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Encyclopedia > Stephen Langton
Stephen Langton

Archbishop of Canterbury

Birth name Stephen Langton
Enthroned June 17, 1207
Ended July 9, 1228
Predecessor John de Gray
Successor Walter d'Eynsham
Died July 9, 1228

Stephen Langton (c. 1150July 9, 1228) was Archbishop of Canterbury between 1207 and his death in 1228 and was a central figure in the dispute between King John of England and Pope Innocent III, which ultimately led to the issuing of Magna Carta in 1215. John de Gray (d. ... Categories: | ... Events Åhus, Sweden gains city privileges City of Airdrie, Scotland founded King Sverker I of Sweden is deposed and succeeded by Eric IX of Sweden. ... is the 190th day of the year (191st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events The Sixth Crusade is launched by Frederick II, Holy Roman Emperor, after delays due to sickness and an excommunication from Pope Gregory IX. Conrad IV of Germany becomes titular King of Jerusalem, with Frederick II as regent. ... The Archbishop of Canterbury is the spiritual leader and senior clergyman of the Church of England, recognized by convention as the head of the worldwide Anglican Communion. ... This article is about the King of England. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ...

Contents

Life

Early life and career

He was born in England (probably in Lincolnshire). For other uses, see England (disambiguation). ... Lincolnshire (abbreviated Lincs) is a county in the east of England. ...


He studied at the University of Paris and lectured there on theology until 1206, when Pope Innocent III, with whom he had formed a friendship at Paris, called him to Rome and made him cardinal-priest of San Crisogono. His piety and learning had already won him prebends at Paris and York and he was recognized as the foremost English churchman. The Sorbonne, Paris, in a 17th century engraving The historic University of Paris (French: ) first appeared in the second half of the 12th century, but was in 1970 reorganised as 13 autonomous universities (University of Paris I–XIII). ... Theology finds its scholars pursuing the understanding of and providing reasoned discourse of religion, spirituality and God or the gods. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... Nickname: Motto: SPQR: Senatus Populusque Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Government  - Mayor Walter Veltroni Area  - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi)  - Urban 5... Façade of the basilica San Crisogono is a church in Rome (rione Trastevere) dedicated to the martyr Saint Chrysogonus. ... A prebendary is a post connected to a cathedral or collegiate church and is a type of canon. ... York shown within England Coordinates: , Sovereign state Constituent country Region Yorkshire and the Humber Ceremonial county North Yorkshire Admin HQ York City Centre Founded 71 City Status 71 Government  - Type Unitary Authority, City  - Governing body City of York Council  - Leadership: Leader & Executive  - Executive: Liberal Democrat  - MPs: Hugh Bayley (L) John...


He died at Slindon (fifty miles southwest of London), Sussex, on July 9, 1228. A small village nestled in woodlands in West Sussex. ... This article is about the capital of England and the United Kingdom. ... Sussex is a historic county in South East England corresponding roughly in area to the ancient Kingdom of Sussex. ...


Archbishopric

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On the death of Hubert Walter, Archbishop of Canterbury until (1205), some of the younger monks elected to the see Reginald, the subprior, while another faction under pressure from King John chose John de Grey, Bishop of Norwich. Both elections were quashed on appeal to Rome and sixteen monks of Christ Church, who had gone to Rome empowered to act for the whole chapter, were ordered to proceed to a new election in presence of the Pope. Langton was chosen and was consecrated by the Pope at Viterbo June 17, 1207. Image File history File links Unbalanced_scales. ... Shortcut: WP:NPOVD Articles that have been linked to this page are the subject of an NPOV dispute (NPOV stands for Neutral Point Of View; see below). ... Hubert Walter (died July 13, 1205), chief justiciar of England and archbishop of Canterbury, was a relative of Ranulf de Glanvill, the great justiciar of Henry II, and rose under the eye of his kinsman to an important position in the Curia Regis. ... A see (from the Latin word sedem, meaning seat) is the throne (cathedra) of a bishop. ... John of England depicted in Cassells History of England (1902) John (French: Jean) (December 24, 1166/67–October 18/19, 1216) reigned as King of England from 1199 to 1216. ... John de Gray (d. ... Arms of the Bishop of Norwich The Bishop of Norwich is the Ordinary of the Church of England Diocese of Norwich in the Province of Canterbury. ... Country Italy Region Lazio Province Viterbo (VT) Mayor Giampiero Gabbianelli Elevation 326 m Area 406,28 km² Population  - Total 60,537  - Density 148. ... is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Stephen Langton consecrated Archbishop of Canterbury June 17 by Pope Innocent III Births September 8 - King Sancho II of Portugal October 1 - King Henry III of England (d. ...


There followed a struggle between John of England and Pope Innocent III which brought tumultuos times to England. The King proclaimed that anyone who recognized Stephen as Archbishop should be treated as a public enemy, and expelled the Canterbury monks (July 15, 1207), who were now unanimous in support of Stephen. In March, 1208, Pope Innocent III placed England under the interdict and at the close of 1212, after repeated negotiations had failed, he passed sentence of deposition against John, committing the execution of the sentence to Philip II of France in January, 1213. This article is about the King of England. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... is the 196th day of the year (197th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Pope Innocent III (c. ... The word interdict usually refers to an ecclesiastical penalty in the Roman Catholic Church. ... Philip II Augustus (French: Philippe II Auguste) (August 21, 1165 – July 14, 1223), was King of France from 1180 to 1223. ...


In May 1213 King John yielded and in July Stephen (who since his consecration had lived at Pontigny Abbey in Burgundy) and his fellow exiles returned to England. His first episcopal act was to absolve the King, who swore that unjust laws should be repealed and the liberties granted by Henry I should be observed — an oath which he almost immediately violated. Choir of the abbey church of Pontigny Ground plan of the abbey church of Pontigny Pontigny Abbey, founded in 1114 as the second of the four great daughter houses of Cîteaux Abbey, was situated on the River Serein, in the present diocese of Sens and département of Yonne... Coat of arms of the second Duchy of Burgundy and later of the French province of Burgundy Burgundy (French: ; German: ) is a historic region of France, inhabited in turn by Celts (Gauls), Romans (Gallo-Romans), and various Germanic peoples, most importantly the Burgundians and the Franks; the former gave their... Henry I (circa 1068 – 1 December 1135) was the fourth son of William the Conqueror and the first born in England after the Norman Conquest of 1066. ...


Stephen now became a leader in the struggle against King John and none of the Barons did more than he to rescue England from John's tyranny. At a council of churchmen at Westminster, August 25, 1213, to which certain lay Barons were invited, he read the text of the charter of Henry I and suggested a demand for its renewal. In the sequel, largely through Stephen's efforts, King John was forced to grant the Magna Carta (June 15, 1215). Westminster is a district within the City of Westminster in London. ... is the 237th day of the year (238th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... May 30 - Battle of Damme; English fleet under William Longsword destroyes a French fleet off the Belgian port in the first major victory for the fledgling Royal Navy. ... Magna Carta Magna Carta (Latin for Great Charter, literally Great Paper), also called Magna Carta Libertatum (Great Charter of Freedoms), is an English charter originally issued in 1215. ... is the 166th day of the year (167th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... A certified copy of the Magna Carta March 4 - King John of England makes an oath to the Pope as a crusader to gain the support of Innocent III. June 15 - King John of England was forced to put his seal on the Magna Carta, outlining the rights of landowning...


Since King John now held his kingdom as a fief of the Holy See the Pope espoused his cause and excommunicated the Barons. For refusing to publish the excommunication Stephen was suspended from all ecclesiastical functions by the papal commissioners and on November 4 this sentence was confirmed by the Pope, although Stephen appealed to him in person. He was released from suspension the following spring on condition that he keep out of England till peace was restored and he remained abroad till May 1218. Meanwhile both Pope Innocent and King John died and all parties in England rallied to the support of Henry III. is the 308th day of the year (309th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Henry III (1 October 1207 – 16 November 1272) was crowned King of England in 1216, despite being less than ten years of age. ...


Stephen Langton continued his work unremittingly and effectively for the political and ecclesiastical independence of England. In 1223 he again appeared as the leader and spokesman of the Barons, who demanded of King Henry III the confirmation of the charter. He went to France to demand for King Henry from Louis VIII of France the restoration of Normandy, and later he supported the King against rebellious Barons. He obtained a promise from the new Pope Honorius III, that during his lifetime no resident legate should be again sent to England, and won other concessions from the same pontiff favorable to the English Church and exalting his see of Canterbury. Rulers with the title Henry III include: Henry III of Champagne Henry III of England Henry III of France Henry III of Germany (later Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor) Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor Henry III of Navarre (later Henry IV of France) Henry III, Duke of Saxony (Henry the... Louis VIII the Lion (5 September 1187 – 8 November 1226) reigned as King of France from 1223 to 1226. ... Flag of Normandy Normandy (in French: Normandie, and in Norman: Normaundie) is a geographical region in northern France. ... Honorius III, né Cencio Savelli (Rome, 1148 – March 18, 1227 in Rome), was Pope from 1216 to 1227. ...


Of great importance in the ecclesiastical history of England was a council which Stephen opened at Osney April 17, 1222; its decrees, known as the Constitutions of Stephen Langton, are the earliest provincial canons which are still recognized as binding in English church courts. Osney, Osney Island, or Osney Town is a riverside community in the west of the city of Oxford, located off the Botley Road, just west of the citys main railway station. ... is the 107th day of the year (108th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Centuries: 12th century - 13th century - 14th century Decades: 1170s 1180s 1190s 1200s 1210s - 1220s - 1230s 1240s 1250s 1260s 1270s Years: 1217 1218 1219 1220 1221 1222 1223 1224 1225 1226 1227 See also: 1222 state leaders Events Foundation of the University of Padua Completion of the Cistercian convent in Alcobaca...


Death

On his death he was buried in open ground beside the south transept of Canterbury Cathedral. St Michael's Chapel was later built over this ground (now the Buffs Regimental Chapel), and the head of his tomb projects into the east end of this chapel, under its altar, with his feet outside it. Canterbury Cathedral is one of the oldest and most famous Christian structures in England and forms part of a World Heritage Site. ... The Buffs (Royal East Kent Regiment) had a history dating back to 1572 and was one of the oldest regiments in the British Army being the 3rd Regiment of Foot. ...


Works

Stephen was a voluminous writer. Glosses, commentaries, expositions, and treatises by him on almost all the books of the Old Testament, and many sermons, are preserved in manuscript at Lambeth Palace, at Oxford and Cambridge, and in France. The canonical list of the Books of the Bible differs among Jews, and Catholic, Protestant, and Eastern Orthodox Christians, even though there is a great deal of overlap. ... Note: Judaism commonly uses the term Tanakh to refer to its canon, which corresponds to the Protestant Old Testament. ... Lambeth Palaces gatehouse. ... The University of Oxford, located in the city of Oxford in England, is the oldest university in the English-speaking world. ... The University of Cambridge is the second-oldest university in the English-speaking world, with one of the most selective sets of entry requirements in the United Kingdom. ...


According to F.J.E. Raby, "There is little reason to doubt that Stephen Langton...was the author" of the famous sequence Veni Sancte Spiritus.[1] Veni Sancte Spiritus, sometimes called the Golden Sequence, is a sequence prescribed for the Roman Catholic Mass of Pentecost. ...


The only other of his works which has been printed, besides a few letters (in The Historical Works of Gervase of Canterbury, ed. W. Stubbs, ii. London, 1880, Rolls Series, no. 71, appendix to preface) is a Tractatus de translatione Beati Thomae (in J.A. Giles's Thomas of Canterbury, Oxford, 1845), which is probably an expansion of a sermon he preached in 1220, on occasion of the translation of the relics of St. Thomas Becket; the ceremony was the most splendid which had ever been seen in England. He also wrote a life of Richard I, and other historical works and poems are attributed to him. Gervase of Canterbury (Gervas us Dorobornensis) was an English chronicler. ... William Stubbs (June 21, 1825 - April 22, 1901) was an English historian and Bishop of Oxford. ... The Rolls Series, official title The Chronicles and Memorials of Great Britain and Ireland during the Middle Ages, is a major collection of Britich and Irish historical materials and primary sources, published in the second half of the nineteenth century. ... St Thomas Becket, St Thomas of Canterbury (c. ... Richard I (8 September 1157 – 6 April 1199) was King of England from 6 July 1189 to 6 April 1199. ...


Chapters of the Bible

He is believed to be the first person to divide the Bible into defined chapters. While Cardinal Hugo de Sancto Caro is also known to come up with a systematic division of the Bible (between 1244 and 1248), it is Langton's arrangement of books and chapters that remains in use today. This Gutenberg Bible is displayed by the United States Library. ... Hugh of St Cher (c. ...


Notes

  1. ^ The Oxford Book of Medieval Latin Verse, Oxford, 1959, p. 496.
Religious titles
Preceded by
John de Gray
Archbishop of Canterbury
12071228
Succeeded by
Walter d'Eynsham
Persondata
NAME Stephen Langton
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION Archbishop of Canterbury
DATE OF BIRTH
PLACE OF BIRTH
DATE OF DEATH July 9, 1228
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stephen Langton - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (878 words)
Langton was chosen and was consecrated by the pope at Viterbo June 17, 1207.
For refusing to publish the excommunication Stephen was suspended from all ecclesiastical functions by the papal commissioners and on November 4 this sentence was confirmed by the pope, although Stephen appealed to him in person.
Of great importance in the ecclesiastical history of England was a council which Stephen opened at Osney April 17, 1222; its decrees, known as the Constitutions of Stephen Langton, are the earliest provincial canons which are still recognized as binding in English church courts.
Stephen Langton - definition of Stephen Langton in Encyclopedia (844 words)
Stephen Langton (c 1150-1228) was an Archbishop of Canterbury and is believed to be the first person to divide the Bible into defined chapters.
The king proclaimed that any one who recognized Stephen as archbishop should be treated as a public enemy, and expelled the Canterbury monks (July 15, 1207), who were now unanimous in support of Stephen.
His first episcopal act was to absolve the king, who swore that unjust laws should be repealed and the liberties granted by Henry I should be observed-- an oath which he almost immediately violated.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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