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Encyclopedia > Stereophonic sound
Label for 2.0 sound, Stereo.

Stereophonic sound, commonly called stereo, is the reproduction of sound, using two or more independent audio channels, through a symmetrical configuration of loudspeakers, in such a way as to create a pleasant and natural impression of sound heard from various directions, as in natural hearing. It is often contrasted with monophonic (or "monaural") sound, where audio is in the form of one channel, often centered in the sound field (analogous to a visual field). Image File history File links 2_0_channels_(stereo)_label. ... Image File history File links 2_0_channels_(stereo)_label. ... Sound is a disturbance of mechanical energy that propagates through matter as a wave. ... A U.S. Postage Stamp commemorating one hundred years of sound recording. ... Symmetry is a characteristic of geometrical shapes, equations and other objects; we say that such an object is symmetric with respect to a given operation if this operation, when applied to the object, does not appear to change it. ... The term configuration has several meanings. ... Closeup of a loudspeaker driver Wall-mounted loudspeaker. ... Monaural (often shortened to mono) sound reproduction is single-channel. ... Analogy is either the cognitive process of transferring or giving information from a particular subject (the analogue or source) to another particular subject (the target), or a linguistic expression corresponding to such a process. ... The term visual field is sometimes used as a synonym to field of view, though they do not designate the same thing. ...


The word "stereophonic" — derived from Greek stereos = "solid" and phōnē = "sound" — was coined by Western Electric, by analogy with the word "stereoscopic". Western Electric (sometimes abbreviated WE and WECo) was a US electrical engineering company, the manufacturing arm of AT&T from 1881 to 1995 . ... Stereoscopy, stereoscopic imaging or 3-D (three-dimensional) imaging is a technique to create the illusion of depth in a photograph, movie, or other two-dimensional image, by presenting a slightly different image to each eye. ...


In popular usage, stereo usually means 2-channel sound recording and sound reproduction using data for more than one speaker simultaneously. Channel, in communications (sometimes called communications channel), refers to the medium used to convey information from a sender (or transmitter) to a receiver. ... Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... Sound reproduction is the electrical or mechanical re-creation and/or amplification of sound, often as music. ...


In technical usage, stereo or stereophony means sound recording and sound reproduction that uses stereographic projection to encode the relative positions of objects and events recorded. A stereo system can include any number of channels, such as the multichannel audio 5.1- and 6.1-channel systems used on high-end film and television productions. However, it more commonly means only two-channel systems. Stereographic projection of a circle of radius R onto the x axis. ... Multichannel audio refers to the use of multiple sound sources to create a richer, or live music experience. ... Film is a term that encompasses motion pictures as individual projects, as well as the field in general. ...


The electronic device for playing back stereo sound is often referred to as "a stereo". The field of electronics comprises the study and use of systems that operate by controlling the flow of electrons (or other charge carriers) in devices such as thermionic valves (vacuum tubes) and semiconductors. ...

Contents

Stereo recording

During two-channel stereo recording, two microphones are placed in strategically chosen locations relative to the sound source, with both recording simultaneously. The two recorded channels will be similar, but each will have distinct time-of-arrival and sound-pressure-level information. During playback, the listener's brain uses those subtle differences in timing and sound-level to triangulate the positions of the recorded objects. A microphone with a cord A microphone, sometimes called a mic (pronounced mike), is a device that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... Simultaneity is the property of two events happening at the same time. ... Playback could mean: Playback singing, a practice in Bollywood musicals. ... Triangulation can be used to find the distance from the shore to the ship. ...


Stereo recordings often cannot be played on monaural systems without a significant loss of fidelity. Since each microphone records each wavefront at a slightly different time, the wavefronts are out of phase; as a result, constructive and destructive interference can occur, if both tracks are played back on the same speaker. This phenomenon is known as phase cancellation. Monaural (often shortened to mono) sound reproduction is single-channel. ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... In optics, a wavefront is the locus (a line or surface in an electromagnetic wave) of points having the same phase. ... Look up Phase in Wiktionary, the free dictionary Phase may refer to: Phase (matter), a physically distinctive form of a substance, such as the solid, liquid, and gaseous states of ordinary matter Phase (waves), the time position (or angle in the complex plane) within a cycle of a periodic waveform... Interference of two circular waves - Wavelength (decreasing bottom to top) and Wave centers distance (increasing to the right). ... Physical Phenomena are observable events which are explained by physics or raise some question about matter, light, or spacetime. ... Phase cancellation refers to the effect of two waves that are out of phase with each other being summed. ...


Various methods of stereo recording

X-Y technique: intensity stereophony

Here there are two directional microphones at the same place, and typically pointing at an angle 90° or more to each other - see also "The Stereophonic Zoom" by Michael Williams. A stereo effect is achieved through differences in sound pressure level between two microphones. Due to the lack of differences in time-of-arrival / phase-ambiguities, the sonic characteristic of X-Y recordings is generally less spacy and has less depth compared to recordings employing an AB-setup. A microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike or mic (both IPA pronunciation: ), is an acoustic to electric transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal. ...


When the microphones are bidirectional and placed facing +-45° with respect to the sound source the X-Y-setup is called a Blumlein Pair. The sonic image produced by this configuration is considered by many authorities to create a most realistic, almost holographic soundstage. The Blumlein Pair is a stereo recording technique invented by Alan Blumlein for the creation of recordings that — upon replaying through headphones or loudspeakers — recreate the spatial characteristics of the recorded signal. ...


Intensity stereo is an unfortunate linguistic misnomer which has come to mean the recording of stereophonic signals that are distinguished only by level differences. These "level differences" have been called "intensity" differences, but sound intensity is a specifically defined quantity and cannot be sensed by a simple microphone, nor would it be valuable in music recording if it could. Like microphones our ear drums are sensitive only to the sound pressure.


A-B technique: time-of-arrival stereophony

This uses two parallel omnidirectional microphones some distance apart, so capturing time-of-arrival stereo information as well as some level (amplitude) difference information, especially if employed in close proximity to the sound source(s). At a distance of about 50 cm (0.5 m) the time delay for a signal reaching first one and then the other microphone from the side is approximately 1.5 msec (1 to 2 msec). According to Eberhard Sengpiel this is enough to locate the sound source exactly at the speaker on the respective side, resulting in a stereophonic pickup angle of 180°. If you increase the distance between the microphones you effectively decrease the pickup angle. At 70 cm distance it is about equivalent to the pickup angle of the near-coincident ORTF-setup.


M/S technique: Mid/Side stereophony

This coincident technique employs a bidirectional microphone facing sideways and another (of any characteristic; Alan Blumlein described the usage of an omnidirectional transducer in his original patent) at an angle of 90° facing the sound source. The left and right channels are produced through a simple matrix: Left = Mid + Side, Right = Mid - Side (the polarity-reversed side-signal). This configuration produces a complety mono-compatible signal, the width of which can be manipulated after the recording has taken place, which makes it especially useful for the usage on film-based projects. Alan Dower Blumlein was an electronics engineer who made a great many inventions in telecommunications, sound recording, stereo, television and radar. ...


Near-coincident technique: mixed stereophony

e.g. the ORTF stereo technique of the Office de Radiodiffusion Télévision Française = Radio France, calls for a pair of cardioid microphones placed 17 cm apart at a total angle between microphones of 110 degrees which, according to Eberhard Sengpiel, results in a stereophonic pickup-angle of 96°. In the NOS stereo technique of the Nederlandse Omroep Stichting = Holland Radio, the total angle between microphones is 90 degrees and the distance is 30 cm, so capturing time-of-arrival stereo information as well as level information. It is noteworthy that the spacing of 17 cm has nothing to do with human ear distance. The recorded signals are generally intended for playback over stereo loudspeakers and not for ear phones. The ORTF stereo microphone system is a microphone technique used to record stereo sound. ... The NOS stereo microphone system is a very useful device to capture a stereo sound. ...


Binaural recording

For more details on this topic, see Binaural recording.

Engineers make a technical distinction between "binaural" and "stereophonic" recording. Of these, binaural recording is more like stereoscopic photography. In binaural recording, a pair of microphones is put inside a model of a human head which includes external ears and ear canals. Each microphone is where the eardrum would be. Dummy head being used for binaural recording; the second microphone is obscured. ... Dummy head being used for binaural recording; the second microphone is obscured. ... It has been suggested that this article or section be merged into Binaural recording. ... The tympanic membrane, colloquially known as the eardrum, is a thin membrane that separates the external ear from the middle ear. ...


The recording is then played back through headphones, so that each channel is presented independently, without mixing or crosstalk. Thus, each of the listener's eardrums is driven with a replica of the auditory signal it would have experienced at the recording location. The result is an accurate duplication of the auditory spatiality that would have been heard by the listener placed where the microphones were. Because of the nuisance of wearing headphones, true binaural recordings have remained laboratory and audiophile curiosities.


Playing back stereo recordings

Stereophonic sound attempts to create an illusion of location for various instruments within the original recording. The recording engineer's goal is usually to create a stereo "image" with localization information. When a stereophonic recording is heard through loudspeaker systems rather than headphones, each ear of course hears sound from both speakers. The audio engineer may and often does use more than two microphones, sometimes many more, and may mix them down to two tracks in ways that exaggerate the separation of the instruments to compensate for the mixture that occurs when listening via speakers.


Descriptions of stereophonic sound tend to stress the ability to localize the position of each instrument in space, but in reality many people listen on playback systems that do a poor job of re-creating a stereo "image". Many listeners assume that "stereo" sound is "richer" or "fuller-sounding" than monophonic sound. This is inaccurate — stereo and mono can have equally detailed abilities to play recorded notes. The spatial illusion is what sets stereo recordings apart from mono recordings.


When playing back stereo recordings, best results are obtained by using two speakers, in front of and equidistant from the listener, with the listener located on the center line between the two speakers.


Broadcasting in stereo

Radio

FM

In FM broadcasting, the Zenith-GE pilot-tone stereo system is used throughout the world. FM broadcasting is a broadcast technology invented by Edwin Howard Armstrong that uses frequency modulation (FM) to provide high-fidelity sound over broadcast radio. ...


AM

Because of the limited audio quality of the majority of AM receivers, and because of the relative scarcity of AM stereo receivers, relatively few stations employ stereo. Various modulation schemes are used for AM stereo, of which the best-known is Motorola's C-QUAM which is the official method for most countries in the world which decide to use AM Stereo. AM stereo is any of a number of mutually-incompatible techniques for broadcasting two_channel audio in the mediumwave band in a manner that is compatible with receivers designed for standard amplitude modulation. ... Motorola (NYSE: MOT) is an American international communications company based in Schaumburg, Illinois, a Chicago suburb. ... C-QUAM is the method of AM stereo broadcasting used in Canada, the United States and most other countries. ...


More AM stations are adopting digital HD Radio which allows the transmission of stereo sound on AM stations. HD Radio is an in-band on-channel (IBOC) digital radio system created by iBiquity for broadcasting via existing FM and AM radio stations. ...


DAB

MP2 audio streams are used.


Television

Analog TV (PAL and NTSC)

Various modulation schemes are used in different parts of the world to broadcast more than one sound channel. These are sometimes used to provide two mono sound channels in different languages rather than stereo.

Multichannel television sound, better known as MTS (often still as BTSC, for the Broadcast Television Systems Committee that created it), is the method of encoding three additional channels of audio into an NTSC-format audio carrier. ... NICAM (known also as NICAM 728, after the 728 kbit/s bitstream it is sent over), Near Instantaneous Companded Audio Multiplex, is a format for digital sound over television. ... Zweikanalton (two channel sound) is a television sound transmission system used in Germany and other countries. ...

Digital TV

MP2 audio streams are widely used within MPEG-2 program streams. Digital television (DTV) uses digital modulation and compression to broadcast video, audio and data signals to television sets. ...


History

1881

Image:Theatrophone.gif‎‎
The Théâtrophone

Clément Ader demonstrated the first two-channel audio system in Paris in 1881, with a series of telephone transmitters connected from the stage of the Paris Opera to a suite of rooms at the Paris Electrical Exhibition, where listeners could hear a live transmission of performances through receivers for each ear. Scientific American reported, Photograph of Ader Clément Ader (February 4, 1841 – March 5, 1926) was a French engineer born in Muret, Haute Garonne remembered primarily for his pioneering work in aviation. ... Front under winter sun, photography by Eric Pouhier Left roof sculpture Right roof sculpture The Palais Garnier is an opera house, a grand landmark at the northern end of the Avenue de lOpéra in the IXe arrondissement of Paris, France. ... Scientific American is a popular-science magazine, published monthly since August 28, 1845, making it the oldest continuously published magazine in the United States. ...

Every one who has been fortunate enough to hear the telephones at the Palais de l'Industrie has remarked that, in listening with both ears at the two telephones, the sound takes a special character of relief and localization which a single receiver cannot produce. . . . This phenomenon is very curious, it approximates to the theory of binauriclar auduition, and has never been applied, we believe, before to produce this remarkable illusion to which may almost be given the name of auditive perspective.

This two-channel telephonic process was commercialized in France from 1890 to 1932 as the Théâtrophone, and in England from 1895 to 1925 as the Electrophone. Both were services available by coin-operated receivers at hotels and cafés, or by subscription to private homes.[1]


1930s

In the 1930s, Harvey Fletcher of Bell Laboratories investigated techniques for stereophonic recording and reproduction. One of the techniques investigated was the 'Wall of Sound,' which used an enormous array of microphones hung in a line across the front of an orchestra. Up to eighty microphones were used, and each fed a corresponding loudspeaker, placed in an identical position, in a separate listening room. Harvey Fletcher (September 11, 1884 - July 23, 1981) was an American physicist. ... Bell Telephone Laboratories or Bell Labs was originally the research and development arm of the United States Bell System, and was the premier corporate facility of its type, developing a range of revolutionary technologies from telephone switches to specialized coverings for telephone cables, to the transistor. ...


Several stereophonic test recordings, using two microphones connected to two styli cutting two separate grooves on the same wax disc, were made with Leopold Stokowski and the Philadelphia Orchestra at Philadelphia's Academy of Music in March 1932. The first, made on March 12, 1932 of Scriabin's Prometheus: Poem of Fire, is the earliest surviving stereo recording. Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni StanisÅ‚aw BolesÅ‚awowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... The Academy of Music in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania is the oldest opera house in the United States that is still used for its original purpose. ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in leap years). ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... Alexander Nikolayevich Scriabin (Russian: Александр Николаевич Скрябин; sometimes transliterated as Skryabin) (6 January 1872 – 27 April 1915) was a Russian composer and pianist. ... Prometheus: Poem of Fire, Opus 60 (1910), is a piece by russian composer Alexander Scriabin for piano, orchestra, voice, and clavier à lumières, an instrument invented by Scriabin. ...


Duke Ellington and His Orchestra made some accidental stereo recordings on February 3, 1932 for RCA Victor. It was a fairly standard practice in that era to record using more than one microphone and disc cutter. The various versions could be compared, to see which had the best microphone positioning. It also allowed for safety masters in case something happened to the original. Even through the records are fairly rare, a collector had both versions and noticed that while they appeared to be the same performance, the sound mix was different on each. When the two recordings were synchronized, it became stereo. Duke Ellington Edward Kennedy Duke Ellington (April 29, 1899 – May 24, 1974), also known simply as Duke (see Jazz royalty), was an American jazz composer, pianist, and bandleader. ... February 3 is the 34th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1932 (MCMXXXII) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link will take you to a full 1932 calendar). ... RCAs logo as seen today on many products. ...


Bell Laboratories gave a demonstration of three-channel stereophonic sound on April 27, 1933 with a live transmission of the Philadelphia Orchestra from Philadelphia to Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C. Leopold Stokowski, normally the orchestra's conductor, was present in Constitution Hall to control the sound mix. Bell Labs also demonstrated binaural sound, using a dummy with microphones instead of ears, at the Chicago World's Fair in 1933.[2] April 27 is the 117th day of the year (118th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 248 days remaining. ... 1933 (MCMXXXIII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will take you to calendar). ... The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... Nickname: City of Brotherly Love, Philly, the City That Loves You Back, the Quaker City, The Birthplace of America Motto: Philadelphia maneto - Let brotherly love continue Location in Pennsylvania Coordinates: Country United States State Pennsylvania County Philadelphia Founded October 27, 1682 Incorporated October 25, 1701 Mayor John F. Street (D... DAR Constitution Hall DAR Constitution Hall is a concert hall located in Washington, D.C. It was built in 1929 by the Daughters of the American Revolution, which still owns the theater. ... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C., in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ... Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni Stanisław Bolesławowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ... A 1933 Century of Progress worlds fair poster The Century of Progress Exposition was a worlds fair held in Chicago, Illinois from 1933-1934 to celebrate Chicagos centennial. ...


Two stereophonic recording methods, using two channels and coincident microphone techniques (X-Y with bidirectional transducers / Blumlein-setup & M/S-stereophony), were developed by Alan Blumlein at EMI in 1931 and patented in 1933. A stereo disc, using the two walls of the groove at right angles to carry the two channels, was cut at EMI in 1933, twenty-five years before that method became the standard for stereo phonograph discs. Alan Dower Blumlein was an electronics engineer who made a great many inventions in telecommunications, sound recording, stereo, television and radar. ... The EMI Group is a major record label, based in Kensington in London, in the United Kingdom. ...


1940 to 1970

From 1940 to 1970, the progress of stereophonic sound was paced by the technical difficulties of recording and reproducing two (or more) channels in synchronization, and by the economic and marketing issues of introducing new audio media and equipment. To a rough approximation, a stereo system cost twice as much as a monophonic system. Actually, in the 1950s that was an accurate approximation, since a stereo system had to be assembled by buying two preamplifiers, two amplifiers, and two speaker system. It was not clear whether consumers would think the sound was so much better as to be worth twice the price.


In the early 1950s, companies such as Concertapes and Victor began releasing stereophonic recordings on two-track prerecorded reel-to-reel magnetic tape. Serious audiophiles, the sort of people who would later be called "early adopters", bought them, and stereophonic sound came to at least some living rooms. Stereo recording became widespread in the music business by the fall of 1957, superseding monaural (single-channel) recording. The small record company Audio Fidelity released the first commercial stereophonic disc in 1958. Monaural (often shortened to mono) sound reproduction is single-channel. ...


The 1940 Carnegie Hall demonstration

The Carnegie Hall demonstration by Bell Laboratories on April 9 and 10, 1940, used three huge speaker systems. Synchronization was achieved by making the recordings in the form of three motion-picture soundtracks recorded on a single piece of film. Because of dynamic range limitations, volume compression was used, with a fourth track being used to regulate volume expansion. The Dolby noise reduction system of the 1970s was a far more sophisticated version of a basically similar technique. The volume compression and expansion were not fully automatic, but were designed to allow manual studio "enhancement", i.e., the artistic adjustment of overall volume and the relative volume of each track. Carnegie Hall Carnegie Hall is a concert venue in Midtown Manhattan in New York City located at 881 7th Avenue, occupying the east stretch of 7th Avenue between West 56th Street and West 57th Street. ... Bell Telephone Laboratories or Bell Labs was originally the research and development arm of the United States Bell System, and was the premier corporate facility of its type, developing a range of revolutionary technologies from telephone switches to specialized coverings for telephone cables, to the transistor. ... 1940 (MCMXL) was a leap year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1940 calendar). ... Dolby NR is a noise reduction system developed by Dolby Laboratories for use in analogue magnetic tape recording. ...


The recordings had been made by the Philadelphia Orchestra, conducted by Leopold Stokowski, who was always interested in sound reproduction technology. Stokowski personally participated in the "enhancement" of the sound. The Philadelphia Orchestra, based in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, is one of the Big Five symphony orchestras in the United States and usually considered among the finest in the world. ... Leopold Stokowski (born Antoni Stanisław Bolesławowicz April 18, 1882 in London, England, died September 13, 1977 in Nether Wallop, England) was the conductor of the Cincinnati Symphony Orchestra, the Philadelphia Orchestra, the NBC Symphony Orchestra, Hollywood Bowl Orchestra and the Symphony of the Air. ...


The speakers used generated 1,500 watts of acoustic power, producing sound levels of up to 100 decibels, and the demonstration held the audience "spellbound, and at times not a little terrified," according to one report.[3] Sergei Rachmaninoff, who was present at the demonstration, commented that it was "marvellous" but "somehow unmusical because of the loudness." "Take that Pictures at an Exhibition," he said. "I didn't know what it was until they got well into the piece. Too much 'enhancing', too much Stokowski." Sergei Vasilievich Rachmaninoff (Russian: , Sergej Vasil’evič Rahmaninov, April 1, 1873 (N.S.) or March 20, 1873 (O.S.) – March 28, 1943) was a Russian composer, pianist, and conductor. ... Mussorgsky in 1874 Pictures at an Exhibition (Russian: , Kartinki s vystavki, Little Pictures from an Exhibition) is a famous suite of ten piano pieces composed by Modest Mussorgsky in 1874. ...


The motion picture era

Bell Laboratories in New York City gave a demonstration in 1937 of two-channel stereophonic motion pictures, developed by Bell Labs and Electrical Research Products, Inc.[4] Bell Telephone Laboratories or Bell Labs was originally the research and development arm of the United States Bell System, and was the premier corporate facility of its type, developing a range of revolutionary technologies from telephone switches to specialized coverings for telephone cables, to the transistor. ...


In 1938, MGM started using three tracks to record movie soundtracks instead of one and very quickly upgraded to four tracks. One track was used for dialogue, two for music and one for sound effects. These optical soundtrack recordings could easily be "mixed" down to a mono track for film release. The very first true stereo recording MGM made (although released in mono) was "Zing Went The Strings of My Heart" by Judy Garland, recorded on September 16, 1938 for the movie Listen Darling. MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... MGM logo Metro-Goldwyn-Mayer or MGM, is a large media company, involved primarily in the production and distribution of cinema and television programs. ... Judy Garland (born Frances Ethel Gumm; June 10, 1922 – June 22, 1969) was an American film actress considered by many to be one of the greatest singing stars of Hollywoods Golden Era of musical film. ... September 16 is the 259th day of the year (260th in leap years). ... 1938 (MCMXXXVIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will take you to calendar). ...


The first commercial motion picture to be exhibited with stereophonic sound was Walt Disney's Fantasia, released in November 1940, for which a specialized sound process, Fantasound, was developed. Fantasound used a separate film containing four optical sound tracks. Three of the tracks were audible, and the fourth track controlled the volume level of the theater's amplifiers. The film was not a financial success, however, and after two months of road-show exhibition in selected cities, its soundtrack was remixed into mono sound for general release. Walter Elias Disney (December 5, 1901 – December 15, 1966), was an American film producer, director, screenwriter, voice actor, animator, and philanthropist. ... Fantasia is a 1940 motion picture, the third in the Disney animated features canon, which was a Walt Disney experiment in animation and music. ... Fantasound was an early stereophonic sound process developed by William E. Garity for the Walt Disney studio in 1940 for the motion picture Fantasia, making Fantasia the first commercial film with multichannel sound. ...


In the early 1940s, the forward thinking Alfred Newman directed the construction of a sound stage equipped for multi channel recording for 20th Century Fox studios. Several soundtracks from this era still exist in their multichannel elements, some of which have been released on CD including How Green Was My Valley, Anna and the King of Siam, Sun Valley Serenade, and The Day the Earth Stood Still. How Green Was My Valley is a novel of 1939, by Richard Llewellyn. ... Anna and the King of Siam is a 1944 book by Margaret Landon, a play and a 1946 movie. ... Sun Valley Serenade was released in 1941. ... The Day the Earth Stood Still is a 1951 science fiction film which tells the story of a humanoid alien who comes to Earth to warn its leaders not to take their conflicts into space, or they will face lethal consequences. ...


The advent of magnetic tape recording made high-fidelity synchronized multichannel recording technically straightforward, though costly. Motion picture theatres could afford the cost, and that is where the real introduction of stereophonic sound to the public occurred. Stereo sound first became a wide success with the release of This Is Cinerama in 1952. Cinerama was a spectacular wide-screen process fully comparable to today's IMAX. Cinerama practically required a specially built theatre for its presentation. It used seven magnetic sound tracks, six of them audible plus a seventh track that controlled the volume level of the amplifiers. The system was developed by Hazard Reeves, a pioneer in magnetic recording technology. By all accounts, including accounts by those who have experienced the process in rare recent showings, the sound was as spectacular as the picture and excellent even by modern standards. This is Cinerama is a 1952 film which shows how film makers could use the new technology of Cinerama to make movies more realistic by broadening the aspect ratio so the viewers peripheral vision was involved. ... Cinerama is the trademarked name for a widescreen process which works by simultaneously projecting images from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply-curved screen, subtending 146° of arc, and for the corporation which was formed to market it. ... IMAX theatre at the Melbourne Museum complex, Australia. ... Cinerama is the trademarked name for a widescreen process which works by simultaneously projecting images from three synchronized 35 mm projectors onto a huge, deeply-curved screen, subtending 146° of arc, and for the corporation which was formed to market it. ...


In April 1953, while This Is Cinerama was still playing only in New York City, most moviegoing audiences heard stereophonic sound for the first time with the Warner Bros. 3-D film production of House of Wax, starring Vincent Price. The sound system, WarnerPhonic, was a combination of a 35mm magnetic full-coat that contained Left-Center-Right, in synchronization with the two, dual-strip Polaroid system projectors, one of which carried an optical surround track, and one which carried a mono backup track should anything go wrong. Only one other film carried WarnerPhonic sound, the 3-D production of The Charge at Feather River. Both magnetic tracks to these films are considered lost. In film, the term 3-D (or 3D) is used to describe any visual presentation system that attempts to maintain or recreate moving images of the third dimension, the illusion of depth as seen by the viewer. ... House of Wax is a 1953 American horror film starring Vincent Price. ... Vincent Price on Broadway as Mr. ... Polaroid (a trademark of the Polaroid Corporation) is the name of a type of synthetic plastic sheet which is used to polarise light. ...


Many 3-D films carried variations on 3-track magnetic sound. Other instances include It Came From Outer Space, I, The Jury, The Stranger Wore a Gun, Inferno, Kiss Me Kate, and many others. It Came from Outer Space is a 1953 science fiction film starring Richard Carlson, Barbara Rush and Charles Drake. ... Kiss Me, Kate is a stage musical by Samuel and Bella Spewack (book) and Cole Porter (music and lyrics) that ran for 1,077 performances and was first performed in New York on December 30, 1948. ...


By the summer of 1953, the movie industry moved quickly to create simpler and cheaper wide-screen systems, such as CinemaScope, which used up to four magnetic sound tracks, and which were capable of being retrofitted into existing theatres. Cole Porter memorialized the era in a 1954 song: Cinemascope, or more strictly CinemaScope, was a widescreen movie format used from 1953 to 1967. ...

If Zanuck's latest picture were the good old-fashioned kind,
There'd be no one in front to look at Marilyn's behind.
If you want to hear applauding hands resound
You've gotta have glorious Technicolor,
Breathtaking Cinemascope and
Stereophonic sound.

Broadcasting in stereo

Radio: The BBC's experimental transmitting station 5XX in Daventry, Northamptonshire, made radio's first stereo broadcast in December 1925, of a concert conducted by Sir Hamilton Harty from Manchester, with 5XX broadcasting the right channel nationally by long wave, and local BBC stations broadcasting the left channel by medium wave. The BBC repeated the experiment in 1926, using 2LO in London and 5XX at Daventry. Following experimental FM stereo transmissions in the London area in 1958, the first regular BBC transmissions using an FM stereo signal began on the BBC's Third Programme network on August 28, 1962. The British Broadcasting Corporation, invariably known as the BBC (and also informally known as the Beeb or Auntie) is the largest broadcasting corporation in the world, employing 26,000 staff in the UK alone and with a budget of £4 billion. ... For other uses see Daventry (disambiguation) Daventrys High Street Daventry is a market town in Northamptonshire, England with a population of 22,367 (2001 census). ... Sir (Herbert) Hamilton Harty, conductor, composer and accompanist, was born December 4, 1879 in Hillsborough (Ireland). ... Manchester is a major city in North West England, historically notable for being the worlds first industrialised city, and its subsequent central role in the Industrial Revolution. ... Longwave radio frequencies are those below 500 kHz, which correspond to wavelengths longer than 600 meters. ... Mediumwave radio transmissions (sometimes called Medium frequency or MF) are those between the frequencies of 300 kHz and 3000 kHz. ... The BBC Third Programme was the third national radio network broadcast by the BBC, has since become Radio 3, but was originally known (at least within the BBC) as C. The other two were the Home Service (mainly speech based) and the Light Programme, dedicated to light music, usually cover... August 28 is the 240th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (241st in leap years), with 125 days remaining. ... 1962 (MCMLXII) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1962 calendar). ...


Chicago AM radio station WGN and its sister FM station WGNB collaborated on an hour-long stereophonic demonstration broadcast on May 22, 1952, with one audio channel broadcast by the AM station and the other audio channel by the FM station.[5] New York City's WQXR initiated its first stereophonic broadcasts in October 1952, and by 1954 was broadcasting all of its live musical programs in stereophonic sound, using its AM and FM stations for the two audio channels.[6] Nickname: The Windy City, The Second City, Chi Town Motto: Urbs In Horto (Latin: City in a Garden), I Will Location in Chicagoland and Illinois Coordinates: Country United States State Illinois County Cook Incorporated March 4, 1837 Mayor Richard M. Daley (D) Area    - City 606. ... AM broadcasting is radio broadcasting using Amplitude Modulation. ... WGN-AM is a radio station on 720 kHz in Chicago, co-owned with WGN-TV. WGN-AMs transmitter is located in Elk Grove Village, Illinois. ... The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length...


After several years of experimental stereo broadcasts, and six competing systems, the Federal Communications Commission announced stereophonic FM technical standards in April 1961, and licensed regular stereophonic FM radio broadcasting to begin in the United States on June 1, 1961.[7] WEFM in the Chicago area and WGFM in Schenectady, New York reported as the first stereo stations.[8] The FCCs official seal. ... The abbreviations FM, Fm, and fm may refer to: Electrical engineering Frequency modulation (FM) and its most common applications: FM broadcasting, used primarily to broadcast music and speech at VHF frequencies FM synthesis, a sound-generation technique popularized by early digital synthesizers Science Femtometre (fm), an SI measure of length... June 1 is the 152nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (153rd in leap years), with 213 days remaining. ... 1961 (MCMLXI) was a common year starting on Sunday (the link is to a full 1961 calendar). ... WEFM is an FM Station broadcast on 95. ... Union Colleges Nott Memorial, one of the most recognized buildings in Schenectady Schenectady (IPA ) is a city in Schenectady County, New York, United States, of which it is the county seat. ...


Television: A closed-circuit television performance of Carmen from the Metropolitan Opera House in New York City to thirty-one theaters across the United States on December 11, 1952 included a stereophonic sound system developed by RCA.[9] The 1958-1959 season of The Plymouth Show (i.e., The Lawrence Welk Show) on the ABC network was broadcast with stereophonic sound in some cities, with one audio channel broadcast via television and the other over the ABC radio network.[10] By the same method, NBC television and the NBC radio network offered stereo sound for The George Gobel Show on October 21, 1958. ABC's Walt Disney Presents made a stereo broadcast of The Peter Tchaikovsky Story, including scenes from Disney's latest animated feature Sleeping Beauty, on January 30, 1959 by using ABC-affiliated AM and FM stations for the left and right audio channels. Poster from the 1875 premiere of Carmen Carmen is a French opera by Georges Bizet. ... The Metropolitan Opera is located at Lincoln Center in New York, New York. ... RCAs logo as seen today on many products. ... The opening credits for The Lawrence Welk Show Lawrence Welk during a taping of The Lawrence Welk Show The Lawrence Welk Show is a musical variety show hosted by former big band leader Lawrence Welk. ... The American Broadcasting Company (ABC) operates television and radio networks in the United States and is also shown on basic cable in Canada. ... NBC (an abbreviation for National Broadcasting Company, its former corporate name) is an American television network based in New York Citys Rockefeller Center and is shown on basic cable in Canada. ... October 21 is the 294th day of the year (295th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 71 days remaining. ... 1958 (MCMLVIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Walt Disney anthology series, commonly called The Wonderful World of Disney, premiered on ABC on October 27, 1954 under the name Disneyland. ... Sleeping Beauty is the sixteenth animated feature in the Disney animated features canon. ... January 30 is the 30th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Regular network transmission of stereo audio began on NBC in 1984.


Common usage

In common usage, a "stereo" is a two-channel sound reproduction system, and a "stereo recording" is a two-channel recording. This is a cause for much confusion, since five (or more) channel home theater systems are not popularly described as "stereo". It is worth noting that most film soundtracks are not recorded using stereo techniques, so while capable of stereo playback, most home theater systems rarely do. Home cinema, also called Home theater, seeks to reproduce cinema quality video and audio in the home. ...


Most two-channel recordings are stereo recordings only in this weaker sense. Pop music, in particular, is usually recorded using close miking techniques, which artificially separates signals into several tracks. The separate tracks are then mixed into a two-channel recording which often bears little or no resemblance to the actual physical and spatial relationship of the musicians at the time of the original performance. Indeed, it is not uncommon for different tracks of the same song to be recorded at different times, and even in different studios, and then mixed into a final two-channel recording for commercial release. Classical music recordings are a notable exception. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... A microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike or mic (both IPA pronunciation: ), is an acoustic to electric transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... Classical music is a broad, somewhat imprecise term, referring to music produced in, or rooted in the traditions of, European art, ecclesiastical and concert music, encompassing a broad period from roughly 1000 to the present day. ...


Balance

Balance can mean the amount of signal from each channel reproduced in a stereo audio recording. Typically, a balance control will have 0 dB of gain in the center position for both channels, and attenuate one channel as the control is turned, leaving the other channel at 0 dB.[1] Methods and media for sound recording are varied and have undergone significant changes between the first time sound was actually recorded for later playback until now. ... The decibel (dB) is a measure of the ratio between two quantities, and is used in a wide variety of measurements in acoustics, physics and electronics. ...


See also Panning#Audio recording Panning, a horizontal motion in an image display or capture. ...


Other uses of the word

The phrase "rechanneled stereo" refers to the artificial rechanneling of mono recordings to simulate stereo that was common in the 1950s-1960s. Because of this usage, "stereo" or "in stereo" is sometimes used colloquially for when two, as distinct from one, of something are present.


See also

A microphone, sometimes referred to as a mike or mic (both IPA pronunciation: ), is an acoustic to electric transducer that converts sound into an electrical signal. ... Surround sound is the concept of expanding the spatial imaging of audio playback from one dimension (mono/Left-Right) to two or three dimensions. ... Cross-section of a subwoofer drive unit. ... 4 channels quadraphonic label Quadraphonic sound uses four channels in which speakers are positioned at all four corners of the listening space, reproducing signals that are independent of each other. ... Dummy head being used for binaural recording; the second microphone is obscured. ... High Fidelity is also the title of a book by Nick Hornby and a film directed by Stephen Frears, based upon Hornbys book. ... In audio engineering, joint refers to a joining of several channels of similar information in some way, in order to obtain, for example, higher quality or smaller file size. ... Stereographic projection of a circle of radius R onto the x axis. ... Stereoscopy, stereoscopic imaging or 3-D (three-dimensional) imaging is a technique to create the illusion of depth in a photograph, movie, or other two-dimensional image, by presenting a slightly different image to each eye. ...

References

  1. ^ "Court Circular," The Times (London), Nov. 6, 1895, p. 7. "Post Office Electrical Engineers. The Electrophone Service," The Times (London), Jan. 15, 1913, p. 24. "Wired Wireless," The Times (London), June 22, 1925, p. 8.
  2. ^ B.B. Bauer, "Some Techniques Toward Better Stereophonic Perspective," IEEE Transactions on Audio, May-June, 1963, p. 89.
  3. ^ "Sound Waves 'Rock' Carnegie Hall As 'Enhanced Music' Is Played," The New York Times, April 10, 1940, p. 25.
  4. ^ "New Sound Effects Achieved in Film," The New York Times, Oct. 12, 1937, p. 27.
  5. ^ W-G-N and WGNB to Unveil New 'Visual' Sound," The Chicago Tribune, May 19, 1952, p. B-6.
  6. ^ "News of TV and Radio," The New York Times, Oct. 26, 1952, p. X-11. "Binaural Devices," The New York Times, March 21, 1954, p. XX-9.
  7. ^ "Conversion to Stereo Broadcasts on FM is Approved by F.C.C.," The New York Times, April 20, 1961, p. 67.
  8. ^ "Stereophonic FM Broadcast Begun by WEFM," The Chicago Tribune, June 2, 1961, p. B-10.
  9. ^ "Theater to Have Special Sound System for TV," Los Angeles Times, Dec. 5, 1952, p. B-8.
  10. ^ "A Television First! Welk Goes Stereophonic" (advertisement), Los Angeles Times, Sept. 10, 1958, p. A-7.

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stereophonic sound - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3711 words)
Stereophonic sound, commonly called stereo, is the reproduction of sound, using more than one independent audio channels, through a symmetrical configuration of loudspeakers, in such a way as to create a pleasant and natural impression of sound heard from various directions as in natural hearing.
It is often opposed to monophonic sound, where audio is in the form of one channel, often centered in the sound field.
Bell Laboratories gave a demonstration of three-channel stereophonic sound on April 27, 1933 with a live transmission of the Philadelphia Orchestra from Philadelphia to Constitution Hall in Washington, D.C. Leopold Stokowski, normally the orchestra's conductor, was present in Constitution Hall to control the sound mix.
Stereophonic television sound transmission system - Patent 4048654 (12229 words)
A stereophonic sound transmission system as defined in claim 1 wherein said video source signal has a predetermined horizontal scanning frequency, the frequency of said pilot component is 5/4 said horizontal scanning frequency, and the frequency of said subcarrier is twice the frequency of said pilot component.
A stereophonic sound transmission system as defined in claim 13 which further includes a pair of additional pre-emphasis networks between said left and right sources and said multiplex generator, and wherein said demodulator means include a pair of additional complementary de-emphasis networks for the left and right audio source signals developed therein.
The method of transmitting stereophonic sound as defined in claim 28 wherein said video source signal has a predetermined horizontal scanning frequency, the frequency of said pilot component is 5/4 said horizontal scanning frequency, and the frequency of said subcarrier is twice the frequency of said pilot component.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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