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Encyclopedia > Steve Reich

Stephen Michael Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer who pioneered the style of minimalism. His innovations include using tape loops to create phasing patterns (examples are his early compositions, It's Gonna Rain and Come Out), and the use of simple, audible processes to explore musical concepts (for instance, Pendulum Music and Four Organs). These compositions, marked by their use of repetitive figures, slow harmonic rhythm and canons, have significantly influenced contemporary music, especially in the US. Reich's work took on a darker character in the 1980s with the introduction of historical themes as well as themes from his Jewish heritage. is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A composer is a person who writes music. ... This article is about a musical style. ... Tape loops are loops of prerecorded magnetic tape used to create repetitive, rhythmic musical patterns. ... In music the compositional technique phasing, popularized by composer Steve Reich, is that while the same part is played on two musical instruments, one instrumentalist keeps playing in steady tempo, while the other gradually moves ahead of the first until it becomes out of and then back in phase (the... Its gonna rain is a musical composition written by Steve Reich in 1965 and approximately 17 minutes and 50 seconds in length. ... Come Out is a 1966 piece by American composer Steve Reich. ... Pendulum Music is the name of a work by Steve Reich, involving suspended microphones and speakers, creating phasing feedback tones. ... Four Organs is a work for four electric organs (hence the name) by Steve Reich. ... In the broadest sense, contemporary music is any music being written in the present day. ... The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ...


The Guardian has described Reich as one of the few composers to have "altered the direction of musical history," has been called "America's greatest living composer" (the Village Voice) as well as "...among the great composers of the century" (New York Times).[citation needed] Reich's style of composition has influenced many other composers and musical groups, including Philip Glass (especially his early pieces), John Adams, the progressive rock band King Crimson, and the art-pop and electronic musician Brian Eno. On January 25, 2007, Reich was named the 2007 recipient of the Polar Music Prize, together with Sonny Rollins. For other uses, see Guardian. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... For the Alaska-based postminimalist composer, see John Luther Adams. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... This article is about the musical group. ... Brian Peter George St. ... is the 25th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... The Polar Music Prize is an international music prize and awarded to individuals, groups or institutions in recognition of exceptional achievements in the creation and advancement of music. The prize was founded in 1989 following a donation from Stig Anderson and is awarded annually by the Royal Swedish Academy of... Theodore Walter Sonny Rollins (born September 7, 1930 in New York City) is an American jazz tenor saxophonist. ...

Contents

Career

Early life

Reich was born in New York City to the Broadway lyricist June Sillman. When he was one year old his parents divorced and Reich divided his time between New York and California. He was given piano lessons as a child and describes growing up with the "middle-class favorites", having no exposure to music written before 1750 or after 1900. At the age of 14 he began to study music in earnest, after hearing music from the Baroque period and earlier, as well as music of the 20th century, and he began studying drums with Roland Kohloff in order to play jazz. He attended Cornell University; he took some music courses there, but graduated in 1957 with a B.A. in philosophy. Reich's B.A. thesis was on Ludwig Wittgenstein; later he would set texts by that philosopher to music in Proverb (1995) and You Are (variations) (2004). New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... June Carroll (1917 - May 16, 2004) was an American lyricist, singer and actress. ... This article is about the U.S state. ... Baroque music describes an era and a set of styles of European classical music which were in widespread use between approximately 1600 and 1750. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Cornell redirects here. ... B. A. redirects here. ... For other uses, see Philosophy (disambiguation). ... Wittgenstein redirects here. ... Proverb is a piece by Steve Reich for three sopranos, two tenors, two vibraphones, and two electric organs, to a text by Ludwig Wittgenstein. ...


For a year following graduation he studied composition privately with Hall Overton before he enrolled at Juilliard to work with William Bergsma and Vincent Persichetti (1958 to 1961). Subsequently he attended Mills College in Oakland where he studied with Luciano Berio and Darius Milhaud (1961–63) and earned a master's degree in composition, where Reich composed Melodica for melodica and tape, which appeared in 1986 on the three-LP release Music from Mills.[1] Hall Franklin Overton was born in Bangor, Michigan, on February 23, 1920. ... The Juilliard School is one of the worlds premier performing arts conservatories, in New York City. ... William Laurence Bergsma (April 1, 1921–March 18, 1994) was an American composer. ... Vincent Persichetti (June 6, 1915 – August 14, 1987) was a composer and teacher at the Juilliard School whose students included Philip Glass and Thelonious Monk. ... Founded in 1852 and established in Oakland, California, in 1871, Mills College is an independent liberal arts womans college, with graduate programs for women and men. ... Oakland redirects here. ... Luciano Berio (October 24, 1925 – May 27, 2003) was an Italian composer. ... Darius Milhaud (IPA: ) (September 4, 1892 – June 22, 1974) was a French composer and teacher. ... A Hohner melodica The melodica is a free-reed instrument similar to the accordion and harmonica. ... Sony reel-to-reel tape recorder. ...


Reich worked with the San Francisco Tape Music Center along with Pauline Oliveros, Ramon Sender, Morton Subotnick and Terry Riley (he was involved with the premiere of Riley's "In C" and suggested the use of the eighth note pulse which is now standard in performance of the piece). The San Francisco Tape Music Center was founded in 1962 by composers Morton Subotnick and Ramon Sender as a nonprofit cultural and educational corporation, the aim of which was to present concerts and offer a place to learn about work within the tape music medium ([1]). Other composers involved include... Pauline Oliveros (born 1932 in Houston, Texas) is an accordionist and composer who currently resides in Kingston, New York. ... Ramon Sender (born Oct 29, 1934 in Madrid, Spain) is a composer and the co-founder, with Morton Subotnick, of the San Francisco Tape Music Center in 1961. ... Morton Subotnick (born April 13, 1933) is an American composer of electronic music, best known for his Silver Apples of the Moon, the first electronic work commissioned by a record company, Nonesuch, and composed on the Buchla modular synthesizer which he helped to design. ... Terry Riley – (Portrait by Betty Freeman) Terry Riley (born 24 June 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school. ... In C is an aleatoric musical piece composed by Terry Riley in 1964 for any number of people, although a group of about 35 is desired if possible but smaller or larger groups will work[1]. As its title suggests, it is in the key of C. It is a...


1960s

Reich's early forays into composition involved experimentation with twelve-tone composition, but he found the rhythmic aspects of the twelve-tone series more interesting than the melodic aspects[2]. Reich also composed film soundtracks for The Plastic Haircut and Oh Dem Watermelons, two films by Robert Nelson. The soundtrack for Oh Dem Watermelons, composed in 1965, involved basic tape work, using repeated phrasing together in a large five-part canon. Twelve-tone technique (also dodecaphony) is a method of musical composition devised by Arnold Schoenberg. ... In film formats, the soundtrack is the physical area of the film which records the synchronized sound. ... In music, a canon is a contrapuntal composition that employs a melody with one or more imitations of the melody played after a given duration (e. ...


Reich was influenced by fellow minimalist Terry Riley, whose work In C combines simple musical patterns, offset in time, to create a slowly shifting, cohesive whole. Reich adopted this approach to compose his first major work, It's Gonna Rain. Written in 1965, It's Gonna Rain used recordings of a sermon about the end of the world given by a black Pentecostal street-preacher known as Brother Walter. Reich built on his early tape work, transferring the sermon to multiple tape loops played in and out of phase, with segments of the sermon cut and rearranged. Terry Riley – (Portrait by Betty Freeman) Terry Riley (born 24 June 1935) is an American composer associated with the minimalist school. ... In C is an aleatoric musical piece composed by Terry Riley in 1964 for any number of people, although a group of about 35 is desired if possible but smaller or larger groups will work[1]. As its title suggests, it is in the key of C. It is a... Its gonna rain is a musical composition written by Steve Reich in 1965 and approximately 17 minutes and 50 seconds in length. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Important figures Apostle Paul · Church Fathers Constantine · Athanasius · Augustine Anselm · Aquinas · Palamas · Luther Calvin · Wesley Arius · Marcion of Sinope Pope · Archbishop of Canterbury Patriarch of Constantinople Christianity Portal This box:      A sermon is an oration by... The Pentecostal movement within Protestant Christianity places special emphasis on the gifts of the Holy Spirit. ...


The 13-minute Come Out (1966) uses similarly manipulated recordings of a single spoken line given by an injured survivor of a race riot. The survivor, who had been beaten, punctured a bruise on his own body to convince police about his beating. The spoken line includes the phrase "to let the bruise blood come out to show them." Reich rerecorded the fragment "come out to show them" on two channels, which are initially played in unison. They quickly slip out of sync; gradually the discrepancy widens and becomes a reverberation. The two voices then split into four, looped continuously, then eight, and continues splitting until the actual words are unintelligible, leaving the listener with only the speech's rhythmic and tonal patterns. Come Out is a 1966 piece by American composer Steve Reich. ... A race riot or racial riot is an outbreak of violent civil unrest in which race is a key factor. ...


A similar, lesser known example of process music is Pendulum Music (1968), which consists of the sound of several microphones swinging over the loudspeakers to which they are attached, producing feedback as they do so. Pendulum Music has never been recorded by Reich himself, but was introduced to rock audiences by Sonic Youth in the late 1990s. Process music or systems music is music that arises from a process, and more specifically, music that makes that process audible. ... For other uses, see Feedback (disambiguation). ... Sonic Youth is an American alternative rock band formed in New York City in 1981. ...


Reich's first attempt at translating this phasing technique from recorded tape to live performance was the 1967 Piano Phase, for two pianos. In Piano Phase the performers repeat a rapid twelve-note melodic figure, initially in unison. As one player keeps tempo with robotic precision, the other speeds up very slightly until the two parts line up again, but one sixteenth note apart. The second player then resumes the previous tempo. This cycle of speeding up and then locking in continues throughout the piece; the cycle comes full circle three times, the second and third cycles using shorter versions of the initial figure. ' Piano Phase is a piece of music written in 1967 by the minimalist composer Steve Reich for two pianos. ... Look up melody in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


'Violin Phase, also written in 1967, is built on these same lines. Reich also tried to create the phasing effect in a piece "that would need no instrument beyond the human body". He found that the idea of phasing was inappropriate for the simple ways he was experimenting to make sound. Instead, he composed Clapping Music (1972), in which the players do not phase in and out with each other, but instead one performer keeps one line of a 12-quaver-long phrase and the other performer shifts by one quaver beat every 12 bars, until both performers are back in unison 144 bars later. Piano Phase and Violin Phase both premiered in a series of concerts given in New York art galleries. Clapping music is a minimalist piece written by Steve Reich in 1972. ... Figure 1. ...


The 1967 prototype piece Slow Motion Sound was never performed, but the idea it introduced of slowing down a recorded sound until many times its original length without changing pitch or timbre was applied to Four Organs (1970), which deals specifically with augmentation. The piece has maracas playing a fast eighth note pulse, while the four organs stress certain eighth notes using an 11th chord. This work therefore dealt with repetition and subtle rhythmic change. It is unique in the context of Reich's other pieces in being linear as opposed to cyclic like his earlier works— the superficially similar Phase Patterns, also for four organs but without maracas, is (as the name suggests) a phase piece similar to others composed during the period. Four Organs was performed as part of a Boston Symphony Orchestra program, and was Reich's first composition to be performed in a large traditional setting. Four Organs is a work for four electric organs (hence the name) by Steve Reich. ... Maracas Maracas (sometimes called rhumba shakers) are simple percussion instruments (idiophones), usually played in pairs, consisting of a dried calabash or gourd shell (cuia - kOO-ya) or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. ... Figure 1. ... For other uses, see Pulse (disambiguation). ... Look up Repetition in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Boston Symphony Orchestra is one of the worlds premiere orchestras. ...


1970s

In 1971, Reich embarked on a five-week trip to study music in Ghana, during which he learned from the master drummer Gideon Alerwoyie. He also studied Balinese gamelan in Seattle. From his African experience, as well as A. M. Jones's Studies in African Music about the music of the Ewe people, Reich drew inspiration for his 90-minute piece Drumming, which he composed shortly after his return. Composed for a 9-piece percussion ensemble with female voices and piccolo, Drumming marked the beginning of a new stage in his career, for around this time he formed his ensemble, Steve Reich and Musicians, and increasingly concentrated on composition and performance with them. Steve Reich and Musicians, which was to be the sole ensemble to interpret his works for many years, still remains active with many of its original members. Javanese gamelan ensamble with two female sinden (choral singer) during traditional Javanese wedding at Sasono Utomo, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta, Indonesia A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked... Arthur Morris Jones (1889 – 1980), was a missionary and musicologist who worked in Zambia during the early 20th Century. ... Ewe music is the music of the Ewe people. ... Drumming is a music composition by the minimalist composer Steve Reich, dating from 1970-1971. ... Steve Reich and Musicians is a musical ensemble founded and led by the American composer Steve Reich (b. ...


After Drumming, Reich moved on from the "phase shifting" technique that he had pioneered, and began writing more elaborate pieces. He investigated other musical processes such as augmentation (the temporal lengthening of phrases and melodic fragments). It was during this period that he wrote works such as Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ (1973) and Six Pianos (1973). In music and music theory augmentation is the lengthening or widening of rhythms, melodies, intervals, chords. ... Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ is a 1973 composition by American composer Steve Reich. ... Six Pianos is a minimalist piece for six pianos composed by Steve Reich. ...


In 1974, Reich began writing what many would call his seminal work, Music for 18 Musicians. This piece involved many new ideas, although it also hearkened back to earlier pieces. It is based on a cycle of eleven chords introduced at the beginning (called "Pulses"), followed by a small section of music based around each chord ("Sections I-XI"), and finally a return to the original cycle ("Pulses"). This was Reich's first attempt at writing for larger ensembles. The increased number of performers resulted in more scope for psychoacoustic effects, which fascinated Reich, and he noted that he would like to "explore this idea further". Reich remarked that this one work contained more harmonic movement in the first five minutes than any other work he had written. Reich's recording of the work was the first release in ECM Records' "New Series". Music for 18 Musicians is a seminal work of musical minimalism composed by Steve Reich during 1974-1976. ... Cycle (music) - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... A chord progression (also chord sequence and harmonic progression or sequence), as its name implies, is a series of chords played in order. ... Typical fingering for a second inversion C major chord on a guitar. ... A musical ensemble is a group of two or more musicians who perform instrumental or vocal music. ... ECM (Edition of Contemporary Music) is a record label founded in 1969 by Manfred Eicher. ...


Reich explored these ideas further in his frequently recorded pieces Music for a Large Ensemble (1978) and Octet (1979). In these two works, Reich experimented with "the human breath as the measure of musical duration … the chords played by the trumpets are written to take one comfortable breath to perform" (liner notes for Music for a Large Ensemble). Human voices are part of the musical palette in Music for a Large Ensemble but the wordless vocal parts simply form part of the texture (as they do in Drumming). With Octet and his first orchestral piece Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards (also 1979), Reich's music showed the influence of Biblical cantillation, which he had studied in Israel since the summer of 1977. After this, the human voice singing a text would play an increasingly important role in Reich's music. Music for a Large Ensemble is a piece of music written by Steve Reich in 1978. ... Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards is an orchestral piece composed in 1979 by Steve Reich. ... Gen. ...

The technique […] consists of taking pre-existing melodic patterns and stringing them together to form a longer melody in the service of a holy text. If you take away the text, you're left with the idea of putting together small motives to make longer melodies - a technique I had not encountered before.[3]

In the late 1970s Reich published a book, Writings About Music, containing essays on his philosophy, aesthetics, and musical projects written between 1963 and 1974. An updated collection, Writings On Music (1965–2000), was published in 2002.


1980s

Reich's work took on a darker character in the 1980s with the introduction of historical themes as well as themes from his Jewish heritage. Tehillim (1981), Hebrew for psalms, is the first of Reich's works to draw explicitly on his Jewish background. The work is in four parts, and is scored for an ensemble of four women's voices (one high soprano, two lyric sopranos and one alto), piccolo, flute, oboe, english horn, two clarinets, six percussion (playing small tuned tambourines without jingles, clapping, maracas, marimba, vibraphone and crotales), two electronic organs, two violins, viola, cello and double bass, with amplified voices, strings, and winds. A setting of texts from psalms 19:2–5 (19:1–4 in Christian translations), 34:13–15 (34:12–14), 18:26–27 (18:25–26), and 150:4–6, Tehillim is a departure from Reich's other work in its formal structure; the setting of texts several lines long rather than the fragments used in previous works makes melody a substantive element. Use of formal counterpoint and functional harmony also contrasts with the loosely structured minimalist works written previously. The word Jew ( Hebrew: יהודי) is used in a wide number of ways, but generally refers to a follower of the Jewish faith, a child of a Jewish mother, or someone of Jewish descent with a connection to Jewish culture or ethnicity and often a combination of these attributes. ... Tehillim is a piece of music by American composer Steve Reich, written in 1981. ... Hebrew redirects here. ... Psalms (Tehilim תהילים, in Hebrew) is a book of the Hebrew Bible or Tanakh, and of the Old Testament of the Christian Bible. ... This article is about the voice-type. ... This article is about the voice-type. ... This article is about the instrument in the flute family. ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Oboe (disambiguation). ... Cor anglais The cor anglais or English horn is a musical instrument of the woodwind family. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... Percussion redirects here. ... “Buben” redirects here. ... Maracas Maracas (sometimes called rhumba shakers) are simple percussion instruments (idiophones), usually played in pairs, consisting of a dried calabash or gourd shell (cuia - kOO-ya) or coconut shell filled with seeds or dried beans. ... The marimba ( ) is a musical instrument in the percussion family. ... A typical vibraphone. ... Crotales (upper right) are often used with other mallet percussion Crotales, sometimes called antique cymbals, are percussion instruments consisting of small, tuned bronze or brass disks. ... A custom three manual Rodgers Trillium organ console installed in a church. ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Viola (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... Side and front views of a modern double bass with a French bow. ... For other uses, see Counterpoint (disambiguation). ... Harmony is the use and study of pitch simultaneity, and therefore chords, actual or implied, in music. ...


Different Trains (1988), for string quartet and tape, uses recorded speech, as in his earlier works, but this time as a melodic rather than a rhythmic element, following the earlier example of Scott Johnson's John Somebody (1978). In Different Trains Reich compares and contrasts his childhood memories of his train journeys between New York and California in 1939-1941 with the very different trains being used to transport contemporaneous European children to their deaths under Nazi rule. The Kronos Quartet recording of Different Trains was awarded the Grammy Award for Best Classical Contemporary Composition in 1990. Different Trains is a famous three-movement piece for string quartet and tape written by Steve Reich in 1988. ... The Juilliard String Quartet performing in 1963. ... Scott Johnson (born 1952) is an American composer known for his pioneering use of recorded speech as musical melody. ... Scott Johnson (born 1952) is an American composer known for his pioneering use of recorded speech as musical melody. ... Not to be confused with Nasi. ... Kronos Quartet in 2006. ... The Grammy Award for Best Classical Contemporary Composition was first awarded in 1961. ...


1990s

In 1993, Reich collaborated with his wife, the video artist Beryl Korot, on an opera, The Cave, which explores the roots of Judaism, Christianity and Islam through the words of Israelis, Palestinians, and Americans, echoed musically by the ensemble. The work, for percussion, voices, and strings, is a musical documentary, named for the Cave of Machpelah in Hebron, where a mosque now stands and Abraham is said to have been buried. The two collaborated again on the opera Three Tales, which concerns the Hindenburg disaster, the testing of nuclear weapons on Bikini Atoll, and other more modern concerns, specifically Dolly the sheep, cloning, and the technological singularity. For other uses, see Opera (disambiguation). ... The Cave is a multimedia opera in three acts by Steve Reich to an English libretto by his wife Beryl Korot. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Topics in Christianity Preaching Prayer Ecumenism Relation to other religions Movements Music Liturgy Calendar Symbols Art Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... For people named Islam, see Islam (name). ... The term Palestinian has other usages, for which see definitions of Palestinian. ... Documentary film is a broad category of visual expression that is based on the attempt, in one fashion or another, to document reality. ... The Cave of the Patriarchs is considered to be the spiritual center of the ancient city of Hebron. ... Arabic الخليل Government City (from 1997) Also Spelled Al-Khalil (officially) Al-Halil (unofficially) Governorate Hebron Population 167,000 (2006) Jurisdiction  dunams Head of Municipality Mustafa Abdel Nabi , Hebron (Arabic:   al-ḪalÄ«l or al KhalÄ«l; Hebrew:  , Standard Hebrew: Ḥevron, Tiberian Hebrew: Ḥeḇrôn) is a city at the... The Masjid al-Haram in Mecca as it exists today A mosque is a place of worship for followers of the Islamic faith. ... For other uses, see Abraham (name) and Abram (disambiguation). ... Three Tales is a contemporary video-opera in three acts, composed by American composer Steve Reich in 2002. ... LZ 129 Hindenburg was a German zeppelin that was destroyed by fire while landing at Lakehurst Naval Air Station in New Jersey on May 6, 1937. ... The mushroom cloud of the atomic bombing of Nagasaki, Japan, 1945, rose some 18 kilometers (11 mi) above the hypocenter A nuclear weapon derives its destructive force from nuclear reactions of fusion or fission. ... The Flag of Bikini Atoll Bikini Atoll (also known as Pikinni Atoll) is an uninhabited 6. ... Dolly (July 5, 1996 – February 14, 2003), a ewe, was the first mammal to have been successfully cloned from an adult somatic cell. ... For the cloning of human beings, see human cloning. ... When plotted on a logarithmic graph, 15 separate lists of paradigm shifts for key events in human history show an exponential trend. ...


As well as pieces using sampling techniques, like Three Tales and City Life (1994), Reich also returned to composing purely instrumental works for the concert hall, starting with Triple Quartet (1998) written for the Kronos Quartet that can either be performed by string quartet and tape, three string quartets or 36-piece string orchestra. According to Reich, the piece is influenced by Bartók's and Alfred Schnittke's string quartets. This series continued with Dance Patterns (2002), Cello Counterpoint (2003), and sequence of works centered around Variations: You Are (Variations) (2004), a work which looks back to the vocal writing of works like Tehillim or The Desert Music, Variations for Vibes, Pianos, and Strings (2005, for the London Sinfonietta) and Daniel Variations (2006). City Life is a minimalist composition by Steve Reich written in 1995. ... Kronos Quartet in 2006. ... Bartok redirects here. ... Alfred Schnittke April 6, 1989, Moscow Alfred Garyevich Schnittke (Russian: Альфре́д Га́рриевич Шни́тке, November 24, 1934 Engels - August 3, 1998 Hamburg) was a Russian and Soviet composer. ... The London Sinfonietta is a British chamber orchestra based in London. ...


In an interview with The Guardian, Reich stated that he continues to follow this direction with a yet unnamed piece commissioned by eighth blackbird, an American ensemble consisting of the instrumental quintet (flute, clarinet, violin or viola, cello and piano) of Schoenberg's piece Pierrot Lunaire (1912) plus percussion. Reich thinks that it will again be with tape, and he also states that he is thinking about Stravinsky's Agon (1957) as a model for the instrumental writing. For other uses, see Guardian. ... eighth blackbird is a contemporary music sextet founded in 1996. ... For other uses, see Flute (disambiguation). ... Two soprano clarinets: a B♭ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... For the Anne Rice novel, see Violin (novel). ... For other uses, see Viola (disambiguation). ... This article is about the stringed musical instrument. ... Pianoforte redirects here. ... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnɔlt ˈʃøːnbɛrk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Dreimal sieben Gedichte aus Albert Girauds Pierrot lunaire, (three times seven poems from Albert Girauds Pierrot lunaire), commonly known as Pierrot Lunaire (Moonstruck Pierrot or Pierrot in the moonlight), Op. ... Agon (1957), a twelve-tone technique composition for a 12-dancer ballet, was a collaborative effort between composer Igor Stravinsky and choreographer George Balanchine. ...


Influence

Reich's style of composition has influenced many other composers and musical groups, including Philip Glass (especially his early pieces), John Adams, the progressive rock band King Crimson, the new-age guitarist Michael Hedges, the art-pop and electronic musician Brian Eno, the composers associated with the Bang on a Can festival (including David Lang, Michael Gordon, and Julia Wolfe), and numerous indie rock musicians including songwriter Sufjan Stevens and instrumental ensembles The Mercury Program, Tortoise, So Many Dynamos, Do Make Say Think and A Silver Mt. Zion.[citation needed] Godspeed You Black Emperor composed a song, unreleased, entitled "Steve Reich".[4] His music has also been a source of inspiration to ambient and techno musicians. Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ... For the Alaska-based postminimalist composer, see John Luther Adams. ... For the Swedish political music movement, see progg. ... This article is about the musical group. ... Michael Hedges 1953-1997 Michael Hedges (December 31, 1953 – December 2, 1997) was an American acoustic guitarist born in Enid, Oklahoma. ... Brian Peter George St. ... Bang on a Can is a musical organization based in New York City which was founded in 1987 by three American composers who remain its artistic directors: Julia Wolfe, David Lang, and Michael Gordon. ... David Lang (b. ... Michael Gordon was born in Florida in 1956 and grew up in Nicaragua and an Eastern European community in a jungle on the outskirts of Managua. ... Julia Wolfe (born December 18, 1958) is an American composer. ... Indie rock is a subgenre of rock music often used to refer to bands that are on small independent record labels or that arent on labels at all. ... Sufjan Stevens (IPA pronunciation: ) (born July 1, 1975) is an American singer-songwriter and musician from Petosky, Michigan. ... The Mercury Program is a (generally) instrumental post-rock quartet based in Gainesville, FL. This group utilizes the vibraphone (a rare feature in most rock groups) which members of the band take turns playing, or in unison. ... For other uses, see Tortoise (disambiguation). ... So Many Dynamos is a rock band from Edwardsville, Illinois, a city in the metro-east St. ... Do Make Say Think is a Canadian instrumental post-rock band from Toronto, Ontario. ... Thee Silver Mt. ... Godspeed You! Black Emperor (formerly known as Godspeed You Black Emperor!) is a post-rock band based in Montreal, Quebec. ... Ambient music is a musical genre in which sound is more important than notes. ... Techno is a form of electronic dance music that became prominent in Detroit, Michigan during the mid-1980s with influences from electro, New Wave, Funk and futuristic fiction themes that were prevalent and relative to modern culture during the end of the Cold War in industrial America at that time. ...


A melodic line from his 1987 work Electric Counterpoint was used by The Orb in their 1991 hit Little Fluffy Clouds. This connection has been honored in a 1999 album by DJs and electronic musicians, Reich Remixed, released on Nonesuch Records. Reich's Come Out and It's Gonna Rain are cited as early examples of how minimalist music evolved in tandem with advances in technology, and have served as templates for the application of loops and delay in contemporary electronic dance music.[5] An additional parallel between Reich's work and that of electronic dance music artists is an emphasis on a minimum of form (as opposed to a minimum of material) in which sonic elements such as timbre and texture are used to 'amass' sound in a vertical direction. Category: ... The Orb are an English electronic music group known for popularising chill out music in the 1990s and spawning the genre of ambient house. ... Little Fluffy Clouds is a single released by the ambient house group The Orb. ... Nonesuch Records is currently allied with Warner Bros. ... Come Out is a 1966 piece by American composer Steve Reich. ... Its gonna rain is a musical composition written by Steve Reich in 1965 and approximately 17 minutes and 50 seconds in length. ... This article is about a musical style. ... In electronic music, a loop is a sample which is repeated. ... Delay is an audio effect which records an input signal to an audio storage medium, and then plays it back after a period of time[1]. The delayed signal may either be played back multiple times, or played back into the recording again, to create the sound of a repeating... Electronic dance music is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... Electronic dance music is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... In music, timbre, or sometimes timber, (from Fr. ... In music texture is the overall quality of sound of a piece, most often indicated by the number of voices in the music and to the relationship between these voices (see below). ...


Massification has evolved into a movement of electronic dance music in which extreme densities are created with a relatively limited number of sonic elements. This evolution echoes similar developments in Reich's work, as he and other minimalist composers moved from simplicity to more complex combinations of pulses and polyrhythms.[6] Electronic dance music practitioners have also adopted the "rhythm as melody" aesthetic that Reich embraced after studying West African drumming in Ghana and encountering the "chiming" timbres produced by Indonesian gamelan orchestras.[7] Electronic dance music is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ... In music, a pulse is a series of identical, yet distinct periodic short-duration stimuli perceived as points in time (DeLone et. ... Polyrhythm is the simultaneous sounding of two or more independent rhythms. ... Electronic dance music is a broad set of percussive music genres that largely inherit from 1970s disco music and, to some extent, the experimental pop music of Kraftwerk. ...  Western Africa (UN subregion)  Maghreb[1] West Africa or Western Africa is the westernmost region of the African continent. ... Javanese gamelan ensamble with two female sinden (choral singer) during traditional Javanese wedding at Sasono Utomo, Taman Mini Indonesia Indah, Jakarta, Indonesia A gamelan is a kind of musical ensemble of Indonesia typically featuring a variety of instruments such as metallophones, xylophones, drums, and gongs; bamboo flutes, bowed and plucked...


John Adams commented, "He didn't reinvent the wheel so much as he showed us a new way to ride."[8] He has also influenced visual artists such as Bruce Nauman, and has expressed admiration of choreographer Anne Teresa De Keersmaeker's work set to his pieces. Bruce Nauman (born December 6, 1941, in Fort Wayne, Indiana) is a contemporary American artist. ... Anne Teresa, Baroness De Keersmaeker (born 1960 in Mechelen, Belgium, grew up in Wemmel) is one of the most prominent choreographers in contemporary dance, in residence at La Monnaie in Brussels since 1992. ...


Reich often cites Pérotin, J.S. Bach, Debussy and Stravinsky as composers he admires, whose tradition he wished as a young composer to become part of. Jazz is a major part of the formation of Reich's musical style, and two of the earliest influences on his work were vocalists Ella Fitzgerald and Alfred Deller, whose emphasis on the artistic capabilities of the voice alone with little vibrato or other alteration was an inspiration to his earliest works. John Coltrane's style, which Reich has described as "playing a lot of notes to very few harmonies", also had an impact; of particular interest was the album Africa/Brass, which "was basically a half-an-hour in F."[9] Reich's influence from jazz includes its roots, also, from the West African music he studied in his readings and visit to Ghana. Other important influences are Kenny Clarke and Miles Davis, and visual artist friends such as Sol Lewitt and Richard Serra. Reich recently contributed the introduction to Sound Unbound: Sampling Digital Music and Culture (The MIT Press, 2008) edited by Paul D. Miller a.k.a. DJ Spooky. Pérotin was a European composer, believed to be French, who lived around the end of the twelfth and beginning of the thirteenth century. ... “Bach” redirects here. ... Claude Debussy, photo by Félix Nadar, 1908. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Ella Jane Fitzgerald (April 25, 1917 – June 15, 1996), also known as Lady Ella and the First Lady of Song, is considered one of the most influential jazz vocalists of the 20th Century. ... Alfred Deller (31 May 1912 – 16 July 1979) was an English singer, one of the main figures in popularising the use of the countertenor voice in renaissance and baroque music. ... Coltrane redirects here. ... Africa/Brass is a 1961 album by John Coltrane, his first for the new Impulse! label. ... Kenny Clarke (born January 9, 1914 in Pittsburg, Pennsylvania-died January 26, 1985 in Paris, France) was a jazz drummer and an early innovator of the bebop style of drumming. ... Miles Dewey Davis III (May 26, 1926 – September 28, 1991) was an American jazz musician, widely considered to be one of the most influential of the 20th century. ... Four-Sided Pyramid, created by LeWitt in 1997, stands in the scupture garden of the National Gallery of Art in Washington, D.C. Sol LeWitt (born 1928 in Hartford, Connecticut) is a conceptual artist and painter. ... Fulcrum 1987, 55 ft high free standing sculpture of Cor-ten steel near Liverpool Street station, London Richard Serra (born November 29, 1939) is an American minimalist sculptor and video artist known for working with large scale assemblies of sheet metal. ... DJ Spooky, That Subliminal Kid (born Paul D. Miller, 1970), is a Washington DC-born electronic and experimental hip hop musician whose work is often called illbient or trip hop. He is a turntablist and producer. ...


Quotations

[...] I drove a cab in San Francisco, and in New York I worked as a part-time social worker. Phil Glass and I had a moving company for a short period of time. I did all kinds of odd jobs [...] I started making a living as a performer in my own ensemble. I would never have thought that it was how I was going to survive financially. It was a complete wonder." —From an interview with Gabrielle Zuckerman, 2002[9] This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... Philip Glass (born January 31, 1937) is a three-times Academy Award-nominated American composer. ...

The point is, if you went to Paris and dug up Debussy and said, 'Excusez-moi Monsieur…are you an impressionist?' he'd probably say 'Merde!' and go back to sleep. That is a legitimate concern of musicologists, music historians, and journalists, and it's a convenient way of referring to me, Riley, Glass, La Monte Young [...] it's become the dominant style. But, anybody who's interested in French Impressionism is interested in how different Debussy and Ravel and Satie are—and ditto for what's called minimalism. [...] Basically, those kind of words are taken from painting and sculpture, and applied to musicians who composed at the same period as that painting and sculpture was made [...]. —From an Interview with Rebecca Y. Kim, 2000 [10] Claude Debussy Claude Achille Debussy (August 22, 1862 – March 25, 1918), composer of impressionistic classical music. ... La Monte Young (born October 14, 1935) is an American composer whose eccentric and often hard-to-find works have been included among the most important post World War II avant-garde or experimental music. ... This article is about the art movement. ... Maurice Ravel. ... Eric Alfred Leslie Satie (born Honfleur, 17 May 1866 – 1 July 1925 in Paris) was a French composer, performing pianist and publicist. ... For other uses, see Minimalism (disambiguation). ...

All musicians in the past, starting with the middle ages were interested in popular music. (...) Béla Bartók's music is made entirely of sources from Hungarian folk music. And Igor Stravinsky, although he lied about it, used all kinds of Russian sources for his early ballets. Kurt Weill's great masterpiece Dreigroschenoper is using the cabaret-style of the Weimar Republic and that's why it is such a masterpiece. Only artificial division between popular an classical music happened unfortunately through the blindness of Arnold Schoenberg and his followers to create an artificial wall, which never existed before him. In my generation we tore the wall down and now we are back to the normal situation, for example if Brian Eno or David Bowie come to me, and if popular musicians remix my music like The Orb or DJ Spooky it is a good thing. This is a natural normal regular historical way. —From an Interview with Jakob Buhre [11] Bartok redirects here. ... Hungarian folk music includes a broad array of styles, including the recruitment dance verbunkos, the csardas and nota. ... Igor Stravinsky. ... Kurt Julian Weill (March 2, 1900 – April 3, 1950), born in Dessau, Germany and died in New York City, was a German and in his later years, a German-American composer active from the 1920s until his death. ... The Threepenny Opera (Die Dreigroschenoper) was a revolutionary piece of musical theatre written by the German dramatist Bertolt Brecht in collaboration with the composer Kurt Weill in 1928. ... Cabaret is a form of entertainment featuring comedy, song, dance, and theatre, distinguished mainly by the performance venue — a restaurant or nightclub with a stage for performances and the audience sitting around the tables (often dining or drinking) watching the performance. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... Arnold Schoenberg, Los Angeles, 1948 Arnold Schoenberg (pronounced [ˈaːrnÉ”lt ˈʃøːnbÉ›rk]) (13 September 1874 – 13 July 1951) was an Austrian and later American composer, associated with the expressionist movement in German poetry and art, and leader of the Second Viennese School. ... Brian Peter George St. ... David Bowie (pronounced ) (born David Robert Jones on 8 January 1947) is an English musician, actor, producer, arranger, and audio engineer. ... The Orb are an English electronic music group known for popularising chill out music in the 1990s and spawning the genre of ambient house. ... DJ Spooky, That Subliminal Kid (born Paul D. Miller, 1970), is a Washington DC-born electronic and experimental hip hop musician whose work is often called illbient or trip hop. He is a turntablist and producer. ...

Works

  • Soundtrack for The Plastic Haircut, tape (1963)
  • It's Gonna Rain, tape (1965)
  • Soundtrack for Oh Dem Watermelons, tape (1965)
  • Come Out, tape (1966)
  • Melodica, melodica and tape (1966)
  • Piano Phase for two pianos, or two marimbas (1967)
  • Slow Motion Sound concept piece (1967)
  • Violin Phase for violin and tape or four violins (1967)
  • My Name Is for three tape recorders and performers (1967)
  • Pendulum Music for 3 or 4 microphones, amplifiers and loudspeakers (1968) (revised 1973)[12]
  • Four Organs for four electric organs and maracas (1970)
  • Phase Patterns for four electric organs (1970)
  • Drumming for 4 pairs of tuned bongo drums, 3 marimbas, 3 glockenspiels, 2 female voices, whistling and piccolo (1970/1971)
  • Clapping Music for two musicians clapping (1972)
  • Music for Pieces of Wood for five pairs of tuned claves (1973)
  • Six Pianos (1973) - transcribed as Six Marimbas (1986)
  • Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ (1973)
  • Music for 18 Musicians (1974–76)
  • Music for a Large Ensemble (1978)
  • Octet (1979) - withdrawn in favor of the 1983 revision for slightly larger ensemble, Eight Lines
  • Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards for orchestra (1979)
  • Tehillim for voices and ensemble (1981)
  • Vermont Counterpoint for amplified flute and tape (1982)
  • The Desert Music for chorus and orchestra or voices and ensemble (1984, text by William Carlos Williams)
  • Sextet for percussion and keyboards (1984)
  • New York Counterpoint for amplified clarinet and tape, or 11 clarinets and bass clarinet (1985)
  • Three Movements for orchestra (1986)
  • Electric Counterpoint for electric guitar or amplified acoustic guitar and tape (1987, for Pat Metheny)
  • The Four Sections for orchestra (1987)
  • Different Trains for string quartet and tape (1988)
  • The Cave for four voices, ensemble and video (1993, with Beryl Korot)
  • Duet for two violins and string ensemble (1993)
  • Nagoya Marimbas for two marimbas (1994)
  • City Life for amplified ensemble (1995)
  • Proverb for voices and ensemble (1995, text by Ludwig Wittgenstein)
  • Triple Quartet for amplified string quartet (with prerecorded tape), or three string quartets, or string orchestra (1998)
  • Know What Is Above You for four women’s voices and 2 tamborims (1999)
  • Three Tales for video projection, five voices and ensemble (1998–2002, with Beryl Korot)
  • Dance Patterns for 2 xylophones, 2 vibraphones and 2 pianos (2002)
  • Cello Counterpoint for amplified cello and multichannel tape (2003)
  • You Are (Variations) for voices and ensemble (2004)
  • For Strings (with Winds and Brass) for orchestra (1987/2004)
  • Variations for Vibes, Pianos, and Strings dance piece for three string quartets, four vibraphones, and two pianos (2005)
  • Daniel Variations for four voices and ensemble (2006)
  • Double Sextet for violin, cello, piano, vibraphone, clarinet, flute and pre-recorded tape (2007)

Its gonna rain is a musical composition written by Steve Reich in 1965 and approximately 17 minutes and 50 seconds in length. ... Come Out is a 1966 piece by American composer Steve Reich. ... Piano Phase is a piece of music written in 1967 by the minimalist composer Steve Reich for two pianos. ... Violin Phase, written by minimalist composer Steve Reich in 1967, is an example of his phasing technique previously used in Piano Phase in which the music itself is created not by the instruments but by interactions of temporal variations on an original melody. ... Pendulum Music is the name of a work by Steve Reich, involving suspended microphones and speakers, creating phasing feedback tones. ... Four Organs is a work for four electric organs (hence the name) by Steve Reich. ... Drumming is a music composition by the minimalist composer Steve Reich, dating from 1970-1971. ... Clapping music is a minimalist piece written by Steve Reich in 1972. ... Six Pianos is a minimalist piece for six pianos composed by Steve Reich. ... Six Pianos is a minimalist piece for six pianos composed by Steve Reich. ... Music for Mallet Instruments, Voices and Organ is a 1973 composition by American composer Steve Reich. ... Music for 18 Musicians is a seminal work of musical minimalism composed by Steve Reich during 1974-1976. ... Music for a Large Ensemble is a piece of music written by Steve Reich in 1978. ... Octet is a work by Steve Reich. ... Eight Lines is work by Steve Reich that is a rescoring of his work Octet. ... Variations for Winds, Strings and Keyboards is an orchestral piece composed in 1979 by Steve Reich. ... Tehillim is a piece of music by American composer Steve Reich, written in 1981. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... William Carlos Williams Dr. William Carlos Williams (sometimes known as WCW) (September 17, 1883 – March 4, 1963), was an American poet closely associated with modernism and Imagism. ... Sextet is a minimalist composition by Steve Reich. ... Two soprano clarinets: a Bâ™­ clarinet (left, with capped mouthpiece) and an A clarinet (right, with no mouthpiece). ... The bass clarinet is a musical instrument of the clarinet family. ... Category: ... Patrick Bruce Metheny (born August 12, 1954 in Lees Summit, Missouri) is an American jazz guitarist and composer. ... Different Trains is a famous three-movement piece for string quartet and tape written by Steve Reich in 1988. ... The Cave is a multimedia opera in three acts by Steve Reich to an English libretto by his wife Beryl Korot. ... The marimba ( ) is a musical instrument in the percussion family. ... City Life is a minimalist composition by Steve Reich written in 1995. ... Proverb is a piece by Steve Reich for three sopranos, two tenors, two vibraphones, and two electric organs, to a text by Ludwig Wittgenstein. ... Wittgenstein redirects here. ... Triple Quartet is a minimalist piece written by Steve Reich in 1999. ... A tamborim is a small, round Brazilian frame drum of Portuguese and African origin. ... Three Tales is a contemporary video-opera in three acts, composed by American composer Steve Reich in 2002. ... Daniel Variations is a composition by Steve Reich written 2006. ...

Selected discography

Drumming is a music composition by the minimalist composer Steve Reich, dating from 1970-1971. ... Deutsche Grammophon is a German classical record label. ... Nonesuch Records is currently a Warner Bros. ... So Percussion is an American percussion quartet based in New York City. ... Music for 18 Musicians is a seminal work of musical minimalism composed by Steve Reich during 1974-1976. ... ECM (Edition of Contemporary Music) is a record label founded in Munich, Germany in 1969 by Manfred Eicher. ... The album consists of commissioned works by Steve Reich. ... ECM (Edition of Contemporary Music) is a record label founded in Munich, Germany in 1969 by Manfred Eicher. ... The San Francisco Symphony is a major orchestra based in San Francisco, California. ... Edo de Waart (born June 1, 1941) is a prominent Dutch orchestral conductor. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Kronos Quartet in 2006. ... Patrick Bruce Metheny (born August 12, 1954 in Lees Summit, Missouri) is an American jazz guitarist and composer. ... The Los Angeles Master Chorale is a famous professional chorus in Los Angeles, California. ...

See also

This article is about a musical style. ... Steve Reich and Musicians is a musical ensemble founded and led by the American composer Steve Reich (b. ...

Notes

  1. ^ allmusic ((( Music from Mills > Overview )))
  2. ^ Malcolm Ball, on Steve Reich
  3. ^ K. Robert Schwarz, Minimalists, Phaidon Press 1996, p.84 and p.86
  4. ^ sad
  5. ^ Philip Sherburne, "Digital Discipline: Minimalism in House and Techno," in 'Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music,' Christoph Cox and Daniel Warner, Eds. (New York: Continuum, 2006), p. 322
  6. ^ Philip Sherburne, "Digital Discipline: Minimalism in House and Techno," in 'Audio Culture: Readings in Modern Music,' Christoph Cox and Daniel Warner, Eds. (New York: Continuum, 2006), p. 324-325
  7. ^ Simon Reynolds, 'Generation Ecstasy: Into the World of Techno and Rave Culture' (New York: Routledge, 1999), p.254.
  8. ^ "…For him, pulsation and tonality were not just cultural artifacts. They were the lifeblood of the musical experience, natural laws. It was his triumph to find a way to embrace these fundamental principles and still create a music that felt genuine and new. He didn't reinvent the wheel so much as he showed us a new way to ride." See for instance, ""New" American classical music". Retrieved on 2006-10-25.
  9. ^ a b Steve Reich Interview with Gabrielle Zuckerman, July 2002
  10. ^ http://www.stevereich.com www.stevereich.com
  11. ^ Steve Reich: We tore the wall down Planet Interview (August 14, 2000), Accessed September 20, 2006
  12. ^ *Reich, Steve (1975 (New Edition)). Writings on Music. USA: New York University Press, pp. 12-13. ISBN 0-8147-7357-5. 

Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 298th day of the year (299th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

References

  • Potter, Keith (2000). Four Musical Minimalists: La Monte Young, Terry Riley, Steve Reich, Philip Glass. Music in the Twentieth Century series. Cambridge, UK; New York, New York: Cambridge University Press.
  • Reich, Steve; Hillier, Paul (Editor) (April 1, 2002). Writings on Music, 1965-2000. USA: Oxford University Press, 272. ISBN 0-19-511171-0. 
  • Reich, Steve (1974). Writings About Music. Halifax: Press of the Nova Scotia College of Art and Design, 78. ISBN 0-919616-02-x. 

The Nova Scotia College of Art and Design University (NSCAD) is a post-secondary art school located in Halifax, Nova Scotia. ...

External links

Interviews

RealAudio is a proprietary audio format developed by RealNetworks. ... is the 2nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 326th day of the year (327th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Listening

is the 311th day of the year (312th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1970 (MCMLXX) was a common year starting on Thursday (link shows full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...

Others

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
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NPR logo For other meanings of NPR see NPR (disambiguation) National Public Radio (NPR) is a private, not-for-profit corporation that sells programming to member radio stations; together they are a loosely organized public radio network in the United States. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Steve Reich - definition of Steve Reich in Encyclopedia (702 words)
Steve Reich (born October 3, 1936) is an American composer.
Reich achieved a Bachelor of Arts degree from Cornell University in 1957, attended the Juilliard School and, from 1961 to 1963, Mills College in Oakland, California with Luciano Berio and Darius Milhaud.
This was Reich's first attempt at writing for larger ensembles, and the extension of performers resulted in a growth of pyscho-acoustic effects, which fascinated Reich, and he noted that he would like to "explore this idea further".
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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