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Encyclopedia > Steve Biko
Stephen Bantu Biko[1]

Born December 18, 1946(1946-12-18)
King William's Town, South Africa
Died September 12, 1977 (aged 30)
Pretoria, South Africa
Occupation anti-apartheid activist
Spouse Ntsiki Mashalaba
Children Nkosinathi Biko, Samora Biko, Lerato Biko and Hlumelo Biko (with Dr Mamphela Ramphele)[citation needed]

Stephen Bantu Biko (18 December 194612 September 1977)[1] was a noted anti-apartheid activist in South Africa in the 1960s and early 1970s. A student leader, he later founded the Black Consciousness Movement which would empower and mobilize much of the urban black population. At the time of his death clandestine negotiations were in progress sounding Biko out as deputy leader of the Maoist-oriented Pan Africanist Congress. Since his death in police custody, he has been called a martyr of the anti-apartheid movement.[2] While living, his writings and activism attempted to empower black people, and he was famous for his slogan "black is beautiful", which he described as meaning: "man, you are okay as you are, begin to look upon yourself as a human being".[3] The ANC was very hostile to Biko and to Black Consciousness through the 70s to the mid 90s[Quotation needed from source] but has now included Biko in the pantheon of struggle heroes, going so far to use his image for campaign posters in South Africa's first non-racial elections, in 1994.[4] is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... King Williams Town, a town of South Africa, in the Eastern Cape province and on the Buffalo River, 50 kilometers, 42 miles by rail or about 40 minutes motorway drive W.N.W. of the Indian Ocean port of East London. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... For the legal definition of apartheid, see the crime of apartheid. ... Activism, in a general sense, can be described as intentional action or inaction to bring about social or political change. ... is the 352nd day of the year (353rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1946 (MCMXLVI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full 1946 calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... AZAPO emblem The Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) was a grassroots anti-Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960’s out of the political vacuum created by the decimation of the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress leadership, by jailing and banning, after the Sharpeville... PAC symbol The Pan Africanist Congress (PAC) (later the Pan Africanist Congress of Azania), was a South African liberation movement, that is now a minor political party. ... For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ...

Contents

Biography

Biko was born in King Williams Town, in the Eastern Cape province of South Africa. He was a student at the University of Natal.[1] King Williams Town, a town of South Africa, in the Eastern Cape province and on the Buffalo River, 50 kilometers, 42 miles by rail or about 40 minutes motorway drive W.N.W. of the Indian Ocean port of East London. ... Capital Bhisho Largest city Port Elizabeth Premier Nosimo Balindlela Area - Total Ranked 2nd 169,580 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd 6,436,761 38/km² Languages Xhosa (83%) Afrikaans (9. ... The University of KwaZulu-Natal is a university in the KwaZulu-Natal Province of South Africa. ...

Apartheid in South Africa
Events and Projects

Sharpeville Massacre · Soweto uprising
Treason Trial
Rivonia Trial · Church Street bombing
CODESA · St James Church massacre
The Sharpeville massacre, also known as the Sharpeville shootings, occurred on March 21, 1960, when South African police opened fire on a crowd of black protesters. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The Treason Trial was a trial in which 156 people including Nelson Mandela were arrested in a raid and accussed of treason in 1956. ... The Rivonia Trial was an infamous trial which took place in South Africa between 1963 and 1964, in which ten leaders of the African National Congress were tried for 221 acts of sabotage designed to ferment violent revolution. // Origins It was named after Rivonia, the suburb of Johannesburg where 19... The Church Street bombing was a 1983 terrorist attack by the African National Congress in Pretoria, South Africa which killed 16 and wounded 130. ... The apartheid system in South Africa was ended through a series of negotiations between 1990 and 1993. ... The St James Church massacre was a massacre perpetrated at St James Church, Cape Town by the Azanian Peoples Liberation Army (APLA). ...

Organisations

ANC · IFP · AWB · Black Sash · CCB
Conservative Party · ECC · PP · RP
PFP · HNP · MK · PAC · SACP · UDF
Broederbond · National Party · COSATU
SADF · SAP For political parties with similar names in other countries, see Northern Rhodesian African National Congress and Zambian African National Congress. ... The Inkatha Freedom Party (IFP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The flag of the Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging The Afrikaner Weerstandsbeweging or AWB, is a political and paramilitary group in South Africa under the leadership of Eugène TerreBlanche. ... The Black Sash was a non-violent white womens resistance organisation founded in 1955 in South Africa by Jean Sinclair. ... The Civil Cooperation Bureau (CCB) was a covert South African apartheid-era hit squad[1]. Inaugurated in 1986, and fully functional by 1988 it was set up to eliminate anti-apartheid activists, destroy ANC facilities, and find means to circumvent the economic sanctions[1] imposed on that country. ... The Conservative Party of South Africa (Konserwatiewe Party van Suid-Afrika in Afrikaans) was a far-right party formed in 1982 as a breakaway from the ruling National Party. ... The End Conscription Campaign was an anti-apartheid organisation of conscientious objectors in South Africa. ... The Progressive Party was a liberal South African party that opposed the ruling National Partys policies of apartheid. ... The Reform Party was created by a group who left the United Party led by Harry Schwarz on February 11 1975. ... The Progressive Federal Party (PFP) was a South African political party formed in 1977. ... The Herstigte Nasionale Party van Suid-Afrika (Refounded National Party of South Africa) was formed as a right wing splinter group of the South African National Party. ... For other uses of Umkhonto, see Umkhonto (disambiguation) Umkhonto we Sizwe (or MK), translated Spear of the Nation, was the military wing of the African National Congress (ANC). ... PAC symbol This article does not cite any references or sources. ... SACP symbol South African Communist Party (SACP) is a political party in South Africa. ... The United Democratic Front (UDF) was one of the most important anti-apartheid organisations of the 1980s. ... The Afrikanerbond or, formerly, the Afrikaner Broederbond, is an organisation which promotes the interests of the Afrikaners. ... The National Party (Afrikaans: Nasionale Party) (with its members sometimes known as Nationalists or Nats) was the governing party of South Africa from June 4th 1948 until May 9th 1994, and was disbanded in 2005. ... The Congress of South African Trade Unions (COSATU) is a trade union federation in South Africa. ... The South African Defence Force (SADF) were the South African armed forces from 1957 until 1994. ... The South African Police Service is the national police force of South Africa. ...

People

P.W Botha · Oupa Gqozo · DF Malan
Nelson Mandela · Desmond Tutu · F.W. de Klerk
Walter Sisulu · Helen Suzman · Harry Schwarz
Andries Treurnicht · HF Verwoerd · Oliver Tambo
BJ Vorster · Kaiser Matanzima · Jimmy Kruger
Steve Biko · Mahatma Gandhi · Trevor Huddleston Pieter Willem Botha (January 12, 1916 – October 31, 2006), commonly known as PW and Die Groot Krokodil (Afrikaans for The Big Crocodile), was the prime minister of South Africa from 1978 to 1984 and the first executive state president from 1984 to 1989. ... Joshua Oupa Gqozo (10 March 1952 - ) was a former Ciskei military ruler. ... Daniel François Malan (May 22, 1874 - February 7, 1959) is seen as the champion of South African nationalism. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Desmond Mpilo Tutu (born 7 October 1931) is a South African cleric and activist who rose to worldwide fame during the 1980s as an opponent of apartheid. ... Frederik Willem de Klerk (born March 18, 1936) was the last State President of apartheid-era South Africa, serving from September 1989 to May 1994. ... Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu Walter Max Ulyate Sisulu (May 18, 1912 – May 5, 2003) was a South African anti-apartheid activist and member of the African National Congress (ANC). ... Helen Suzman was born Helen Gavronsky on 7th November 1917 in Germiston, South Africa as the daughter of Lithuanian-Jewish immigrants. ... Harry H. Schwarz (born Cologne, Germany, May 13, 1924), is a South African politician, diplomat, and jurist. ... Andries Treurnicht (1921-1993) was the founder and the leader of the Conservative Party in South Africa. ... Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd Hendrik Frensch Verwoerd (8 September 1901 - 6 September 1966) was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1958 to 1966, when he was assassinated. ... Oliver Reginald Tambo (27 October 1917 - 24 April 1993) was a South African anti-apartheid politician and a central figure in the African National Congress (ANC). ... B. J. Vorster Balthazar Johannes Vorster (December 13, 1915 - September 10, 1983), better known as John Vorster, was Prime Minister of South Africa from 1966 to 1978, and President from 1978 to 1979. ... Kaiser Daliwonga Matanzima (June 15, 1915 - June 15, 2003) was a former leader of the then-bantustan of Transkei in South Africa; He led Transkei to self-government in 1964 and to an internationally unrecognised indepedence in October, 1976. ... James Thomas Jimmy Kruger (1917 - 1987) was a South African politician who rose to the position of Minister of Justice and the Police in the cabinet of Prime Minister John Vorster from 1974 to 1979. ... “Gandhi” redirects here. ... Bronze bust in Bedford. ...

Places

Bantustan · District Six · Robben Island
Sophiatown · South-West Africa
Soweto · Vlakplaas Map of the black homelands in South Africa as of 1986 Map of the black homelands in Namibia as of 1978 Bantustan is a territory designated as a tribal homeland for black South Africans and Namibians during the apartheid era. ... District Six is the name of a former neighborhood of Cape Town, South Africa, best known for the forced removal of its inhabitants during the 1970s. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ... Sophiatown was a lively, mostly-black suburb of Johannesburg, South Africa. ... South-West Africa is the former name (1884-1990) of Namibia under German (as German South-West Africa, Deutsch Süd-West Afrika) and (from 1915) South African administration when it was conquered from the Germans during World War I. Following the war, the Treaty of Versailles declared the territory... For the township in Namibia, see Soweto (Namibia). ... Vlakplaas is a farm that served as the headquarters of a counterinsurgency unit working for the apartheid government in South Africa. ...

Other aspects

Apartheid laws · Freedom Charter
Sullivan Principles · Kairos Document
Disinvestment campaign
South African Police The Apartheid Legislation in South Africa was a series of different laws and acts which were to help the apartheid-government to enforce the segregation of different races and cement the power and the dominance by the Whites, of substantially European descent, over the other race groups. ... The Freedom Charter was adopted at the Congress of the People in Kliptown, South Africa on 26 June 1955 by the African National Congress and its allies. ... The Sullivan Principles were developed in 1977 by the Rev. ... The Kairos Document (KD) is a provocative theological statement issued by an anonymous group of theologians mostly based in the black townships of Soweto, South Africa, in 1985. ... The campaign gained prominence in the mid-1980s on university campuses in the US. The debate headlined the October 1985 issue (above) of Vassar Colleges student newspaper. ... The South African Police Service is the national police force of South Africa. ...

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He was initially involved with the multiracial National Union of South African Students, but after he became convinced that Black, Indian and Coloured students needed an organization of their own, he helped found the South African Students' Organisation (SASO) in 1968, and was elected its first president. SASO evolved into the influential Black Consciousness Movement (BCM). Ntsiki Mashalaba, Biko's wife[5], was also a prominent thinker within the Black Consciousness Movement. Ntsiki and Biko had two children together: Nkosinathi and Samora. He also had two children with Dr Mamphela Ramphele (a prominent activist within the BCM), a daughter, Lerato, born in 1974, who died at the age of two months, and a son, Hlumelo, who was born in 1978, after Biko's death. The National Union of South African Students (NUSAS) was one of the most important forces for Liberalism in South Africa in the latter part of the last century. ... In the South African, Namibian, Zambian and Zimbabwean context, the term Coloured (also known as Bruinmense, Kleurlinge or Bruin Afrikaners in Afrikaans) refers to a heterogeneous group of people who posess some degree of sub-Saharan ancestry, but not enough to be considered Black under South African law. ... South African Students Organization ... AZAPO emblem The Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) was a grassroots anti-Apartheid activist movement that emerged in South Africa in the mid-1960’s out of the political vacuum created by the decimation of the African National Congress and Pan Africanist Congress leadership, by jailing and banning, after the Sharpeville... Mamphela Aletta Ramphele (28 December 1947 - ) is a South African academic, businesswoman and medical doctor and was an anti-apartheid activist. ...


In 1972 Biko became honorary president of the Black People's Convention. He was banned during the height of apartheid in March 1973, meaning that he was not allowed to speak to more than one person at a time, was restricted to certain areas, and could not make speeches in public. It was also forbidden to quote anything he said, including speeches or simple conversations. Biko was a Xhosa. In addition to Xhosa, he spoke fluent English and fairly fluent Afrikaans. The Black Peoples Convention (BPC) was founded at the end of 1972 as the Nationalist Liberatory Flagship of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM). ... A ban is, generally, any decree that prohibits something. ... The Xhosa (IPA ( )) people are speakers of Bantu languages living in south-east South Africa, and in the last two centuries throughout the southern and central-southern parts of the country. ... The English language is a West Germanic language that originates in England. ... Look up Appendix:Afrikaans and Dutch Swadesh lists in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


When Biko was banned, his movement within the country was restricted to the Eastern Cape, where he was born. After returning there, he formed a number of grassroots organizations based on the notion of self-reliance, including a community clinic, Zanempilo, the Zimele Trust Fund (which helped support ex-political prisoners and their families), Njwaxa Leather-Works Project and the Ginsberg Education Fund.


In spite of the repression of the apartheid government, Biko and the BCM played a significant role in organising the protests which culminated in the Soweto Uprising of 16 June 1976. In the aftermath of the uprising, which was crushed by heavily-armed police shooting school children protesting, the authorities began to target Biko further. A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Fatally-wounded Hector Pieterson (13), one of the first fatalities, is carried by Mbuyisa Makhubo on June 16, 1976, with Antoinette Pieterson (17) running alongside. ... is the 167th day of the year (168th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1976 (MCMLXXVI) was a leap year starting on Thursday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Death and aftermath

On 18 August 1977, Biko was arrested at a police roadblock under the Terrorism Act No 83 of 1967. He suffered a major head injury while in police custody, and was chained to a window grille for a day. On 11 September 1977 police loaded him in the back of a Land Rover, naked, and began the 1,500 km drive to Pretoria to take him to a prison with hospital facilities in order to treat the already near-dead Biko.[6] He died shortly after arrival at the Pretoria prison, on 12 September. The police claimed his death was the result of an extended hunger strike. He was found to have massive injuries to the head, which many saw as strong evidence that he had been brutally clubbed by his captors. Then journalist and now political leader, Helen Zille, exposed the truth behind Biko's death.[7] is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... For other uses, see Roadblock (disambiguation). ... The Terrorism Act No 83 of 1967 was a law of the South African Apartheid regime until all except section 7 was repealed under the Internal Security and Intimidation Amendment Act 138 of 1991. ... is the 254th day of the year (255th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also: 1977 (album) by Ash. ... Land Rover was the name of one of the first British civilian all-terrain utility vehicles, first produced by Rover in 1947. ... Motto: Praestantia Praevaleat Pretoria (May Pretoria Be Pre-eminent In Excellence) Country Province Established 1855 Area  - Total 1,644 km² (634. ... A hunger strike is a method of non-violent resistance in which participants fast as an act of political protest, or to provoke feelings of guilt or to achieve a goal such as a policy change. ... Helen Zille (b. ...


Due to his fame, news of Biko's death spread quickly, opening many eyes around the world to the brutality of the apartheid regime. His funeral was attended by many hundreds of people, including numerous ambassadors and other diplomats from the United States and Western Europe. The liberal white South African journalist Donald Woods, a personal friend of Biko, photographed his injuries in the morgue. Woods was later forced to flee South Africa for England, where he campaigned against apartheid and further publicised Biko's life and death, writing many newspaper articles and authoring the book, Biko.[8] On hearing the news of Steve Biko's death in police custody, Minister of Justice, Jimmy Kruger, simply declared in a speech that the incident "left him cold". A current understanding of Western Europe. ... This article is part of or related to the Liberalism series Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | Liberalism by country | South African political parties | South African politics ... For Donald Woods, a Hollywood actor of the 1930s, see Donald Woods (actor). ...


The following year on 2 February 1978, the Attorney General of the Eastern Cape stated that he would not prosecute any police involved in the arrest and detention of Biko. During the trial it was claimed that Biko's head injuries were a self-inflicted suicide attempt, and not the result of any beatings. The judge ultimately ruled that a murder charge could not be supported partly because there were no witnesses to the killing. Charges of culpable homicide and assault were also considered, but because the killing occurred in 1977, the time limit for prosecution had expired.[9] is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1978 (MCMLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays the 1978 Gregorian calendar). ... Capital Bhisho Largest city Port Elizabeth Premier Nosimo Balindlela Area - Total Ranked 2nd 169,580 km² Population  - Total (2001)  - Density Ranked 3rd 6,436,761 38/km² Languages Xhosa (83%) Afrikaans (9. ... For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ...


The Truth and Reconciliation Commission, which was created following the end of minority rule and the apartheid system, reported in 1997 that five former members of the South African security forces had admitted to killing Biko who died a year after the Soweto riots which rocked apartheid South Africa, and were applying for amnesty. The Truth and Reconciliation Commission (TRC) was a court-like body assembled in South Africa after the end of Apartheid. ... Look up Amnesty in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


On 7 October 2003 the South African Justice Ministry officials announced that the five policemen who were accused of killing Biko would not be prosecuted because of insufficient evidence and the fact that the time limit for prosecution had elapsed. is the 280th day of the year (281st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2003 (MMIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Biko's name has been honoured at several universities. The main Student Union building of the Oxford Road campus of the University of Manchester is named in his honour. Ruskin College, Oxford has a Biko House student accommodation. The bar at the University of Bradford was named after Biko until its closure in 2005. Numerous other venues in Students Unions around the UK also bear his name. The Santa Barbara Student Housing Cooperative has a house named after Steve Biko, themed to provide a safe, respectful space for people of African roots. A street in Hounslow, Middlesex, UK is named "Steve Biko Way". Affiliations: Russell Group, EUA, N8 Group, NWUA, Worldwide Universities Network (WUN), Association of Commonwealth Universities Website: http://www. ... Ruskin College is an independent college in Oxford, founded in 1899 and named after John Ruskin. ... The University of Bradford is a university in Bradford, West Yorkshire in the United Kingdom. ... Manley Coop Biko Coop The Santa Barbara Student Housing Coop (SBSHC) is a student-run organisation designed to provide affordable housing for students, faculty, and staff of the University of California, Santa Barbara. ...


He wrote a book called: "I write what I like"


In 2004, he was voted 13th in the SABC3's Great South Africans. Great South Africans was a South African television series that aired on SABC3 and hosted by Noeleen Maholwana Sangqu and Denis Beckett. ...


Influences and formation of ideology

Like Frantz Fanon, Biko originally studied medicine, and, like Fanon, Biko developed an intense concern for the development of black consciousness as a solution to the existential struggles which shape existence, both as a human and as an African (see Négritude). Biko can thus be seen as a follower of Fanon and Aimé Césaire, in contrast to more pacifist ANC leaders such as Nelson Mandela after his imprisonment at Robben Island, and Albert Lutuli who were first disciples of Gandhi.[10][11][12][13] Frantz Fanon (July 20, 1925 – December 6, 1961) was an author from Martinique, essayist, psychoanalyst, and revolutionary. ... Négritude is a literary and political movement developed in the 1930s by a group that included the future Senegalese President Léopold Sédar Senghor, Martinican poet Aimé Césaire, and Léon Damas. ... Aimé Fernand David Césaire (25 June 1913 - 17 April 2008) was a French poet, author politician. ... For other people named Mandela, or other uses, see Mandela. ... Robben Island (Afrikaans Robben Eiland) is an island in Table Bay, 12 km off the coast from Cape Town, South Africa and is located at . ... Albert John Lutuli (also known by his Zulu name Mvumbi; his surname is sometimes and probably more phonetically spelt Luthuli) (1898? – 21 July 1967) was a South African teacher and politician. ... Mohandas Karamchand Gandhi (October 2, 1869 – January 30, 1948) (Devanagari: मोहनदास करमचन्द गांधी, Gujarati મોહનદાસ કરમચંદ ગાંધી), called Mahatma Gandhi, was the charismatic leader who brought the cause of Indias independence from British colonial rule to world attention. ...


Biko saw the struggle to restore African consciousness as having two stages, "Psychological liberation" and "Physical liberation". The non-violent influence of Gandhi, and Martin Luther King, Jr. upon Biko is then suspect, as Biko knew that for his struggle to give rise to physical liberation, it was necessary that it exist within the political realities of the apartheid regime, and Biko's non-violence may be seen more as a tactic than a personal conviction.[14] Thus Biko's BCM had much in common with other left-wing African nationalist movements of the time, such as Amilcar Cabral's PAIGC and Huey Newton's Black Panther Party. Martin Luther King redirects here. ... lcar Cabral Am lcar Lopes Cabral (1924–January 20, 1973) was an African writer and nationalist. ... The African Party for the Independence of Guinea and Cape Verde (Portuguese: Partido Africano da Independência da Guiné e Cabo Verde) or PAIGC is a political party that governed Guinea-Bissau from independence in 1974 until the late 1990s and from 2004 to 2005. ... Huey P. Newton (February 17, 1942 - August 22, 1989) was co-founder and inspirational leader of the Black Panther Party, a militant African-American activist group. ... The Black Panther Party (originally called the Black Panther Party for Self-Defense) was an African-American organization established to promote civil rights and self-defense. ...


Quotes

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Steve Biko
  • "Apartheid — both petty and grand — is obviously evil. Nothing can justify the arrogant assumption that a clique of foreigners has the right to decide on the lives of a majority" — Woods, 130.
  • "The system concedes nothing without demand, for it formulates its very method of operation on the basis that the ignorant will learn to know, the child will grow into an adult and therefore demands will begin to be made. It gears itself to resist demands in whatever way it sees fit." — "The Quest for a True Humanity", I Write What I Like
  • "In time, we shall be in a position to bestow on South Africa the greatest possible gift—a more human face."White Racism and Black Consciousness", ibid
  • "The logic behind white domination is to prepare the black man for the subservient role in this country. Not so long ago this used to be freely said in parliament, even about the educational system of the black people. It is still said even today, although in a much more sophisticated language. To a large extent the evil-doers have succeeded in producing at the output end of their machine a kind of black man who is man only in form. This is the extent to which the process of dehumanisation has advanced." — "We Blacks", ibid
  • "The most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed." — "White Racism and Black Consciousness", ibid

Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is one of a family of wiki-based projects run by the Wikimedia Foundation, running on MediaWiki software. ...

References in the arts

Literature

  • Benjamin Zephaniah wrote a poem entitled, "Biko The Greatness", included in Zephaniah's 2001 collection, Too Black, Too Strong.

Benjamin Obadiah Iqbal Zephaniah (born 15 April 1958, Coles Hill, Birmingham, England) is a British Rastafarian writer and dub poet, and is well known in contemporary English literature. ...

Theatre, film and television

  • In 1978, Malcolm Clarke [1] recounted Biko's story in a documentary called, The Life and Death of Steve Biko.
  • 1979 play entitled The Biko Inquest, written by Norman Fenton and Jon Blair. In 1985, a television adaptation of the original stage play was created, directed by Albert Finney and originally aired in the US through HBO in 1985.[15]
  • In 1987, Richard Attenborough directed the movie Cry Freedom, a biographical drama about Biko starring Denzel Washington and Kevin Kline.
  • In the Disney channel movie The Color of Friendship, Biko's death is used as a plot turner in breaking the two teens apart.
  • In Peter Kay's Phoenix Nights, while Brian Potter is on Crimetime and is grabbed by a following interviewee he makes reference to Biko..

Albert Finney (born May 9, 1936 in Salford, Lancashire, England) is a five-time Academy Award-nominated English actor of Irish descent. ... For other uses, see HBO (disambiguation). ... Richard Samuel Attenborough, Baron Attenborough, CBE (born 29 August 1923) is an English actor, director, producer, and entrepreneur. ... Cry Freedom is a feature film directed by Richard Attenborough, set in the late 1970s, during the apartheid era of South Africa. ... Denzel Hayes Washington, Jr. ... Kevin Delaney Kline (born October 24, 1947) is an Academy Award- and Tony Award-winning American stage and film actor. ... Disney may refer to: The Walt Disney Company and its divisions, including Walt Disney Pictures. ... {{Infobox television| show_name=Peter Kays Phoenix Nights| image= | caption=| format=Comedy (sitcom)| runtime=30 minutes (approximate)| creator=Peter Kay Dave Spikey | starring=Peter Kay Dave Spikey [[Neil Fitzmaurice]] Patrick McGuinness [[Steve Edge]] Toby Foster [[Archie Kelly (comedian)|Archie Kelly]] Janice Connolly Bea Kelley Justin Moorhouse [[Daniel Kitson]] Ted Robbins...

Music

Biko has been the subject of many tributes in many different genres of music, including rap, hip hop, jazz, reggae and rock RAP may mean: the IATA airport code for Rapid City Regional Airport Rassemblement pour lalternative progressiste, a Québecois political party. ... Hip hop is a cultural movement that began amongst urban African American youth in New York and has since spread around the world. ... For other uses, see Jazz (disambiguation). ... Reggae is a music genre first developed in Jamaica in the late 1960s. ... This article is about the genre. ...

  • South African improviser, composer, and bandleader Johnny Dyani (Johnny Mbizo Dyani) recorded an album entitled Song for Biko, featuring a composition (written by Dyani) of the same name.
  • Tom Paxton released the song, "The Death of Stephen Biko", on his 1978 album, Heroes.
  • Christy Moore sang a song about Biko called, "Biko Drum", which makes several reverences to the South African hero. The song was written by Wally Page.
  • The A Tribe Called Quest 1993 album, Midnight Marauders, includes the song, "Steve Biko (Stir It Up)." In which Biko is only mentioned in the 20 second chorus.
  • Biko is referenced in the Public Enemy song "Show 'Em Whatcha Got" on the album It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back.
  • Steel Pulse released the song, "Biko's Kindred Lament", on their 1979 album, Tribute to the Martyrs.
  • Beenie Man's 1998 album, Many Moods of Moses, contains a track entitled "Steve Biko."
  • German singer Patrice sings about Biko in the song "Jah Jah Deh Deh" off his album How Do You Call It?.
  • Tapper Zukie released the song "Tribute To Steve Biko" on his 1978 album "Peace In The Ghetto", on the Frontline Records label.[16]
  • Peter Gabriel tells the tale of Biko in Biko, on his 1980 album Peter Gabriel (alternatively known as Melt, for the cover art), released in 1980. Gabriel sings: "You can blow out a candle / But you can't blow out a fire / Once the flames begin to catch / The wind will blow it higher". During the reign of South Africa's apartheid government, Gabriel often closed his concerts with the song, encouraging the audience to sing with him. The song has been covered by many artists, including The Flirtations, Joan Baez, Robert Wyatt, Simple Minds, Manu Dibango, Black 47 and Ray Wilson
  • Dave Matthews wrote the song "Cry Freedom" in honor of Biko.
  • Dirty district have a song based on the murder of Steve Biko, titled "Steve Biko", on their debut album, Pousse Au Crime et Longueurs de Temps .
  • Randy Stonehill sings about Biko in the song "Stand Like Steel" on his 2005 album Touchstone.
  • Sweet Honey in the Rock's 1981 album, Good News, contains tracks entitled "Biko" and "Chile Your Waters Run Red Through Soweto", which compares Biko's death to that of Chilean musician Victor Jara and was covered by Billy Bragg in 1992.
  • System Of A Down recorded a song entitled "Biko" onto one of their early demo tapes.
  • Simphiwe Dana's second album is called 'the one love movement on bantu biko street'
  • Simple Minds had a protest song on their album Street Fighting Years entitle 'Biko'

Johnny Mbizo Dyani (30 November 1945 – 24 October 1986) was a South African jazz double bassist who played with such musicians as Don Cherry, Steve Lacy and Leo Smith. ... Thomas R. Paxton was born October 31, 1937 in Chicago, Illinois, the youngest child of Burton and Esther Paxton. ... Christopher Andrew Christy Moore (born on May 7, 1945, in Newbridge, County Kildare) is a very popular Irish folk singer, songwriter, and guitarist. ... A Tribe Called Quest is a critically acclaimed and highly-influential American hip-hop group, formed in 1988. ... Midnight Marauders is a hip hop album by A Tribe Called Quest, released on November 9, 1993. ... Public Enemy, also known as PE, is a hip hop group from Long Island, New York, known for their politically charged lyrics, criticism of the media, and active interest in the concerns of the African American community. ... It Takes a Nation of Millions to Hold Us Back is the second full-length album by American hip hop group Public Enemy, released on April 19, 1988 (see 1988 in music) on Def Jam Recordings. ... Steel Pulse is a well-known roots reggae musical band. ... Beenie Man (born Anthony Moses Davis August 22, 1973 in Kingston, Jamaica), is among the most popular reggae entertainers and is a well established dancehall artist. ... Patrice live during a concert in Montpellier (France) in 2005 Patrice Bart-Williams (born July 9, 1979 in Köln to a German mother and the Sierra Leonean writer-activist Gaston Bart-Williams) is an Afro-German reggae artist. ... Tapper Zukie is a Jamaican singer and songwriter. ... Peter Brian Gabriel (born 13 February 1950, in Cobham,[1] Surrey, England) is an English musician. ... Biko is a protest song by British singer Peter Gabriel, about Steve Biko, a South African anti-apartheid campaigner who died in police custody in 1977. ... Peter Gabriel, released in 1980, is Peter Gabriels third eponymous album and his first for Geffen Records. ... A segregated beach in South Africa, 1982. ... Joan Chandos Baez (born January 9, 1941) is an American folk singer and songwriter known for her highly individual vocal style. ... Robert Wyatt (born Robert Wyatt-Ellidge, 28 January 1945, in Bristol) is an English musician, and a former member of the influential Canterbury scene band Soft Machine. ... Simple Minds is a rock band from Scotland, which had its greatest worldwide popularity from the mid-1980s to the early-1990s. ... Manu Dibango (born December 12, 1933) is a Cameroonian saxophonist and vibraphone player. ... Black 47 is an American-Celtic rock band made up of Irish expatriates, formed in New York City by Larry Kirwan and Chris Byrne in 1989. ... Ray Wilson Ray Wilson (born 8 September 1968 in Dumfries) is a Scottish rock singer, who got his start in the grunge band Stiltskin; they released one album and had a number one hit in the UK with the single Inside. He is the cousin of Ian Wilson, better known... For other persons named David Matthews, see David Matthews (disambiguation). ... // Biography Dirty District are an eclectic band from Sèvres, France which was formed 1985 under the name of Great Gangsters From The Dirty District (until they changed it to just Dirty District later). ... Randy Stonehill (born March 12, 1952) is an American singer/songwriter from Stockton, California, best known as one of the so-called fathers of contemporary Christian music. ... Sweet Honey in the Rock is an all-woman, African American a cappella ensemble that has been producing music for more than 30 years. ... Víctor Lidio Jara Martínez (September 23, 1932 – September 16, 1973) was a Chilean folk singer and activist. ... Stephen William Bragg (born December 20, 1957 in Essex, England), better known as Billy Bragg, is an English musician who blends elements of folk music, punk rock and protest songs. ... System of a Down (commonly referred to as System or abbreviated as SOAD) are an American heavy metal band, formed in 1995 in Glendale, California. ... Simple Minds is a rock band from Scotland, which had its greatest worldwide popularity from the mid-1980s to the early-1990s. ... Street Fighting Years is an album by the Simple Minds, released in 1989 (see 1989 in music). ...

See also

For other uses, see Civil disobedience (disambiguation). ... Nonviolence (or non-violence), whether held as a moral philosophy or only employed as an action strategy, rejects the use of physical violence in efforts to attain social, economic or political change. ... Nonviolent resistance (or nonviolent action) is the practice of achieving socio-political goals through symbolic protests, civil disobedience, economic or political noncooperation, and other methods, without using violence. ... Martin Luther King redirects here. ... University of Manchester Motto: Cognitio Sapientia Hvmanitas Knowledge, wisdom, humanity. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c Stephen Bantu Biko. South African history online (09 2007). Retrieved on 2007-11-20.
  2. ^ Background: Steve Biko: martyr of the anti-apartheid movement. BBC News (1997-12-08).
  3. ^ Biko, Steve (1986). I Write What I Like. Harper & Row, 103-104. 
  4. ^ See, for instance, Rian Malan's book My Traitor's Heart
  5. ^ King William's Town's hero: Steve Biko 1946 - 1977. Buffalo City government. Retrieved on 2007-09-02.
  6. ^ Pillay, Verashni (2007-09-12). Keeping Steve Biko alive. News24. Retrieved on 2007-09-19.
  7. ^ Mrs Helen ZILLE. Who's who. 24.com. Retrieved on 2007-12-12.
  8. ^ SA editor's escape from apartheid, 30 years on M & G
  9. ^ Account of homicide accusations against the police in The Independent (of London)
  10. ^ Template:Cite book.
  11. ^ Kee, Alistair (2006). The rise and demise of black theology. Ashgate Publishing, Ltd. 
  12. ^ Heinrichs, Ann (2001). Mahatma Gandhi. Gareth Stevens, 12. 
  13. ^ Lens, Sidney (1963). Africa — awakening giant. Putnam, 180. 
  14. ^ Wiredu, Kwasi; William E. Abraham, Abiola Irele, Ifeanyi A. Menkiti (2003). Companion to African philosophy. Blackwell Publishing. 
  15. ^ The Biko Inquest. IMDb.
  16. ^ Tapper Zukie - Peace In The Ghetto

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 324th day of the year (325th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... is the 342nd day of the year (343rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... I Write What I Like (full name I Write What I Like: Selected Writings by Steve Biko) is a compilation of writings from anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko. ... Harper & Row is an imprint of HarperCollins. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 255th day of the year (256th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 262nd day of the year (263rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 346th day of the year (347th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • I Write What I Like, by Steve Biko, Harper & Row, 1986, San Francisco.
  • Steve Biko: Black Consciousness in South Africa; ed. Millard Arnold; Random House, New York. 1978.
  • Biko, by Donald Woods; originally published by Paddington Press, London and New York, 1978; later edition published by Henry Holt, New York, 1987.
  • New Introduction to I Write What I Like by Lewis Gordon[1]
  • Black Consciousness: The dialectics of liberation in South Africa by Nigel Gibson[2]
  • Goodwin, June & Schiff, Ben (November 13, 1995), “Who Killed Steve Biko?: Exhuming Truth in South Africa”, The Nation (New York: The Nation Company) 261 (16): 565-568, ISSN 0027-8378 
  • No. 46: Steve Biko by Hilda Bernstein (Victor Kamkin, 1978, ISBN 0-317-36653-X)

I Write What I Like (full name I Write What I Like: Selected Writings by Steve Biko) is a compilation of writings from anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko. ... Harper & Row is an imprint of HarperCollins. ... // Random House is a publishing house based in New York City. ... For Donald Woods, a Hollywood actor of the 1930s, see Donald Woods (actor). ... Holt, Rinehart and Winston, somethimes abbreviated as HRW or referred to as Holt, is an Austin, Texas based publishing company, that specializes in textbooks for use in secondary schools. ... I Write What I Like (full name I Write What I Like: Selected Writings by Steve Biko) is a compilation of writings from anti-apartheid activist Steve Biko. ... Lewis Gordon is an African American philosopher who works in the areas of Africana philosophy, philosophy of human and life sciences, phenomenology, philosophy of existence, social and political theory, postcolonial thought, theories of race and racism, philosophies of liberation, aesthetics, philosophy of education, and philosophy of religion. ... Nigel Gibson is an activist and scholar. ... ISSN, or International Standard Serial Number, is the unique eight-digit number applied to a periodical publication including electronic serials. ... Hilda Bernstein (May 15, 1915 – September 8, 2006) was an author, artist, and an activist against apartheid and for womens rights. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Steve Biko

  Results from FactBites:
 
Steve Biko and informal and community education (1163 words)
Steve Biko (1946-1977) was born in Kingwilliamstown, Cape Province, South Africa.
Steve Biko saw the white liberal as someone who viewed the oppression of fls as ‘a problem that has to be solved’ whilst ‘the fls are experiencing a situation from which they are unable to escape at any given moment.
Biko felt that the logic of white domination in the country meant that that fls had to be prepared for a subservient role.
Steve Biko - MSN Encarta (314 words)
Biko was born in King William’s Town, in what is now the province of Eastern Cape.
In 1972 Biko was expelled for his political activities, which were directed at the white-minority government of South Africa and its restrictive racial policies, known as apartheid.
Biko sought to liberate the minds of Africans, arguing that liberation grows out of “the realization by the Blacks that the most potent weapon in the hands of the oppressor is the mind of the oppressed.” He was one of the founders of the Black Consciousness Movement (BCM) in the late 1960s.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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