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Encyclopedia > Stevia
Stevia

A young Stevia rebaudiana plant
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
Division: Magnoliophyta
Class: Magnoliopsida
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Eupatorieae
Genus: Stevia
Species

About 150 species, including:
Stevia eupatoria
Stevia ovata
Stevia plummerae
Stevia rebaudiana
Stevia salicifolia
Stevia serrata Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2896 KB)A picture of my stevia plant in St Louis. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Plant (disambiguation). ... Classes Magnoliopsida - Dicots Liliopsida - Monocots The flowering plants or angiosperms are the most widespread group of land plants. ... Magnoliopsida is the botanical name for a class of flowering plants. ... Families Alseuosmiaceae Argophyllaceae Asteraceae - Daisies Calyceraceae Campanulaceae (incl. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Species See text. ...

Stevia is a genus of about 150 species of herbs and shrubs in the sunflower family (Asteraceae), native to subtropical and tropical South America and Central America. The species Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni, commonly known as sweetleaf, sweet leaf, sugarleaf, or simply stevia, is widely grown for its sweet leaves. As a sugar substitute, stevia's taste has a slower onset and longer duration than that of sugar, although some of its extracts may have a bitter or liquorice-like aftertaste at high concentrations. For other uses, see Genus (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Species (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Herb (disambiguation). ... A broom shrub in flower A shrub or bush is a horticultural rather than strictly botanical category of woody plant, distinguished from a tree by its multiple stems and lower height, usually less than 6 m tall. ... Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... Subtropical (or semitropical) areas are those adjacent to the tropics, usually roughly defined as the ranges 23. ... The tropics are the geographic region of the Earth centered on the equator and limited in latitude by the two tropics: the Tropic of Cancer in the north and the Tropic of Capricorn in the southern hemisphere. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ... For other uses, see Central America (disambiguation). ... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... This article is about sugar as food and as an important and widely traded commodity. ... Binomial name L. Liquorice or licorice (see spelling differences) (IPA: , or ) is the root of Glycyrrhiza glabra, from which a sweet flavour can be extracted. ... Aftertaste is the persistence of a sensation of flavor after the stimulating substance has passed out of contact with the sensory end organs for taste. ...


With its extracts having up to 300 times the sweetness of sugar, stevia has garnered attention with the rise in demand for low-carbohydrate, low-sugar food alternatives. Stevia also has shown promise in medical research for treating such conditions as obesity[1] and high blood pressure.[2][3] Stevia has a negligible effect on blood glucose, even enhancing glucose tolerance;[4] therefore, it is attractive as a natural sweetener to diabetics and others on carbohydrate-controlled diets.[5] However, health and political controversies have limited stevia's availability in many countries; for example, the United States banned it in the early 1990s unless labeled as a supplement. Stevia is widely used as a sweetener in Japan, and it is now available in the US and Canada as a dietary supplement, although not as a food additive. Rebiana is the trade name for a stevia-derived sweetener being developed jointly by The Coca-Cola Company and Cargill with the intent of marketing in several countries and gaining regulatory approval in the US and EU. Low-carbohydrate diets or low-carb diets are nutritional programs that advocate restricted carbohydrate consumption, based on research that ties consumption of certain carbohydrates with increased blood insulin levels, and overexposure to insulin with metabolic syndrome (the most recognized symptom of which is obesity). ... Arterial hypertension, or high blood pressure is a medical condition where the blood pressure is chronically elevated. ... In medicine, blood sugar is glucose in the blood. ... Impaired Glucose Tolerance (IGT) is a pre-diabetic state of dysglycemia, that is associated with insulin resistance and increased risk of cardiovascular pathology. ... This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Lactose is a disaccharide found in milk. ... For the band, see 1990s (band). ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Food additives are substances added to food to preserve flavor or improve its taste and appearance. ... A trade name, also known as a trading name or a business name, is the legal name of a business, or the name which a business trades under for commercial purposes. ... The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is one of the largest manufacturers, distributors and marketers of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups in the world. ... Cargill, Incorporated is a privately held, multinational corporation, and is based in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ...

Contents

History and use

For centuries, the Guaraní tribes of Paraguay and Brazil used Stevia species, primarily S. rebaudiana which they called ka'a he'ê ("sweet herb"), as a sweetener in yerba mate and medicinal teas for treating heartburn and other ailments. For other uses, see Guaraní (disambiguation). ... Native Americans redirects here. ... Binomial name Ilex paraguariensis A. St. ...


In 1931, two French chemists isolated the glycosides that give stevia its sweet taste.[6] These compounds were named stevioside and rebaudioside, and are 250–300 times sweeter than sucrose (ordinary table sugar), heat stable, pH stable, and non-fermentable.[7] Year 1931 (MCMXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1931 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... Stevioside is a glycoside derived from the stevia plant, which can be used as a sweetener. ... The steviol glycosides are responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana bertoni). ... Flash point N/A Except where noted otherwise, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 Â°C, 100 kPa) Infobox disclaimer and references Sucrose (common name: table sugar, also called saccharose) is a disaccharide (glucose + fructose) with the molecular formula C12H22O11. ... For other uses, see PH (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Fermentation. ...


In the early 1970s, Japan began cultivating stevia as an alternative to artificial sweeteners such as cyclamate and saccharin, suspected carcinogens. The plant's leaves, the aqueous extract of the leaves, and purified steviosides are used as sweeteners. Since the Japanese firm Morita Kagaku Kogyo Co., Ltd. produced the first commercial stevia sweetener in Japan in 1971,[8] the Japanese have been using stevia in food products, soft drinks (including Coca Cola),[9] and for table use. Japan currently consumes more stevia than any other country; it accounts for 40% of the sweetener market.[10] The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Cyclamate is an artificial sweetener that was discovered in 1937 at the University of Illinois by graduate student Michael Sveda. ... The skeletal formula of saccharin Saccharin[1] is the oldest artificial sweetener. ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... A soft drink is a drink that contains no alcohol. ... This article is about the beverage. ...


Today, stevia is cultivated and used in food elsewhere in east Asia, including in China (since 1984), Korea, Taiwan, Thailand, and Malaysia. It can also be found in Saint Kitts and Nevis, in parts of South America (Brazil, Colombia, Peru, Paraguay, and Uruguay) and in Israel. China is the world's largest exporter of stevioside.[10] This article is about the year. ... This article is about the Korean civilization. ... South America South America is a continent crossed by the equator, with most of its area in the Southern Hemisphere. ...


Stevia species are found in the wild in semi-arid habitats ranging from grassland to mountain terrain. Stevia does produce seeds, but only a small percentage of them germinate. Planting cloned stevia is a more effective method of reproduction. Semi-arid generally describes regions that receive low annual rainfall (25 to 50 cm /10 to 20 in) and generally have scrub or grass vegetation. ... Habitat (which is Latin for it inhabits) is the place where a particular species live and grow. ... A ripe red jalapeño cut open to show the seeds For other uses, see Seed (disambiguation). ... In a botanical sense, germination is the process of emergence of growth from a resting stage. ... Production of new individuals along a leaf margin of the air plant, Kalanchoë pinnata. ...


Availability

Stevia has been grown on an experimental basis in Ontario, Canada since 1987 for the purpose of determining the feasibility of growing the crop commercially. In the United States, it is legal to import, grow, sell, and consume stevia products if contained within or labeled for use as a dietary supplement, but not as a food additive. Stevia has also been approved as a dietary supplement in Australia, New Zealand[11] and Canada. In Japan and South American countries, stevia may also be used as a food additive. Stevia is currently banned for use in food in the European Union[12] It is also banned in Singapore and Hong Kong.[13] Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Official languages English (de facto) Government Lieutenant-Governor David C. Onley Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Federal representation in Canadian Parliament House seats 107 Senate seats 24 Confederation July 1, 1867 (1st) Area... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ...


Rebiana is the tradename for a patent-pending, calorie-free, food and beverage sweetener derived from stevia and developed jointly by The Coca-Cola Company and Cargill. In May 2007, Coca-Cola announced plans to obtain approval for its use as a food additive within the United States by 2009. Coca-Cola has also announced plans to market rebiana-sweetened products in 12 countries that allow stevia's use as a food additive. The two companies are conducting their own studies in an effort to gain regulatory approval in the United States and the European Union.[14][15] For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... The Coca-Cola Company (NYSE: KO) is one of the largest manufacturers, distributors and marketers of nonalcoholic beverage concentrates and syrups in the world. ... Cargill, Incorporated is a privately held, multinational corporation, and is based in the state of Minnesota in the United States. ...


Controversies

Steviol is the basic building block of stevia's sweet glycosides: Stevioside and rebaudioside A are constructed by replacing the bottom hydrogen atom with glucose and the top hydrogen atom with two or three linked glucose groups, respectively.
Steviol is the basic building block of stevia's sweet glycosides: Stevioside and rebaudioside A are constructed by replacing the bottom hydrogen atom with glucose and the top hydrogen atom with two or three linked glucose groups, respectively.

Image File history File links Steviol. ... Image File history File links Steviol. ... The steviol glycosides are responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana bertoni). ... This article is about the chemistry of hydrogen. ... Glucose (Glc), a monosaccharide (or simple sugar), is an important carbohydrate in biology. ...

Health controversy

A 1985 study reported that steviol, a breakdown product from stevioside and rebaudioside (two of the sweet steviol glycosides in the stevia leaf) is a mutagen in the presence of a liver extract of pre-treated rats[16] — but this finding has been criticized on procedural grounds that the data were mishandled in such a way that even distilled water would appear mutagenic.[17] More recent animal tests have shown mixed results in terms of toxicology and adverse effects of stevia extract, with some tests finding steviol to be a weak mutagen[18] while newer studies find no safety issues.[19][20] This article is about the year. ... The steviol glycosides are responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana bertoni). ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is a physical or chemical agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ... For the bird, see Liver bird. ... Bottle for Distilled water in the Real Farmacia in Madrid. ... In biology, a mutagen (Latin, literally origin of change) is an agent that changes the genetic information (usually DNA) of an organism and thus increases the number of mutations above the natural background level. ...


Other studies have shown stevia improves insulin sensitivity in rats[21] and may even promote additional insulin production,[22] helping to reverse diabetes and metabolic syndrome.[23] Preliminary human studies show stevia can help reduce hypertension [24] although another study has shown it has no effect on hypertension.[25] Despite these more recent studies establishing the safety of stevia, government agencies have expressed concerns over toxicity, citing a lack of sufficient conclusive research.[26][27] This article is about the disease that features high blood sugar. ... Metabolic syndrome is a combination of medical disorders that increase ones risk for cardiovascular disease and diabetes. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... // Toxic and Intoxicated redirect here – toxic has other uses, which can be found at Toxicity (disambiguation); for the state of being intoxicated by alcohol see Drunkenness. ...


Whole foods proponents draw a distinction between consuming (and safety testing) only parts, such as stevia extracts and isolated compounds like stevioside, versus the whole herb. In his book Healing With Whole Foods, Paul Pitchford cautions, "Obtain only the green or brown [whole] stevia extracts or powders; avoid the clear extracts and white powders, which, highly refined and lacking essential phyto-nutrients, cause imbalance".[28] However, this statement is not backed by published scientific evidence, other than the general findings about refined foods being less beneficial. Phytochemicals are sometimes referred to as phytonutrients; these terms are often used interchangeably. ...


In 2006, the World Health Organization (WHO) performed a thorough evaluation of recent experimental studies of stevioside and steviols conducted on animals and humans, and concluded that "stevioside and rebaudioside A are not genotoxic in vitro or in vivo and that the genotoxicity of steviol and some of its oxidative derivatives in vitro is not expressed in vivo."[29] The report also found no evidence of carcinogenic activity. Furthermore, the report noted that "stevioside has shown some evidence of pharmacological effects in patients with hypertension or with type-2 diabetes"[29] but concluded that further study was required to determine proper dosage. Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... WHO redirects here. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ... The hazard symbol for carcinogenic chemicals in the Globally Harmonized System. ... Pharmacology (in Greek: pharmacon is drug, and logos is science) is the study of how chemical substances interfere with living systems. ... For other forms of hypertension, see Hypertension (disambiguation). ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ...


Indeed, millions of Japanese people have been using stevia for over thirty years with no reported or known harmful effects.[30] Similarly, stevia leaves have been used for centuries in South America spanning multiple generations in ethnomedical tradition as a treatment of type II diabetes.[31] Ethnomedicine is a sub-field of medical anthropology and deals with the study of traditional medicines: not only those that have relevant written sources (e. ... See diabetes mellitus for further general information on diabetes. ...


Political controversy

The stevia plant may be grown legally in most countries, although some countries restrict or ban its use as a sweetener.
The stevia plant may be grown legally in most countries, although some countries restrict or ban its use as a sweetener.

In 1991, at the request of an anonymous complaint, the United States Food and Drug Administration (FDA) labeled stevia as an "unsafe food additive" and restricted its import. The FDA's stated reason was "toxicological information on stevia is inadequate to demonstrate its safety."[32] This ruling was controversial, as stevia proponents pointed out that this designation violated the FDA's own guidelines under which any natural substance used prior to 1958 with no reported adverse effects should be generally recognized as safe (GRAS). Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x1312, 135 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stevia ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (900x1312, 135 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stevia ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... “FDA” redirects here. ... Jan. ... Generally Recognized as Safe (GRAS) is a United States of America Food and Drug Administration (FDA) designation that a chemical or substance added to food is considered safe by experts, and so is exempted from the usual Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic Act (FFDCA) food additive tolerance requirements. ...


Stevia occurs naturally, requiring no patent to produce it. As a consequence, since the import ban in 1991, marketers and consumers of stevia have shared a belief that the FDA acted in response to industry pressure.[11] Arizona congressman Jon Kyl, for example, called the FDA action against stevia "a restraint of trade to benefit the artificial sweetener industry."[33] Citing privacy issues, the FDA has not revealed the source of the original complaint in its responses to requests filed under the Freedom of Information Act.[11] For other uses, see Patent (disambiguation). ... Official language(s) English Spoken language(s) English 74. ... This page is about the current Arizona Senator; for his father, a U.S. Representative from Iowa, see John Kyl; for a U.S. Representative from Mississippi with a similar name, see John Kyle. ... At present, the law will not enforce certain types of contracts on the ground of illegality. ... Nearly sixty countries around the world have implemented some form of freedom of information legislation, which sets rules on governmental secrecy. ...


The FDA requires proof of safety before recognizing a food additive as safe. A similar burden of proof is required for the FDA to ban a substance or label it unsafe. Nevertheless, stevia remained banned until after the 1994 Dietary Supplement Health and Education Act forced the FDA in 1995 to revise its stance to permit stevia to be used as a dietary supplement, although not as a food additive — a position that stevia proponents regard as contradictory because it simultaneously labels stevia as safe and unsafe, depending on how it is sold.[34] Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... A prescribed dietary supplement supplies nutrients (usually vitamins or minerals) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ... A dietary supplement is intended to supply nutrients, (vitamins, minerals, fatty acids or amino acids) that are missing or not consumed in sufficient quantity in a persons diet. ...


Although unresolved questions remain concerning whether metabolic processes can produce a mutagen from stevia in animals, let alone in humans, the early studies nevertheless prompted the European Commission to ban stevia's use in food in the European Union pending further research.[12] Singapore and Hong Kong have banned it also.[13] However, more recent data compiled in the safety evaluation released by the World Health Organization in 2006[29] suggest that these policies may be obsolete. Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Names in other countries

Both the sweetener and the stevia plant Stevia rebaudiana Bertoni (also known as Eupatorium rebaudianum Bertoni[35]) are known and pronounced as "stévia" in English-speaking countries as well as in France, Germany, Italy, Portugal, Israel, and Sweden — although some of these countries also use other terms as shown below. Similar pronunciations occur in Japan (sutebia or ステビア in katakana), and in Thailand (satiwia). In some countries (India, for example) the name translates literally as "sweet leaf." Below are some names for the stevia plant in various regions of the world:[36] Species See text. ... The following is a list of countries where English is an official language, in order of population: India United States (de facto only; the USA has no official language) Nigeria Philippines United Kingdom Hong Kong South Africa Canada Kenya Uganda Ghana Sri Lanka Australia Cameroon Zimbabwe Malawi Zambia Sierra Leone... Katakana ) is a Japanese syllabary, one component of the Japanese writing system along with hiragana, kanji, and in some cases the Latin alphabet. ...

Look up Wiktionary:Swadesh lists for Afrikaans and Dutch in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The following is a list of countries where English is an official language, in order of population: India United States (de facto only; the USA has no official language) Nigeria Philippines United Kingdom Hong Kong South Africa Canada Kenya Uganda Ghana Sri Lanka Australia Cameroon Zimbabwe Malawi Zambia Sierra Leone... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into German language. ... Marathi is one of the widely spoken languages of India, and has a long literary history. ... Sanskrit ( , for short ) is a classical language of India, a liturgical language of Hinduism, Buddhism, Sikhism, and Jainism, and one of the 23 official languages of India. ... Tamil ( ; IPA ) is a Dravidian language spoken predominantly by Tamils in India and Sri Lanka, with smaller communities of speakers in many other countries. ... “Telugu” redirects here. ... The Community of Portuguese Language Countries (Portuguese: Comunidade dos Países de Língua Portuguesa or CPLP) is a multilateral forum for mutual friendship between the lusophone nations across the world where Portuguese is an official language. ... Countries in which the official or principal language is Castilian Spanish. ... Location within in Thailand Coordinates: , Country Settled Ayutthaya Period Founded as capital 21 April 1782 Government  - Type Special administrative area  - Governer Apirak Kosayothin Area  - City 1,568. ...

See also

Diversity About 1500 genera and 23,000 species Type Genus Aster L. Subfamilies Barnadesioideae Cichorioideae Tribe Arctotidae Tribe Cardueae Tribe Eremothamneae Tribe Lactuceae Tribe Liabeae Tribe Mutisieae Tribe Tarchonantheae Tribe Vernonieae Asteroideae Tribe Anthemideae Tribe Astereae Tribe Calenduleae Tribe Eupatorieae Tribe Gnaphalieae Tribe Helenieae Tribe Heliantheae Tribe Inuleae Tribe Plucheae... This article needs additional references or sources for verification. ... A glycoside is a molecule where a sugar group is bonded through its anomeric carbon to a nonsugar group by either an oxygen or a nitrogen atom. ... The steviol glycosides are responsible for the sweet taste of the leaves of the stevia plant (Stevia rebaudiana bertoni). ...

Notes and references

Look up Stevia in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  1. ^ PubMed research articles related to treatments of obesity
  2. ^ PubMed research articles on stevia's effects on blood pressure
  3. ^ PubMed articles on stevia's use in treating hypertension
  4. ^ Curi, R; Alvarez M, Bazotte RB, Botion LM, Godoy JL, Bracht A (1986). "Effect of Stevia rabaudiana on glucose tolerance in normal adult humans". Braz J Med Biol Res 19 (6): 771-4. 
  5. ^ Gregersen, S; Jeppesen PB, Holst JJ, Hermansen K (January 2004). "Antihyperglycemic effects of stevioside in type 2 diabetic subjects". Metabolism 53 (1): 73-76. 
  6. ^ Bridel, M.; Lavielle, R. (1931). "Sur le principe sucre des feuilles de kaa-he-e (stevia rebaundiana B)". Academie des Sciences Paris Comptes Rendus (Parts 192): 1123-1125. 
  7. ^ Brandle, Jim (2004-08-19). FAQ - Stevia, Nature's Natural Low Calorie Sweetener (HTML). Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada. Retrieved on 2006-11-08.
  8. ^ Stevia (HTML). Morita Kagaku Kogyuo Co., Ltd. (2004). Retrieved on 2007-11-06.
  9. ^ Taylor, Leslie (2005). The Healing Power of Natural Herbs. Garden City Park, NY: Square One Publishers, Inc., (excerpted at weblink). ISBN 0-7570-0144-0. 
  10. ^ a b Jones, Georgia (September 2006). Stevia (HTML). NebGuide: University of Nebraska–Lincoln Institute of Agriculture and Natural Resources. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  11. ^ a b c Hawke, Jenny (February-March 2003). "The Bittersweet Story of the Stevia Herb". Nexus magazine 10 (2). Retrieved on 2007-05-04. 
  12. ^ a b European Commission Scientific Committee on Food (June 1999). Opinion on Stevioside as a Sweetener
  13. ^ a b Simon LI (Legislative Council Secretariat Research and Library Services Division) (27 March 2002). Fact Sheet: Stevioside
  14. ^ Stanford, Duane D.. "Coke and Cargill teaming on new drink sweetener", Atlanta Journal-Constitution, 2007-05-31. Retrieved on 2007-05-31. 
  15. ^ Etter, Lauren and McKay, Betsy. "Coke, Cargill Aim For a Shake-Up In Sweeteners", Wall Street Journal, 2007-05-31. Retrieved on 2007-06-01. 
  16. ^ Pezzuto, JM; Compadre CM, Swanson SM, Nanayakkara D, Kinghorn AD (April 1985). "Metabolically activated steviol, the aglycone of stevioside, is mutagenic". Proc Natl Acad Sci U.S.A. 82 (8): 2478-82. 
  17. ^ Procinska, E; Bridges BA, Hanson JR (March 1991). "Interpretation of results with the 8-azaguanine resistance system in Salmonella typhimurium: no evidence for direct acting mutagenesis by 15-oxosteviol, a possible metabolite of steviol". Mutagenesis 6 (2): 165-7.  – article text is reproduced here.
  18. ^ Matsui, M; Matsui K, Kawasaki Y, Oda Y, Noguchi T, Kitagawa Y, Sawada M, Hayashi M, Nohmi T, Yoshihira K, Ishidate M Jr, Sofuni T (November 1996). "Evaluation of the genotoxicity of stevioside and steviol using six in vitro and one in vivo mutagenicity assays". Mutagenesis 11 (6): 573-9. 
  19. ^ Klongpanichpak, S; Temcharoen P, Toskulkao C, Apibal S, Glinsukon T (September 1997). "Lack of mutagenicity of stevioside and steviol in Salmonella typhimurium TA 98 and TA 100". J Med Assoc Thai 80 (Suppl 1): S121-8. 
  20. ^ Geuns, JM (November 2003). "Stevioside". Phytochemistry 64 (5): 913-21. Retrieved on 2005-05-04. 
  21. ^ Lailerd, N; Lailerd N, Saengsirisuwan V, Sloniger JA, Toskulkao C, Henriksen EJ (January 2004). "Effects of stevioside on glucose transport activity in insulin-sensitive and insulin-resistant rat skeletal muscle.". Metabolism 53 (1): 101-7. 
  22. ^ Jeppesen, P; Jeppesen PB, Gregersen S, Rolfsen SE, Jepsen M, Colombo M, Agger A, Xiao J, Kruhøffer M, Orntoft T, Hermansen K (March 2003). "Antihyperglycemic and blood pressure-reducing effects of stevioside in the diabetic Goto-Kakizaki rat.". Metabolism 52 (3): 372-8. 
  23. ^ Dyrskog, S; Dyrskog SE, Jeppesen PB, Colombo M, Abudula R, Hermansen K (September 2005). "Preventive effects of a soy-based diet supplemented with stevioside on the development of the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes in Zucker diabetic fatty rats.". Metabolism 54 (9): 1181-8. 
  24. ^ Hsieh, M; Hsieh MH, Chan P, Sue YM, Liu JC, Liang TH, Huang TY, Tomlinson B, Chow MS, Kao PF, Chen YJ (November 2003). "Efficacy and tolerability of oral stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension: a two-year, randomized, placebo-controlled study.". Clinical Therapeutics 25 (11): 2797-808. 
  25. ^ Ferri, L; Ferri LA, Alves-Do-Prado W, Yamada SS, Gazola S, Batista MR, Bazotte RB (September 2006). "Investigation of the antihypertensive effect of oral crude stevioside in patients with mild essential hypertension.". Phytotherapy Research 20 (9): 732-6. 
  26. ^ European Commission Scientific Committee on Food (June 1999). Opinion on Stevia Rebaudiana Bertoni plants and leaves
  27. ^ Food Standards Agency (August 2000). FSA note on Stevia and stevioside
  28. ^ Pitchford, Paul (2002). Healing With Whole Foods: Asian Traditions and Modern Nutrition (3rd ed.). Berkeley, CA: North Atlantic Books. ISBN 1-55643-430-8. 
  29. ^ a b c Benford, D.J.; DiNovi, M., Schlatter, J. (2006). "Safety Evaluation of Certain Food Additives: Steviol Glycosides" (PDF – 18 MB). WHO Food Additives Series 54: 140. World Health Organization Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA). 
  30. ^ Products and Markets - Stevia ([HTML]). Food and Agriculture Organization of the United Nations - Forestry Department. Retrieved on 2007-05-04.
  31. ^ Abudula, R; Jeppesen PB, Rolfsen SE, Xiao J, Hermansen K (October 2004). "Rebaudioside A potently stimulates insulin secretion from isolated mouse islets: studies on the dose-, glucose-, and calcium-dependency". Metabolism 53 (10): 1378-81. 
  32. ^ Food and Drug Administration (1995, rev 1996, 2005). Import Alert #45-06: "Automatic Detention of Stevia Leaves, Extract of Stevia Leaves, and Food Containing Stevia"
  33. ^ Kyl, John (R-Arizona) (1993). Letter to former FDA Commissioner David Aaron Kessler about the 1991 stevia import ban, quoted at herbalremedies.com.
  34. ^ McCaleb, Rob (1997). Controversial Products in the Natural Foods Market (HTML). Herb Research Foundation. Retrieved on 2006-11-08.
  35. ^ Asteraceae Eupatorium rebaudianum Bertoni. International Plant Names Index.
  36. ^ The Multilingual Multiscript plant name database has terms for the Stevia plant in various languages.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... The Department of Agriculture and Agri-Food, also referred to as Agriculture and Agri-Food Canada, is the department of the government of Canada with responsibility for policies governing agriculture production, farming income, research and development, inspection, and the regulation of animals and plants. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 310th day of the year (311th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... “University of Nebraska” redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Nexus magazine is a magazine containing many alternative and conspiracy theorist articles. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 151st day of the year (152nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 152nd day of the year (153rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Berlaymont, the Commissions seat The European Commission (formally the Commission of the European Communities) is the executive branch of the European Union. ... The Food Standards Agency is a non-ministerial government department of the Government of the United Kingdom. ... PDF is an abbreviation with several meanings: Portable Document Format Post-doctoral fellowship Probability density function There also is an electronic design automation company named PDF Solutions. ... WHO redirects here. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ... is the 124th day of the year (125th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... “FDA” redirects here. ... American physician, lawyer, and statesman. ... HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for web pages. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 312th day of the year (313th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The International Plant Names Index (IPNI) is a database of the names and associated basic bibliographical details of all seed plants. ...

Further reading

  • Pitchford, Paul (2002). Healing With Whole Foods: Asian Traditions and Modern Nutrition (3rd ed.). Berkeley: North Atlantic Books (ISBN 1-55643-430-8).
  • May, James (2003). The Miracle of Stevia. New York, NY: Twin Stream Books (ISBN 0-7582-0220-2).
  • Kirkland, James (1999). Sugar-Free Cooking with Stevia. Arlington, TX: Crystal Health Pub. (ISBN 1-928906-11-7).
  • Goettomoeller, Jeffrey (1999). Stevia Sweet Recipes: Sugar-Free-Naturally. Bloomingdale, IL: Vital Health Pub. (ISBN 1-890612-13-8).
  • Ray Sahelian (1999). The Stevia Cookbook. Garden City Park, NY: Avery (ISBN 0-89529-926-7).

Ray Sahelian, M.D. is the author of Mind Boosters, Natural Sex Boosters, The Stevia Cookbook and several other books on natural supplements. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Stevia-Plant.com : stevia sweetener, stevia sweetner, stevia powder, stevia leaf, stevia seed, stevia herb, stevia ... (1895 words)
Stevia is not frost hardy and must be planted each year.
Stevia leaves should be harvested in the fall.
Stevia is a fairly unassuming perennial shrub of the Compositae family, native to the northern regions of Paraguay.
Database Entry: Stevia rebaudiana, Stevia rebaudiana (2902 words)
Stevia is still found growing wild in the highlands of the Amambay and Iguacu districts (a border area between Brazil and Paraguay).
Stevia's effects and uses as a heart tonic to normalize blood pressure levels, to regulate heartbeat, and for other cardiopulmonary indications first were reported in rat studies (in 1978).
Stevia is grown in the interior of Sao Paulo.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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