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Encyclopedia > Steroid hormone receptor

Steroid hormone receptors are intracellular receptors (typically cytoplasmic) that perform signal transduction for steroid hormones. Steroid hormone receptors are part of the nuclear receptor family that include a group of homologous structured receptors (type II receptors) that bind to non-steroid ligands such as thyroid hormones and vitamin A, as well as to vitamin D, and orphan receptors. All these receptors are transcription factors. Depending upon the steroid hormone that they bind, they are either located in the cytosol and move to the cell nucleus upon activation, or spend their life in the nucleus waiting for the the steroid hormone to enter and activate them. This uptake into the nucleus has to do with Nuclear Localization Signals (NLS) found in a region of the receptor. In most cases this signal is covered up by heat shock proteins which bind the receptor until the hormone is present. Upon binding by the hormone the receptor undergoes a conformational change, the heat shock proteins come off, and the receptor together the with bound hormone enter the nucleus to act upon transcription. Intracellular receptors or nuclear receptors are a class of receptor located inside the cell rather than on its cell membrane. ... Schematic showing the cytoplasm, with major components of a typical animal cell. ... In biology, signal transduction refers to any process by which a cell converts one kind of signal or stimulus into another, most often involving ordered sequences of biochemical reactions inside the cell, that are carried out by enzymes and linked through second messengers resulting in what is thought of as... Steroid hormones are steroids which act as hormones. ... For other uses, see Hormone (disambiguation). ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Nuclear receptors are a class of intracellular receptors which function as ligand activated transcription factors which up or down regulate the expression of genes. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... thyroxine (T4) triiodothyronine (T3) Thyroxine, T4 Triiodothyronine, T3 The thyroid hormones, thyroxine (T4) and triiodothyronine (T3), are tyrosine-based hormones produced by the thyroid gland. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... Orphan receptors of the nuclear receptor group are apparent receptors that have a similar structure as other identified receptors but whose ligand is not yet known. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... The cytosol (cf. ... HeLa cells stained for DNA with the Blue Hoechst dye. ...

Contents

Types

Sex hormone receptors belong to the group of steroid hormone receptors and interact with sex hormones. ... Sex hormones are hormones that affect the reproductive system. ... The androgen receptor is an intracellular steroid receptor that specifically binds testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. ... The estrogen receptor is a receptor for estradiol (the main endogenous estrogen); it is located intracellularly, in parallel with other steroid hormone receptors. ... The progesterone receptor is an intracellular steroid receptor that specifically binds progesterone. ... The ‘’’glucocorticoid receptor’’’ (GR) is a ligand-activated intracytoplasmatic transcription factor that interacts with high affinity to cortisol and other glucocorticoids. ... Glucocorticoids are a class of steroid hormones characterised by an ability to bind with the cortisol receptor and trigger similar effects. ... The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, MLR, MCR), also aldosterone receptor, is officially labelled nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) and is a receptor with high affinity for mineralocorticoids. ... Mineralocorticoids is a class of steroids characterised by their similarity to aldosterone and their influence on salt and water metabolism. ... The structure of retinol, the most common dietary form of vitamin A Vitamin A is an essential human nutrient. ... The calcitriol receptor, also known as the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the steroid hormone family of receptors. ... Vitamin D is a fat soluble vitamin that contributes to the maintenance of normal levels of calcium and phosphorus in the bloodstream. ... There are actually three functional thyroid hormone receptors designated alpha1, beta1 and beta2. ... Orphan receptors of the nuclear receptor group are apparent receptors that have a similar structure as other identified receptors but whose ligand is not yet known. ...

Structure

Steroid hormone receptors share a common structure of four units that are functionally homologous, so-called "domains":

  1. Variable domain: It begins at the N-terminal and is the most variable domain between the different receptors.
  2. DNA binding domain: This centrally located highly conserved DNA binding domain (DBD) consists of two non-repetitive globular motifs (PDB: 1HCQ) where zinc is coordinated with four cysteine and no histidine residues. Their secondary and tertiary structure is distinct from that of classic zinc fingers.[1] This region controls which gene will be activated. On DNA it interacts with the hormone response element (HRE).
  3. Hinge region: This area controls the movement of the receptor to the nucleus.
  4. Hormone binding domain: The moderately conserved ligand-binding domain (LBD) can include a nuclear localization signal, amino-acid sequences capable of binding chaperones and parts of dimerization interfaces. Such receptors are closely related to chaperones (namely heat shock proteins hsp90 and hsp56), which are required to maintain their inactive (but receptive) cytoplasmic conformation. At the end of this domain is the C-terminal. The terminal connects the molecule to its pair in the homodimer or heterodimer. It may affect the magnitude of the response.

Only type I receptors have a heat shock protein (hsp) associated with the inactive receptor that will be released when the receptor interacts with the ligand. Type I receptors may be found in homodimer or heterodimer forms. Type II receptors have no hsp, and in contrast to the classical type I receptor are located in the cell nucleus. For the file format that describes the 3D structures of molecules found in the Protein Data Bank, see Protein Data Bank (file format). ... Cysteine is a naturally occurring, sulfur-containing amino acid that is found in most proteins, although only in small quantities. ... Histidine is one of the 20 most common natural amino acids present in proteins. ... Cartoon representation of the protein Zif268 (blue) containing three zinc fingers in complex with DNA (orange). ... Hormone response elements (HRE) are located on DNA and act as receptors for steroid hormone receptor complexes. ... In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... A nuclear localizing sequence (NLS) is an amino acid sequence which acts like a tag on the exposed surface of a protein. ... Hsp90 (heat shock protein 90) is a molecular chaperone and is one of the most abundant proteins in unstressed cells. ... Conformation generally means structural arrangement. ... Heat shock proteins (HSP) are a group of proteins whose expression is increased when the cells are exposed to elevated temperatures. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ...


There is some evidence that certain steroid hormone receptors can extend through lipid bilayer membranes at the surface of cells and might be able to interact with hormones that remain outside of cells.[2]


Steroid hormone receptors can also function outside of the nucleus and couple to cytoplasmic signal transduction proteins such as PI3k and Akt kinase.[3]


Functioning

Free (that is, unbound) steroids enter the cell cytoplasm and interact with their receptor. In this process heat shock protein is dissociated, and the activated receptor-ligand complex is translocated into the nucleus.


After binding to the ligand (steroid hormone), steroid receptors often form dimers. In the nucleus the complex acts as transcription factors, augmenting or suppressing transcription of particular genes by its action on DNA. As a result messenger RNA is produced that exits the nucleus and interacts with ribosomes. There, after translation of the genetic message, specific proteins are produced. These specific proteins perform a biological task. In chemistry, a ligand is an atom, ion, or molecule (see also: functional group) that generally donates one or more of its electrons through a coordinate covalent bond to, or shares its electrons through a covalent bond with, one or more central atoms or ions (these ligands act as a... Sucrose, or common table sugar, is composed of glucose and fructose. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... A micrograph of ongoing gene transcription of ribosomal RNA illustrating the growing primary transcripts. ... For other uses, see Gene (disambiguation). ... The life cycle of an mRNA in a eukaryotic cell. ... Figure 1: Ribosome structure indicating small subunit (A) and large subunit (B). ... Translation is the second process of protein biosynthesis (part of the overall process of gene expression). ...


Type II receptors are located in the nucleus. Thus their ligands pass through the cell wall and cytoplasm and enter the nucleus, where they activated the receptor without release of hsp. The activated receptor interacts with the hormone response element, and the transcription process is initiated as with type I receptors.


Action on DNA

The hormone response elements (HRE) for steroid hormone receptors are DNA sequences with the structure of a pair of palindrome or tandem sequences often separated by three nucleotides. These elements resemble each other in their length and arrangement but differ in their sequences. Hormone response elements (HRE) are located on DNA and act as receptors for steroid hormone receptor complexes. ... For the movie, see Palindromes (film). ... Look up Tandem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A nucleotide is a chemical compound that consists of 3 portions: a heterocyclic base, a sugar, and one or more phosphate groups. ...


A given hormone-receptor complex's ability to cause a change in the expression of the gene it regulates depends on the specific HRE sequence, the distance of HRE from the gene and the number of HRE affecting the gene.[4]


The biological response is influenced by the amount of hormones available, the available receptor population, the dissociation rate of the hormone-receptor complex with the specific DNA site, and the replenishment of the receptor population.


See also

In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ... Nuclear receptors are a class of intracellular receptors which function as ligand activated transcription factors which up or down regulate the expression of genes. ...

References

  1. ^ Evans, R.M. The steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily. Science 240:889-895. 1988. PMID 3283939.
  2. ^ Luconi M, Francavilla F, Porazzi I, Macerola B, Forti G, Baldi E. Human spermatozoa as a model for studying membrane receptors mediating rapid nongenomic effects of progesterone and estrogens. Steroids 2004;69:553-9. PMID 15288769.
  3. ^ Aquila S, Sisci D, Gentile M, Middea E, Catalano S, Carpino A, Rago V, Ando S. Estrogen receptor (ER)alpha and ER beta are both expressed in human ejaculated spermatozoa: evidence of their direct interaction with phosphatidylinositol-3-OH kinase/Akt pathway. J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2004;89:1443-51. PMID 15001646.
  4. ^ David L. Nelson, Michael M. Cox. Lehninger Principles of Biochemistry, Third Edition. W.H. Freeman & Company; 3rd Bk&CD edition (May 1, 2000). ISBN 1-57259-931-6

PMID is an acronym for PubMed Identifier or more specifically PubMed Unique Identifier which is a unique number assigned to each PubMed citation of life sciences and biomedical scientific journal articles. ...

External links

  • MBC 3320 Steroid hormones and receptors, by Dr. William S. Messer, updated on Monday, April 3, 2000 at 6:05 p.m.
  • Steroid Hormone Receptor Signaling. Transcript from Ed. Ralph, A. Bradshaw and Edward A. Dennis: Handbook of Cell Signaling. Academic press, CA, chapter 275. ISBN 0-12-124546-2. Retrieved on May 25, 2005 at 7:49 a.m. (UTC).
  • MeSH Steroid+Receptors
Medical Subject Headings (MeSH) is a huge controlled vocabulary (or metadata system) for the purpose of indexing journal articles and books in the life sciences. ... In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... Intracellular receptors or nuclear receptors are a class of receptor located inside the cell rather than on its cell membrane. ... Overhead view, or helical wheel diagram, of a leucine zipper, where d represent amino acid leucine , arranged with other amino acids on two parallel alpha helices. ... The title given to this article is incorrect due to technical limitations. ... In molecular biology, Activating Transcription Factor, ATF, is a class of AP-1 transcription factor dimers. ... AP-1 is a transcription factor comprised of c-Fos and c-Jun. ... In molecular biology, c-Fos is a cellular proto-oncogene belonging to the immediate early gene family of transcription factors. ... c-jun is a gene which, in combination with c-Fos, forms the AP-1 early response transcription factor. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... CREB (top) is a transcription factor capable of binding DNA (bottom) and regulating gene expression. ... bHLH transcription factor MyoD binding DNA. A basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) is a protein structural motif that characterizes a family of transcription factors. ... Aryl hydrocarbon receptor or AhR is a basic helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor that binds to HSP90 in the cytoplasm while inactivated. ... Aryl hydrocarbon receptor repressor inhibits aryl hydrocarbon receptor activity, allowing for only a transient activation of AhR. Kanno Y, Takane Y, Izawa T, Nakahama T, Inouye Y (2006). ... Aryl hydrocarbon receptor or AhR is a basic-helix-loop-helix transcription factor that binds to HSP90 in the cytoplasm while inactivated. ... Bmal (brain and muscle aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator (ARNT)-like) is a gene which encodes proteins regulating circadian rhythm. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Aryl hydrocarbon receptor nuclear translocator-like, also known as ARNTL, Bmal1, or Mop3, is a gene. ... For other uses, see Clock (disambiguation). ... Hypoxia inducible factors (HIFs) are transcription factors that respond to changes in available oxygen in the cellular environment, specifically to decreases in oxygen, or hypoxia. ... Expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Inhibitor of DNA binding 2, dominant negative helix-loop-helix protein, also known as ID2, is a human gene. ... Myogenic regulatory factors are basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factors that regulate myogenesis: MyoD, Myf5, myogenin, and MRF4[1]. These proteins contain a conserved basic DNA binding domain that binds the E box DNA motif [2]. They dimerize with other HLH containing proteins through a HLH-HLH interaction[3... MyoD is a gene the helps control muscle differentiation. ... Myogenin is a basic-helix-loop-helix (bHLH) transcription factor expressed during the development, maintenance, and repair of skeletal muscle. ... Myf5 is a protein with a key role in regulating muscle differentiation. ... Myf6, myogenic factor 6 (also known as MRF4), is a myogenic regulatory factor (MRF). ... Twist transcription factor is a transcription factor associated with Saethre-Chotzen syndrome. ... Basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factors are, as their name indicates, transcription factors containing both Basic helix-loop-helix and leucine zipper motifs. ... Microphthalmia-associated transcription factor is a basic helix-loop-helix leucine zipper transcription factor. ... Myc (cMyc) is a protooncogene, which is overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers. ... SREBP Beginning with the discovery of the sterol regulatory element binding proteins (SREBPs) in 1993, a productive combination of biochemistry, molecular biology and genetics, has brought to light the complex mechanisms by which animal cells maintain the proper levels of intracellular lipid (fats and oils) in the face of widely... Cartoon representation of the protein Zif268 (blue) containing three zinc fingers in complex with DNA (orange). ... DNA-binding domain is a part of DNA 3D structure that binds to DNA ... Nuclear receptors are a class of intracellular receptors which function as ligand activated transcription factors which up or down regulate the expression of genes. ... There are actually three functional thyroid hormone receptors designated alpha1, beta1 and beta2. ... The constitutive androstane receptor (CAR) is a nuclear hormone receptor with activity similar to that seen in other steroid receptors such as estrogen or progesterone but more similar in form to PPAR, LXR and RXR. CAR functions somewhat differently from other steroid receptors and its activity is still being elucidated. ... The farnesoid X receptor (FXR) is a nuclear hormone receptor with activity similar to that seen in other steroid receptors such as estrogen or progesterone but more similar in form to PPAR, LXR and RXR. Its not as good as PXR. Chenodeoxycholic acid and other bile acids are the... // The liver X receptor (LXR), a member of the orphan receptor of the huge nuclear receptor family, is a transcription factor related to some other nuclear receptor PPAR, FXR and RXR. Liver X receptors (LXRs) are important regulators of cholesterol, fatty acid, and glucose homeostasis. ... In cell biology, peroxisome proliferator-activated receptors (PPARs) are a group of nuclear receptor isoforms that exist across biology. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... There are three retinoic acid receptors (RAR), RAR-alpha, RAR-beta, and RAR-gamma. ... The RAR-related orphan receptors (RORs) are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... The Rev-ErbA proteins are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... The calcitriol receptor, also known as the Vitamin D receptor (VDR) is a member of the steroid hormone family of nuclear receptors. ... The chicken ovalbumin upstream promoter transcription factor (COUP-TFs) proteins are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... The protein encoded by the v-erbA-related gene (ear-2) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... HNF4 hepatocyte nuclear factor 4 is a protein mostly found in the liver that is critical for liver development. ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... There are three forms of retinoid X receptor (RXR), RXR-alpha, RXR-beta, and RXR-gamma. ... The testicular receptor proteins are members of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... The protein encoded by TLX (Human homologue of the Drosophila tailless gene) is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... The estrogen receptor is a receptor for estradiol (the main endogenous estrogen); it is located intracellularly, in parallel with other steroid hormone receptors. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... The androgen receptor is an intracellular steroid receptor that specifically binds testosterone and dihydrotestosterone. ... The ‘’’glucocorticoid receptor’’’ (GR) is a ligand-activated intracytoplasmatic transcription factor that interacts with high affinity to cortisol and other glucocorticoids. ... The mineralocorticoid receptor (MR, MLR, MCR), also aldosterone receptor, is officially labelled nuclear receptor subfamily 3, group C, member 2, (NR3C2) and is a receptor with high affinity for mineralocorticoids. ... The progesterone receptor is an intracellular steroid receptor that specifically binds progesterone. ... Nur (nuclear receptor subfamily 4) is a family of orphan nuclear receptors which act as transcription factors in neuron development and maintenance. ... The Nerve Growth factor IB (NGFIB, also known as Nur77) protein is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... The Neuron-derived orphan receptor 1 (NOR1) protein is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... The Nuclear receptor related 1 (NURR1) protein is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... The liver receptor homolog-1 (LRH-1) protein is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... The steroidogenic factor 1 (SF1) protein is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... The germ cell nuclear factor (GCNF) protein, also known as RTR (retinoid receptor-related testis-associated receptor), is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... DAX1 (dosage-sensitive sex reversal, adrenal hypoplasia critical region, on chromosome X, gene 1) is a nuclear receptor protein (Nuclear Receptor Nomenclature Committee code NR0B1) which plays an important role in the normal development of several hormone-producing tissues. ... The small heterodimer partner (SHP) protein is a member of the nuclear receptor family of intracellular transcription factors. ... GATA transcription factors are a family of transcription factors characterized by their ability to bind to the sequence GATA.[1] GATA1 (see also GATA1), GATA2, GATA3, GATA4, GATA5, GATA6 ^ Ko LJ, Engel JD (1993). ... GATA1 is an important transcription factor involved in cell growth and cancer. ... RNA expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Early growth response 2 (Krox-20 homolog, Drosophila), also known as EGR2, is a human gene. ... General transcription factors (GTFs) are proteins which have been shown to be important in the transcription of class II genes to mRNA templates. ... Transcription Factor II D (TFIID) is one of several basal transcription factors, all which are involved in the assembly of the basal apparatus of RNA polymerase II. TFIID is itself composed of several subunits called TAFs (of which there are 14) and the TATA Binding Protein (TBP) of which only... Gli1 was originally isolated in human glioblastoma (Kinzler KW et al Science. ... Gli2 is a transcriptional activator and repressor of which there are four isoforms; Gli2 alpha, beta, gamma and delta. ... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... The Krüppel-like family of transcription factors (Klfs), so named for their homology to the Drosophila Krüppel protein, have been extensively studied for their roles in cell proliferation, differentiation and survival, especially in the context of cancer . ... The introduction to this article provides insufficient context for those unfamiliar with the subject matter. ... Zif268 is a mouse transcription factor that was also named Krox-24, NGFI-A and EGr1. ... Zbtb7, originally named Pokemon, is a gene that may act as a master switch for cancer. ... The Autoimmune Regulator, abbreviated AIRE, is a human gene which is expressed in the thymus. ... The λ repressor of bacteriophage lambda employs a helix-turn-helix to bind DNA. In proteins, the helix-turn-helix (HTH) is a major structural motif capable of binding DNA. It is composed of two α helices joined by a short strand of amino acids and is found in many... The Antennapedia homeodomain protein from Drosophila melanogaster bound to a fragment of DNA (PDB ID 1AHD). ... Cdx2 (sequence ID NM_007673) is the gene that directs early embryogenesis in mice. ... A homeobox is a DNA sequence found within genes that are involved in the regulation of development (morphogenesis) of animals, fungi and plants. ... NANOG (pron. ... There are very few or no other articles that link to this one. ... BRN-3 is a transcription factor in the POU family. ... An octamer transcription factor is a transcription factor which binds to the ATTTGCAT sequence. ... October 2 is the 275th day (276th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 90 days remaining. ... Oct-4 is an abbreviation of Octamer-4. ... // Introduction Paired box (Pax) genes are a family of tissue specific transcription factors containing a PAIRED domain and usually a partial or complete homeodomain. ... Paired box (Pax) genes are a family of tissue specific transcription factors containing a PAIRED domain and usually a partial or complete homeodomain. ... // Introduction Paired box (Pax) genes are a family of tissue specific transcription factors containing a PAIRED domain and usually a partial or complete homeodomain. ... Forkhead box proteins (FOX proteins) play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and longevity. ... Consisting of about 110 amino acids, the domain in winged-helix transcription factors has four helices and a two-strand beta-sheet. ... E2F stands for family of transcription factors (TF) in higher eukaryotes. ... Forkhead box proteins (FOX proteins) play important roles in regulating the expression of genes involved in cell growth, proliferation, differentiation, and longevity. ... FOXP2 (forkhead box P2) is a gene that is implicated in the development of language skills,[1] including grammatical competence. ... Foxp3 is a member of the forkhead/winged-helix family of transcriptional regulators and functions as the master regulator in the development and function of regulatory T cells. ... Interferon regulatory factors are proteins which play a role in the regulation of gene expression. ... IRF3 is an interferon regulatory factor. ... IRF6 is a gene whose function is related to the formation of connective tissue, for example that of the palate. ... NF-κB, or Nuclear Factor kappa B, is a nuclear transcription factor found in all cell types and is involved in cellular responses to stimuli such as stress, cytokines, free radicals, ultraviolet irradiation, and bacterial or viral antigens. ... Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 1 (p105), also known as NFKB1, is a human gene. ... Expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location Pubmed search Nuclear factor of kappa light polypeptide gene enhancer in B-cells 2 (p49/p100), also known as NFKB2, is a human gene. ... Rel may mean: Rel, the category of sets and relations Rel, a database management system rel, an HTML attribute for indicating a semantic link relpats-eht, a discontinued online riddle and the screenname of its creator REL, a file format generated by Microsofts M80 and Digital Researchs RMAC... For RELA meaning the civil service in Malaysia please visit RELA Corps. ... Nuclear factor of activated T-cells (NFAT) is a general name applied to a family of transcription factors shown to be important in immune response. ... Domains and covalent modification sites of STAT proteins. ... Domains and covalent modification sites of STAT proteins. ... STAT1 homodimers are involved in type II interferon signalling, and binds to the GAS (Interferon-Gamma Activated Sequence) promoter to induce expression of ISG (Interferon Stimulated Genes). ... STAT2 is a STAT protein. ... STAT3 is tyrosine-phosphorylated and activated by a number of kinases. ... STAT4 is a STAT protein. ... STAT5 refers to two highly related proteins, STAT5a and STAT5b. ... STAT6 is a STAT protein. ... Expression pattern Orthologs Human Mouse Entrez Ensembl Uniprot Refseq Location p53, also known as protein 53 (TP53), is a transcription factor that regulates the cell cycle and hence functions as a tumor suppressor. ... MADS box is a conserved sequence element found in a family of transcription factor encoding genes, the MADS-box gene family. ... High Mobility Group or HMG is a group of chromosomal proteins that help with transcription, replication, recombination, and DNA repair. ... Sox genes belong to a super-family of genes characterised by a homologous sequence called the HMG (high mobility group) box. ... Sox2 is a transcription factor that is essential to maintain self-renewal of undifferentiated embryonic stem cells. ... This article is about the SRY gene. ... Core binding factors (CBFs) comprise a group of heterodimeric transcription factors. ... RUNX1 is a transcription factor associated with M2 AML. Core binding factor MeSH RUNX1+protein,+human Categories: | | ... Cbfa1/Runx2 is key transcription factor associated with osteoblast differentiation. ... Pocket protein family consists of three proteins: RB p107 p130 They play crucial roles in the metazoan cell cycle through interaction with members of the E2F transcription factors family. ... -1... Catabolite Activating Protein or CAP binds to DNA more tightly in the presence of cAMP (cyclic AMP). ... A ρ factor (rho factor) is a protein found in prokaryotes, especially E. coli, involved in the termination of transcription. ... A sigma factor (σ factor) is a prokaryotic transcription initiation factor that must be part of RNA polymerase (RNAP) for specific binding to promoter sites on DNA. Different sigma factors are activated in response to different environmental conditions, as are listed below. ... R-Smads or receptor regulated Smads are a class of proteins that include SMAD1, SMAD2, SMAD3, SMAD5, and SMAD9. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Steroid hormone receptor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (812 words)
Steroid hormone receptors are part of the nuclear receptor family that include a group of homologous structured receptors (type II receptors) that bind to non-steroid ligands such as thyroid hormones and vitamin A, as well as to vitamin D, and orphan receptors.
The hormone response elements (HRE) for steroid hormone receptors are DNA sequences with the structure of a pair of palindrome or tandem sequences often separated by three nucleotides.
Evans, R.M. The steroid and thyroid hormone receptor superfamily.
Hormone receptor - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (184 words)
hormone receptor is a receptor protein on the surface of a cell or in its interior that binds to a specific hormone.
Binding of hormones to hormone receptors often trigger the start of a biophysical signal that can lead to further signal transduction pathways, or trigger the activation or inhibition of genes.
Steroid hormone and related receptors are generally soluble proteins that function through gene activation.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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