province of Canterbury. ...


Stigand (d. 1072), was an English churchman of pre-Conquest England. Events William I of England invades Scotland, and also receives the submission of Hereward the Wake. ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... The Bayeux Tapestry depicts the Battle of Hastings and the events leading to it. ...

Stigand

Archbishop of Canterbury

Birth name Stigand
Enthroned 1052
Ended April 11, 1070
Predecessor Robert of Jumieges
Successor Lanfranc
Born
Died February 22, 1072

Contents

Robert of Jumièges (d. ... Lanfranc (d. ...

Biography

Early Life

He is first mentioned in 1020. He was then chaplain to Canute and after Canute's death he served Canute's son, Harold Harefoot. His name was Norwegian, and he was born in East Anglia, possibly born a native of Norwich.[1] After the death of Harthacanute, Stigand appears to have acted as the chief adviser of Canute's widow, Emma mother of both Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor.[1] Events Hospice built in Jerusalem by Knights Hospitaller City of Saint-Germain-en-Laye founded Third Italian campaign of Henry II of Germany Canute the Great codifies the laws of England Births Harold II of England (approximate) Empress Agnes of Poitou, regent of the Holy Roman Empire (d. ... Canute (or Cnut) I, or Canute the Great (Old Norse: Knútr inn ríki, Danish: Knud den Store, Norwegian: Knut den mektige, Swedish: Knut den store) (ca. ... Harold I Harefoot (c. ... Norfolk and Suffolk, the core area of East Anglia. ... Harthacanute (sometimes Hardicanute, Hardecanute; Danish Hardeknud, Canute the Hardy) (1018/1019–June 8, 1042) was a King of Denmark (1035–1042) and England (1035–1037, 1040–1042). ... Queen Emma of Normandy receiving the Encomium Emmae, with her sons Harthacanute and Edward the Confessor in the background. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Bishop of Elmham and Winchester

Shortly after Edward the Confessor's coronation, Stigand was appointed to the see of Elmham, almost assuredly on Emma's advice. Elmham was the diocese that covered East Anglia. On April 3 1043[2] he was consecrated bishop.[3] However, Edward deposed Stigand in late 1043 and deprived him of his wealth. The deposition was short lived, as Edward returned Stigand to the episcopal chair by 1044.[4] Arms of the Bishop of Norwich The Bishop of Norwich is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Norwich in the Province of Canterbury. ... // Events Edward the Confessor crowned King of England at Winchester Cathedral. ...


Bishop of Winchester

In 1047 he was translated to the see of Winchester.[3][5] However, he retained at Elmham until 1052.[6] He supported Earl Godwin of Wessex in his quarrel with Edward the Confessor, and in 1052 arranged the peace between the earl and the king.[7] Arms of the Bishop of Winchester The diocese of Winchester is one of the oldest and most important in England. ... Godwin (sometimes Godwine, Goodwin, Godwyn, Goodwyn and sometimes known as Godwin of Wessex) (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Events Births Milarepa Deaths Heads of state Holy See - Leo IX pope (1049-1054) Categories: 1052 ...


Archbishop of Canterbury

In 1052 the archbishop of Canterbury, Robert of Jumieges, having been outlawed and driven from England, Stigand was appointed to the archbishopric[2]; but, regarding Robert as the rightful archbishop, Pope Leo IX and his two successors refused to recognize him. Stigand released Elmham to his brother Æthelmaer, but retained the bishopric of Winchester at the same time he was archbishop.[5] Robert of Jumièges (d. ... Leo IX, born Bruno of Eguisheim-Dagsburg (June 21, 1002 – April 19, 1054) was Pope from February 12, 1049 to his death. ...


In 1058, however, Benedict X gave him the pall, but this pope was deposed in the following year. Because of the growing movement in the church to reform itself, the holding of more than one benefice was now held to be uncanonical. Five successive popes excommunicated Stigand for holding both Winchester and Canterbury at the same time. His position was such that even bishops in England were leery of being consecrated by him.[8] The position of Stigand as head of the church in England was used to good effect by the Normans in their propaganda before, during and after the Conquest.[9] Not only did Stigand hold Winchester along with Canterbury, but he held the abbey of Gloucester and the abbey of Ely and maybe others.[10] Because of Stigand's issues with the papacy, the diocese of York was able to encroach on the suffragen bishops normally subject to Canterbury. York had long been held in common with Worcester, but during the period when Stigand was excommunicated, the see of York also claimed Lichfield and Dorcester as part of its archiepiscopal diocese.[11] Pope Benedict X (reigned 1058-1059; died c. ... now. ... Originally a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward (Latin beneficium, means to do well) for services rendered. ... Gloucester Cathedral from the north east in 1828. ... Front of Ely Cathedral Ely Cathedral (in full, The Cathedral Church of the Holy and Undivided Trinity of Ely) is the principal church of the diocese of Ely, in Cambridgeshire, England, and the seat of the Anglican Bishop of Ely. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ... The Bishop of Worcester is the ordinary in the see of Worcester and has his seat in Worcester Cathedral. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lichfield The Bishop of Lichfield is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Lichfield in the Province of Canterbury. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lincoln The Bishop of Lincoln heads the Anglican Diocese of Lincoln in the Province of Canterbury. ...


Stigand is said by Norman writers to have crowned King Harold II in January 1066[12] and is depicted at that coronation in the Bayeux tapestry; but it is now probable that this ceremony was performed by Aldred, Archbishop of York due to the controversy about Stigand's position.[8] Stigand did support Harold, and was present at Edward the Confessor's deathbed.[13] Harold II of England (Harold Godwinson; c. ... Events January 6 - Harold II is crowned September 20 - Battle of Fulford September 25 - Battle of Stamford Bridge September 29 - William of Normandy lands in England at Pevensey. ... The Bayeux Tapestry (French: Tapisserie de Bayeux) is a 50 cm by 70 m (20 in by 230 ft) long embroidered cloth which depicts the events leading up to, as well as, the Norman invasion of England in 1066. ... Aldred, or Ealdred (d. ... Arms of the Archbishop of York The Archbishop of York, Primate of England, is the metropolitan bishop of the Province of York, and is the junior of the two archbishops of the Church of England, after the Archbishop of Canterbury. ...


After the death of Harold, Stigand worked with Earl Edwin and Earl Morcar, as well as Archbishop Aldred of York, to put Edgar Atheling on the throne. However, this plan did not come to fruition, as the northern earls and some of the other bishops were against it.[14] Stigand submitted to William at Wallingford, and assisted at his coronation.[14] But the Conqueror was anxious to get rid of him, although he took him in his train to Normandy in 1067.[15] After the first rebellions broke out, William adopted a policy of conciliating the church and gave Stigand a place at court, as well as giving administrative positions to Aldred of York and Aethelwig, abbot of Evesham.[16] However, once the danger of rebellion was past, William had no further need of Stigand.[6] At a Council held at Winchester, the bishops met with papal legates from Alexander II.[17] On April 11, 1070 he was deposed[2] by the council and was imprisoned at Winchester. Deposed along with him were his brother Aethelmaer bishop of Elmham, Aethelric bishop of Selsey, Ethelwin bishop of Durham, and Leofwine bishop of Lichfield, who was married.[18][19] The reasons for Stigand's deposition were given as three - one, that had held the bishopric of Winchester in plurarity with Canterbury; two, that he had not only occupied Canterbury after Robert of Jumièges fled but had also siezed Robert's pallium which had been left behind; and three, he had recieved his own pallium from Benedict X.[20] Edwin (died 1070) was the elder brother of Morcar, Earl of Northumbria, son of Ælfgar, Earl of Mercia and nephew of Hereward. ... Morcar (or Morkere) (d. ... Aldred, or Ealdred (d. ... Edgar Ætheling[1], also known as Edgar the Outlaw, (c. ... William I of England (c. ... Map sources for Wallingford at grid reference SU6089 Wallingford is a small town in Oxfordshire in southern England. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Events Constantine X emperor of the Byzantine Empire dies. ... Evesham Abbey was founded at Evesham in England following a vision of the Virgin Mary by Eof. ... Winchester is a historic city in southern England, with a population of around 40,000 within a 3 mile radius of its centre. ... Alexander II (died April 21, 1073), born Anselmo da Baggio , Pope from 1061 to 1073, was a native of Milan. ... Æthelric II ( - 1076?), Bishop of Selsey. ... Arms of the Bishop of Chichester The Bishop of Chichester is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Chichester in the Province of Canterbury. ... Ethelwin was the last Anglo-Saxon bishop of Durham (1056-1071), the last who was not also a secular ruler, and the only English bishop at the time of the Norman Conquest who did not remain loyal to William the Conqueror. ... Arms of the Bishop of Durham The Bishop of Durham is the officer of the Church of England responsible for the diocese of Durham, one of the oldest in the country. ... Arms of the Bishop of Lichfield The Bishop of Lichfield is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Lichfield in the Province of Canterbury. ...


Death

Stigand died, on February 22, 1072, probably at Winchester.[2] is the 53rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ...


Legacy

Stigand was an avaricious man and a great pluralist, holding the bishopric of Winchester after he became archbishop of Canterbury, in addition to several abbeys. Originally a benefice was a gift of land for life as a reward (Latin beneficium, means to do well) for services rendered. ...


Notes

  1. ^ a b Barlow Edward the Confessor p. 59
  2. ^ a b c d Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 210
  3. ^ a b Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 223
  4. ^ Barlow Edward the Confessor p. 77
  5. ^ a b Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 258
  6. ^ a b Barlow Edward the Confessor p. 87
  7. ^ Barlow Edward the Confessor p. 123
  8. ^ a b Chibnall Anglo-Norman England 1066-1166 p. 39
  9. ^ Douglas William the Conqueror p. 170
  10. ^ Knowles The Monastic Order in England p. 72
  11. ^ Barlow The Feudal Kingdom of England p. 27
  12. ^ Chibnall Anglo-Norman England 1066-1166 p. 21
  13. ^ Barlow Edward the Confessor p. 249-250
  14. ^ a b Douglas William the Conqueror p.203-206
  15. ^ Knowles The Monastic Order in England p. 104
  16. ^ Barlow The English Church 1066-1154 p. 57
  17. ^ Powicke Handbook of British Chronology p. 549
  18. ^ Douglas William the Conqueror p. 324
  19. ^ Barlow The Feudal Kingdom of England p. 93
  20. ^ Powell The House of Lords in the Middle Ages p. 33-34

References

  • This article incorporates text from the Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition, a publication now in the public domain.
  • Barlow, Frank Edward the Confessor Berkeley, California: University of California Press 1970 ISBN 0-520-01671-8
  • Barlow, Frank The English Church 1066-1154 New York: Longman 1979 ISBN 0-582-50236-5
  • Barlow, Frank The Feudal Kingdom of England: 1042-1216 Fourth Edition New York: Longman 1988 ISBN 0-582-49504-0
  • Chibnall, Marjorie Anglo-Norman England 1066-1166 Oxford: Basil Blackwell 1986 ISBN 0-631-15439-6
  • Douglas, David C. William the Conqueror: The Norman Impact Upon England Berkeley, California: University of California Press 1964
  • Knowles, Dom David The Monastic Order in England: From the Times of St. Dunstan to the Fourth Lateran Council Second Edition Cambridge: Cambridge University Press 1976 reprint ISBN 0-521-05479-6
  • Powell, J. Enoch and Keith Wallis The House of Lords in the Middle Ages: A History of the English House of Lords to 1540 London: Weidenfeld and Nicolson 1968
  • Powicke, F. Maurice and E. B. Fryde Handbook of British Chronology 2nd. ed. London:Royal Historical Society 1961

Encyclopædia Britannica, the eleventh edition The Encyclopædia Britannica Eleventh Edition (1910–1911) is perhaps the most famous edition of the Encyclopædia Britannica. ... The public domain comprises the body of all creative works and other knowledge—writing, artwork, music, science, inventions, and others—in which no person or organization has any proprietary interest. ... David Knowles (Studley, Warwickshire 1896-1974) was an English Benedictine monk of Downside Abbey and historian. ... Sir (Frederick) Maurice Powicke (1879-1963) was an English medieval historian. ...

See also

(Dates in italics indicate de facto continuation of office) Haydns Book of Dignities (1894) Joseph Haydn/Horace Ockerby, reprinted 1969 Whitakers Almanack 1883 to 2004, Joseph Whitaker and Sons Ltd/A&C Black, London Categories: | ... List of bishops of Winchester // Categories: | ... Coat of arms of the Archbishop of Canterbury. ...

Further reading

  • E. A. Freeman, The Norman Conquest (1870-1876), vols. ii, iii and iv
  • J. R. Green, The Conquest of England (1899), vol. ii.
Persondata
NAME Stigand
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Bishop of Winchester, Archbishop of Canterbury
DATE OF BIRTH
PLACE OF BIRTH East Anglia, England
DATE OF DEATH February 22, 1072
PLACE OF DEATH Winchester
Religious titles
Preceded by
Aelwine
Bishop of Winchester
1047–1070
Succeeded by
Walkelin
Preceded by
Robert of Jumieges
Archbishop of Canterbury
1052–1070
Succeeded by
Lanfranc

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stigand (292 words)
In 1043 he was consecrated bishop of Elmham and in 1047 was translated to Winchester; he supported Earl Godwine in his quarrel with Edward the Confessor, and in 1052 arranged the peace between the earl and the king.
In this year the archbishop of Canterbury, Robert of Jumieges, having been outlawed and driven from England, Stigand was appointed to the archbishopric; but, regarding Robert as the rightful archbishop, Pope Leo IX and his two successors refused to recognize him.
Stigand is said by Norman writers to have crowned Harold in January 1066; but it is now probable that this ceremony was performed by Aldred, archbishop of York.
STIGAND - LoveToKnow Article on STIGAND (271 words)
In this year the archbishop of Canterbury, Robert of Jumihges, having been outlawed and driven from England, Stigand was appointed to the archbishopric; but, regarding Robert as the rightful archbishop, Pope Leo IX.
In 1070 he was deposed by the papal legates and was imprisoned at Winchester, where he died, probably on the 22nd of February 1072.
Stigand was an avaricious man and a great pluralist, holding the bishopric of Winchester after he became archbishop of Canterbury, in addition to several abbeys.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

COMMENTARY     


Share your thoughts, questions and commentary here
Your name
Your comments

Want to know more?
Search encyclopedia, statistics and forums:

 


Press Releases |  Feeds | Contact
The Wikipedia article included on this page is licensed under the GFDL.
Images may be subject to relevant owners' copyright.
All other elements are (c) copyright NationMaster.com 2003-5. All Rights Reserved.
Usage implies agreement with terms, 1022, m