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Encyclopedia > Stephen W. Kearny
Portrait of Stephen W. Kearny
Portrait of Stephen W. Kearny

Stephen Watts Kearny (August 30, 1794October 31, 1848) was a United States Army officer, noted for action in the southwest during the Mexican-American War, in particular in the conquest of California. He was renowned in his lifetime as the "Father of the U.S. Cavalry". The Kearny code, which sought to govern government behavior towards Californios, was named after him. Kearny is pronounced "Kar-ney" (IPA pronunciation: [ˈkɑɹni]) and not "Ker-ney." Image File history File links Stephen_W._Kearny. ... Image File history File links Stephen_W._Kearny. ... August 30 is the 242nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (243rd in leap years), with 123 days remaining. ... 1794 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... October 31 is the 304th day of the year (305th in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 61 days remaining. ... 1848 is a leap year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The United States Army is the largest branch of the United States armed forces and has primary responsibility for land-based military operations. ... Combatants United States Mexico Commanders Zachary Taylor Winfield Scott Stephen W. Kearney Antonio López de Santa Anna Mariano Arista Pedro de Ampudia Strength 7,000 - 43,000 18,000 - 40,000 Casualties KIA: 1,733 Total dead: 13,283 Wounded: 4,152 25,000 killed or wounded (Mexican government... This article is becoming very long. ... The Kearny code is a code named after Stephen W. Kearny. ... A Californio was a Spanish-speaking inhabitant of Alta California who lived there when it was a part of Mexico, before it was taken by the United States after the Mexican-American War. ...

Contents

Biography

Early years

Kearny was born in Newark, New Jersey. His family had come from Ireland, where they had been named "O'Kearny". Kearny attended public schools and began studies at Columbia in 1811, leaving school after two years at the outbreak of the War of 1812 to join the Army. During the war he was cited for bravery and promoted to Captain. He was made a prisoner of war, briefly, after the Battle of Queenston Heights. Nickname: The Brick City Map of Newark in Essex County Coordinates: ) °′40. ... Combatants United States Native Americans United Kingdom Canadian colonial forces Native Americans Native Canadians Commanders James Madison Winfield Scott Andrew Jackson Isaac Brock George Prevost Tecumseh† Strength •U.S. Regular Army: 35,800 •Rangers: 3,049 •Militia: 458,463* •US Navy & US Marines: (at start of war): •Frigates:3 •Other... Combatants Britain United States Commanders Isaac Brock † Roger Sheaffe Stephen Van Rensselaer Strength 1,300 regulars, militia, and natives 6,000 regulars and militia Casualties 14 dead 77 wounded 100 dead 300 wounded 925 captured The Battle of Queenston Heights was a British victory of the War of 1812 which...


The western frontier

Immediately following the war he was assigned to the western frontier under the command of Gen. Henry Atkinson, In 1819, he was a member of the Atkinson expedition to explore the Yellowstone River in present-day Montana and Wyoming. The 1819 expedition reached only as far as present-day Nebraska, where it founded Cantonment Missouri (later Fort Atkinson). He was also on a follow-up expedition in 1825 that reached the mouth of the Yellowstone. During his travels with the Army, he kept extensive journals of the route, and of his interactions with Native Americans. Henry Atkinson (1782 - 1842) was a U.S. army officer. ... 1819 common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Yellowstone River, shown highlighted The Yellowstone River is a tributary of the Missouri, approximately 671 mi (1,080 km long), in the western United States. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Official language(s) English Capital Lincoln Largest city Omaha Area  Ranked 16th  - Total 77,421 sq mi (200,520 km²)  - Width 210 miles (340 km)  - Length 430 miles (690 km)  - % water 0. ... Fort Atkinson was the first United States Army post estabished west of the Missouri River in the United States. ... 1825 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... An Aani (Atsina) named Assiniboin Boy. ...


In 1826, he was appointed as the first commander of the new Jefferson Barracks in Missouri. While stationed at the barracks, he was often invited to nearby Missouri as a guest of William Clark of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. It was there that he met Clark's stepdaughter, whom he later married. They eventually had eleven children, although not all survived to adulthood. The oldest surviving photograph, Nicéphore Niépce, circa 1826 1826 (MDCCCXXVI) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Jefferson Barracks Military Post was open in 1826 to replace Fort Bellefontaine 1806-1826. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... Nickname: Gateway City, Gateway to the West, or Mound City Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: Country United States State Missouri County Independent City Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area    - City 66. ... William Clark (August 1, 1770 - September 1, 1838) was a Scottish-American explorer who accompanied Meriwether Lewis on the Lewis and Clark Expedition. ... Lewis and Clark The Lewis and Clark expedition (1804–1806) was the first United States overland expedition to the Pacific coast and back, led by Captain Meriwether Lewis and Second Lieutenant William Clark, of the US Army. ...


While at the barracks, he organized a unit of dragoons along the lines of a cavalry outfit. It is from this first unit that the U.S. Cavalry eventually grew, earning him his nickname. The unit was stationed at Fort Leavenworth in present-day Kansas, and Kearny was promoted to the rank of Colonel. He was also appointed commander of the Army's Third Military Department, charged with protecting the frontier and preserving peace among the various tribes of Native Americans on the Great Plains. By the early 1840s, when emigrants began traveling along the Oregon Trail through his command area, he often ordered his men to escort emigrants on the trail across the plains so they could avoid attacks from Native Americans. The practice of military escort of wagon trains would grow into official government policy in the following decades. As part of the effort to protect emigrants, Kearny established a new post along Table Creek near present-day Nebraska City, Nebraska, at a spot Kearny had explored on his earlier Yellowstone expeditions. The outpost acquired the name "Fort Kearny". The Army realized the spot was not well-chosen, however, and the outpost was moved to the present location of Fort Kearny along the Platte River in central Nebraska. A light dragoon from the American Revolution A dragoon is a soldier trained to fight on foot, but transport himself on horseback. ... In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... The Great Plains is the broad expanse of prairie which lies east of the Rocky Mountains in the United States and Canada. ... // Events and Trends Technology First use of general anesthesia in an operation, by Crawford Long The first electrical telegraph sent by Samuel Morse on May 24, 1844 from Baltimore to Washington, D.C.. War, peace and politics First signing of the Treaty of Waitangi (Te Tiriti o Waitangi) on February... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... Nebraska City is a city located in Otoe County, Nebraska. ... Fort Kearny was a historic outpost of the United States Army founded in 1848 in the western U.S. during the middle and late 19th century. ... The Platte River, showing the North Platte and South Platte The Platte River is a tributary of the Missouri River, approximately 310 mi. ...


Mexican-American War

At the outset of the Mexican-American War, Kearny proceeded to Santa Fe, New Mexico at the head of a force of 1,700, taking control of the area and becoming its military governor on August 18, 1846. He ensured that a civilian government was in place there by the end of one month. Flag Seal Nickname: The City Different Location Location in the State of New Mexico Coordinates , Government Country State County United States New Mexico Santa Fe Founded 1607 Mayor David Coss Geographical characteristics Area     City 96. ... August 18 is the 230th day of the year (231st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1846 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


With his mission in Santa Fe complete, Kearny set out for California on September 25 with a much smaller unit (about 300 men). This group, after having suffered significant attrition during the march, were fought to a standstill at the Battle of San Pasqual. The surviving force was able to unite with naval forces based in San Diego, under the command of Commodore Robert F. Stockton. This combined force consolidated control of San Diego in December, and in January of 1847 and won the battles of San Gabriel and La Mesa taking control of Los Angeles. This article is becoming very long. ... September 25 is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Battle of San Pascual was a military encounter that occurred during the Mexican_American War in what is now San Diego County, California, on the 6 and 7 December 1846. ... USN redirects here. ... It has been suggested that Downtown San Diego be merged into this article or section. ... Commodore Robert Field Stockton Robert Field Stockton (20 August 1795–7 October 1866) was a United States naval officer, notable in the capture of California during the Mexican-American War. ... Combatants United States of America Mexico Californeros Commanders Robert F. Stockton Stephen Watts Kearny José Mariá Flores Strength U.S. naval and army forces 600 sailors, marines and dragoons Californios sympathic to Mexico 300 dragoons 200 soldiers Casualties 143 80 The Battle of Rio San Gabriel was a part of... The Battle of La Mesa occurred on January 9, 1847 in present-day Vernon, in which the outgunned and outnumbered Californios (The Americans having rifles, the Californios fighting on horseback with only lances)almost gained the advantage, but they fell back and camped at present-day Pasadena, giving up Los... Nickname: City of Angels Location within Los Angeles County in the state of California Coordinates: State California County Los Angeles County Mayor Antonio Villaraigosa Area    - City 1,290. ...


Kearny, as ranking Army officer, asserted the right to be in command of the area at the end of hostilities, beginning a rivalry with Stockton. When Mexican forces in the area capitulated on January 13, however, they did so to neither Stockton nor Kearny, but rather to Stockton's aide, Lt. Col. John C. Frémont. Stockton seized upon this and appointed Frémont military governor of the area. Kearny appealed to Washington, and upon receiving confirmation of his authority took command, having Frémont relieved and arrested (he was later convicted at court-martial, but was quickly pardoned by the President). January 13 is the 13th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... John C. Frémont John Charles Frémont (January 21, 1813 – July 13, 1890), born John Charles Fremon, was an American military officer, explorer, the first candidate of the Republican Party for the office of President of the United States, and the first Presidential candidate of a major party to... Nickname: DC, The District Motto: Justitia Omnibus (Justice for All) Location of Washington, D.C. in relation to the states Maryland and Virginia. ... A court-martial (plural courts-martial) is a military court that determines punishments for members of the military subject to military law. ...


Governorship and last years

Kearny remained military governor of California through August, at which point he returned east to Fort Leavenworth, Kansas and later proceeded to Mexico, where he was appointed governor of Veracruz and later of Mexico City. He was promoted to major general In September 1848, over the heated opposition of Senator Thomas Hart Benton (Frémont's father-in-law), but died in St. Louis, Missouri the following month as a result of a tropical disease he had contracted while in Veracruz. In 1827, Colonel Henry Leavenworth established a post on the bluffs overlooking the western bank of the Missouri River to protect the fur trade, safeguard commerce on the Santa Fe Trail and maintain the peace among the inhabitants. ... Veracruz is the name of a city and a state in Mexico. ... Mexico City (Spanish: Ciudad de México, México D.F. or simply México, pronounced IPA: ) is the capital city of the nation of Mexico. ... Insignia of a United States Air Force Major General German Generalmajor Insignia Major General is a military rank used in many countries. ... Thomas Hart Benton (March 14, 1782–April 10, 1858), nicknamed Old Bullion, was an American Senator from Missouri and a staunch advocate of westward expansion of the United States. ... Nickname: Gateway City, Gateway to the West, or Mound City Location in the state of Missouri Coordinates: Country United States State Missouri County Independent City Mayor Francis G. Slay (D) Area    - City 66. ...


Legacy

Kearny is the namesake of Kearney, Nebraska (with an extra "e"). Some schools named after S. W. Kearny are, Kearny Elementary in Santa Fe, New Mexico, Kearny High School in Kearny Mesa, San Diego, California, and Kearny Street, a major street in downtown San Francisco is also named for him. Parade of U.S. Infantry through Kearney, Nebraska, 1888. ... Kearny Street in San Francisco, California runs from Market Street on the south to The Embarcadero on the north. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ...


External link

  • General Stephen Watts Kearny
Preceded by:
John C. Frémont
Military Governor of California
1847
Succeeded by:
Richard Barnes Mason

 
 

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