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Encyclopedia > Stereochemistry
The different types of isomers. Stereochemistry focuses on stereoisomers
The different types of isomers. Stereochemistry focuses on stereoisomers

Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules. An important branch of stereochemistry is the study of chiral molecules. Image File history File links Isomerism. ... Image File history File links Isomerism. ... In chemistry, isomers are molecules with the same chemical formula and often with the same kinds of bonds between atoms, but in which the atoms are arranged differently. ... Stereoisomerism is the arrangement of atoms in molecules whose connectivity remains the same but their arrangement in space is different in each isomer. ... Chemistry (derived from alchemy) is the science of matter at or near the atomic scale. ... Properties In chemistry and physics, an atom (Greek άτομον meaning indivisible) is the smallest possible particle of a chemical element that retains its chemical properties. ... In chemistry, a molecule is an aggregate of at least two atoms in a definite arrangement held together by special forces. ... The term chiral (pronounced ki-rall) is used to describe an object which is non-superimposable on its mirror image. ...


Stereochemistry is a hugely important facet of chemistry and the study of stereochemical problems spans the entire range of this subject: organic, inorganic, biological, physical and supramolecular chemistry. Organic chemistry is the part of chemistry concerned with the composition, structure, properties, reactions and synthesis of organic compounds. ... Inorganic chemistry is the branch of chemistry concerned with the properties and reactions of inorganic compounds. ... Biochemistry is the study of the chemistry of life, a bridge between biology and chemistry that studies how complex chemical reactions give rise to life. ... Physical Chemistry is the combined science of physics, chemistry, thermodynamics, and quantum mechanics which functions to provide molecular-level interpretations of observed macroscopic phenomena. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


Stereochemistry includes methods for determining and describing these relationships; the effect on the physical or biological properties these relationships impart upon the molecules in question, and the manner in which these relationships influence the reactivity of the molecules in question (dynamic stereochemistry). Physics (from the Greek, φυσικός (physikos), natural, and φύσις (physis), nature) is the science of the natural world, which deals with the fundamental constituents of the universe, the forces they exert on one another, and the results of these forces. ... Biology is the branch of science dealing with the study of life. ... In chemistry, dynamic stereochemistry studies the effect of stereochemistry on the reaction rate of a chemical reaction. ...


Louis Pasteur could rightly be described as the first stereochemist, having observed in 1849 that salts of tartaric acid collected from wine production vessels could rotate plane polarized light, but that salts from other sources did not. This property, the only physical property in which the two types of tartrate salts differed, is due to optical isomerism. In 1874, Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff and Joseph Le Bel explained optical activity in terms of the tetrahedral arrangement of the atoms bound to carbon. Louis Pasteur (December 27, 1822 – September 28, 1895) was a French microbiologist and chemist. ... 1849 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... A magnified crystal of a salt (halite/sodium chloride) In chemistry, a salt is any ionic compound composed of positively charged cations and negatively charged anions so that the product is neutral and without a net charge. ... Tartaric acid or H2C4H4O6 is a white crystalline organic acid. ... Wine is an alcoholic beverage produced by the fermentation of fruit, typically grapes though a number of other fruits are also quite popular - such as plum, elderberry and blackcurrant. ... This article treats polarization in electrodynamics. ... Optical isomerism is a form of isomerism (specifically stereoisomerism) where the two different isomers are the same in every way except being non-superposable mirror images of each other. ... 1874 (MDCCCLXXIV) was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... Jacobus Henricus van t Hoff (August 30, 1852 - March 1, 1911) was a Dutch physical and organic chemist and the winner of the inaugural Nobel Prize in chemistry. ... Joseph Le Bel (1847–1930) was a stereochemist known for his work on the three-dimensional structure of tetrahedral carbon structures. ...


One of the most infamous demonstrations of the significance of stereochemistry is the thalidomide disaster. Thalidomide was a drug, first prepared in 1957 in Germany and prescribed for treating morning sickness in pregnant women. The drug however was discovered to cause deformation in babies. The disaster helped introduce strict drug testing and it was discovered that one optical isomer of the drug was safe while the other had teratogenic effects, causing serious genetic damage to early embryonic growth and development. In the human body, thalidomide undergoes racemization: even if only one of the two stereoisomers is ingested, the other one is produced. It has been suggested that Neurosedyn be merged into this article or section. ... Oral medication A medication is a licenced drug taken to cure or reduce symptoms of an illness or medical condition. ... 1957 (MCMLVII) was a common year starting on Tuesday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Pregnancy is the carrying of one or more embryos or fetuses by female mammals, including humans, inside their bodies. ... The term baby can refer to: an infant a very early computer—the Small-Scale Experimental Machine, nicknamed Baby a musician – Brian Williams – who performs under the name Baby. ... Teratogenesis is a medical term from the Greek, literally meaning monster-making, which derives from teratology, the study of the frequency, causation, and development of congenital malformations — misleadingly called birth defects. ... Genetics (from the Greek genno γεννώ= give birth) is the science of genes, heredity, and the variation of organisms. ... Embryos (and one tadpole) of the wrinkled frog (Rana rugosa). ... In chemistry racemization refers to partial conversion of one enantiomer into another. ...


Cahn-Ingold-Prelog priority rules are part of a system for describing a molecule's stereochemistry. They rank the atoms around a stereocenter in a standard way, allowing the relative position of these atoms in the molecule to be described unambiguously. For compounds found in organic chemistry, the Cahn Ingold Prelog priority rules are used to determine the orientation of a molecule for purposes of assigning stereochemistry at a stereocenter and for assigning the name of isomers of molecules possessing double bonds such as alkenes. ...


A Fischer projection is a simplified way to depict the stereochemistry around a stereo center. Fischer projection of D-glucose In chemistry (particularly organic chemistry and biochemistry), a Fischer projection is a two-dimensional representation of a three-dimensional organic molecule by projection. ...


See also

In chemistry, dynamic stereochemistry studies the effect of stereochemistry on the reaction rate of a chemical reaction. ...

External links

  • Information on Thalidomide
  • Polarized photomicrographs of crystalline chemicals with descriptions and uses, including tartaric acid
Topics in Organic Chemistry

Aromaticity | Covalent Bonding | Functional Groups | Nomenclature | Organic Compounds | Organic Reactions | Organic Synthesis | Publications | Spectroscopy |Stereochemistry Organic chemistry is the part of chemistry concerned with the composition, structure, properties, reactions and synthesis of organic compounds. ... Aromaticity is a chemical property in which a conjugated ring of unsaturated bonds, lone pairs, or empty orbitals exhibit a stabilization stronger than would be expected by the stabilization of conjugation alone. ... Covalently bonded hydrogen and carbon in a molecule of methane. ... In organic chemistry functional groups are specific groups of atoms within molecules, that are responsible for the characteristic chemical reactions of those molecules. ... The IUPAC nomenclature of organic chemistry is a systematic way of naming organic chemical compounds as recommended by the International Union of Pure and Applied Chemistry (IUPAC). ... Benzene An organic compound is any member of a large class of chemical compounds whose molecules contain carbon, with the exception of carbides, carbonates, carbon oxides and elementary carbon. ... Organic reactions are chemical reactions between organic compounds. ... Organic synthesis is the construction of organic molecules via chemical processes. ... This is a list of important publications in chemistry, organized by field. ... Extremely high resolution spectrum of the Sun showing thousands of elemental absorption lines (fraunhofer lines) Spectroscopy is the study of spectra, that is, the dependence of physical quantities on frequency. ...

List of organic compounds

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stereochemistry - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (384 words)
Stereochemistry, a subdiscipline of chemistry, involves the study of the relative spatial arrangement of atoms within molecules.
Stereochemistry is a hugely important facet of chemistry and the study of stereochemical problems spans the entire range of this subject: organic, inorganic, biological, physical and supramolecular chemistry.
Stereochemistry includes methods for determining and describing these relationships; the effect on the physical or biological properties these relationships impart upon the molecules in question, and the manner in which these relationships influence the reactivity of the molecules in question (dynamic stereochemistry).
Stereochemistry - definition of Stereochemistry in Encyclopedia (456 words)
It includes methods for determining and describing these relationships; the effect on the physical or biological properties these relationships impart upon the molecules in question, and the manner in which these relationships influence the reactivity of the molecules in question.
The disaster helped introduce strict drug testing and it was discovered that one optical isomer of the drug was safe while the other had teratogenic effects, causing serious genetic damage to early embryonic growth and development.
On the left is a Fischer projection, on the right a more general 3-D "wedge" structural diagram.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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