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Encyclopedia > Stephen Jay Gould
Stephen Jay Gould

Natural History magazine
Born
Nationality American
Field Evolutionary biology
Institutions Harvard University

Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. He was also one of the most influential and widely-read writers of popular science of his generation, leading many commentators to call him "America's unofficial evolutionist laureate". Gould spent most of his career teaching at Harvard University and working at the American Museum of Natural History in New York. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... is the 253rd day of the year (254th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the movie, see 1941 (film). ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Paleontology, palaeontology or palæontology (from Greek: paleo, ancient; ontos, being; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is the study of prehistoric life forms on Earth through the examination of plant and animal fossils. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... This article is not about the magazine, Popular Science Popular science is interpretation of science intended for a general audience, rather than for other scientists or students. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ...

Contents

Personal life

Gould was born and raised in the Queens borough of New York City, New York. His father Leonard was a court stenographer, and his mother Eleanor was an artist. Raised in a secular Jewish home, Gould did not formally practice organized religion and preferred to be called an agnostic.[1] Politically, though he "had been brought up by a Marxist father," he has stated that his father's politics were "very different" from his own.[2] According to Gould, the most influential political book he read was C. Wright Mills' The Power Elite, as well as the political writings of Noam Chomsky.[3] Gould continued to be exposed to progressive viewpoints on the politicized campus of Antioch College in the early 1960s. In the 1970s Gould joined a left-wing academic organization called "Science for the People." Throughout his career and writings he spoke out against cultural oppression in all its forms, especially what he saw as pseudoscience in the service of racism and sexism.[4] This article is about the New York City borough. ... The Five Boroughs redirects here. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... “NY” redirects here. ... A court reporter, stenotype reporter or stenographer is a person whose occupation is to transcribe spoken or recorded speech into written form, typically using a stenotype or stenomask to produce official transcripts of court hearings, depositions and other official proceedings. ... It has been suggested that this article be split into multiple articles accessible from a disambiguation page. ... Secular Jewish culture embraces several related phenomena; above all, it is the culture of secular communities of Jewish people, but it can also include the cultural contributions of individuals who identify as secular Jews, or even those of religious Jews working in cultural areas not generally considered to be connected... The term agnosticism and the related agnostic were coined by Thomas Henry Huxley in 1869. ... Marxism is both the theory and the political practice (that is, the praxis) derived from the work of Karl Marx and Friedrich Engels. ... Charles Wright Mills (August 27, 1916, Waco, Texas – March 20, 1962, Nyack, New York) was an American sociologist. ... The Power Elite is an influential book written by sociologist C. Wright Mills in 1956. ... Avram Noam Chomsky (Hebrew :אברם נועם חומסקי Yiddish: אברם נועם כאמסקי) (born December 7, 1928) is an American linguist, philosopher, political activist, author, and lecturer. ... This article is about Progressivism. ... Antioch College is a private, independent liberal arts college in Yellow Springs, Ohio and founder of the six campus Antioch University system. ... The 1960s decade refers to the years from January 1, 1960 to December 31, 1969, inclusive. ... The 1970s decade refers to the years from 1970 to 1979, also called The Seventies. ... Science for the People is a left-wing organization, magazine, and movement which emerged from the antiwar culture of the 1970s. ... Oppress is the negative outcome experienced by people targeted by the cruel exercise of power in a society or social group. ... Phrenology is regarded today as a classic example of pseudoscience. ... Racism is a belief or concept that inherent differences between people, in particular those upon which the concept of race is based, significantly influence cultural or individual achievement, and may involve the idea that ones self-identified race or ethnic group or others race or ethnic group is superior. ... The sign of the headquarters of the National Association Opposed To Woman Suffrage Sexism is commonly considered to be discrimination and/or hatred against people based on their sex rather than their individual merits, but can also refer to any and all systemic differentiations based on the sex of the...


Gould was twice married. His first marriage was to artist Deborah Lee, whom he met while attending Antioch College. They were married on October 3, 1965, but later divorced. His second marriage was to sculptor Rhonda Roland Shearer in 1995. Gould had two children, Jesse and Ethan, by his first marriage, and two stepchildren, Jade and London, by his second. Antioch College is a private, independent liberal arts college in Yellow Springs, Ohio and founder of the six campus Antioch University system. ... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1995 (MCMXCV) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full 1995 Gregorian calendar). ...


In July of 1982 Gould was diagnosed with peritoneal mesothelioma, a highly terminal form of cancer affecting the abdominal lining. After a difficult two year recovery, Gould published a column for Discover magazine, titled "The Median Isn't the Message," which discusses his reaction to discovering that mesothelioma patients had a median lifespan of only eight months after diagnosis. He then describes the true significance behind this number, and his relief upon realizing that averages are just useful abstractions, and do not encompass the full range of variation. The median is the halfway point, which means that 50% of patients will die before 8 months, but the other half will live longer, potentially much longer. He then needed to find out where his personal characteristics placed him within this range. Considering the cancer was caught early, the fact he was young, optimistic, and had the best treatments available, Gould figured that he should be in the favorable half of the upper statistical range. After an experimental treatment of radiation, chemotherapy, and surgery, Gould made a full recovery, and his column became a source of comfort for many cancer patients. Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... The human abdomen (from the Latin word meaning belly) is the part of the body between the pelvis and the thorax. ... Discover is a science magazine that publishes articles about science for a general audience. ... In probability theory and statistics, a median is a type of average that is described as the number dividing the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. ... This article is about the field of statistics. ... In probability theory and statistics, a median is a type of average that is described as the number dividing the higher half of a sample, a population, or a probability distribution, from the lower half. ... Clinac 2100 C100 accelerator Radiation therapy (or radiotherapy) is the medical use of ionizing radiation as part of cancer treatment to control malignant cells (not to be confused with radiology, the use of radiation in medical imaging and diagnosis). ... Chemotherapy is the use of chemical substances to treat disease. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...


Gould was also an advocate for medical marijuana. During this bout with cancer, he smoked the illegal drug to alleviate the nausea associated with his medical treatments. According to Gould, his use of marijuana had a "most important effect" on his eventual recovery.[5] In 1998 he testified in the case of Jim Wakeford, a Canadian medical-marijuana user and activist. A catalog page offering Cannabis sativa extract. ... Cannabis (also known as marijuana[1] or ganja[2] in its herbal form and hashish in its resinous form[3]) is a psychoactive product of the plant Cannabis sativa L. subsp. ... Year 1998 (MCMXCVIII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display full 1998 Gregorian calendar). ... Jim Wakeford (born 1944 Regina, Saskatchewan) is a well-known medical marijuana advocate based in Toronto, Canada. ...


Stephen Jay Gould died on May 20, 2002 from a metastatic adenocarcinoma of the lung, a form of lung cancer, which had spread to his brain. This cancer was unrelated to his abdominal cancer, from which he had fully recovered twenty years earlier. He died in his home "in a bed set up in the library of his SoHo loft, surrounded by his wife Rhonda, his mother Eleanor, and the many books he loved."[6][7] is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Metastasis (Greek: change of the state) is the spread of cancer from its primary site to other places in the body. ... Adenocarcinoma is a form of carcinoma that originates in glandular tissue. ... Lung cancer is the malignant transformation and expansion of lung tissue, and is the most lethal of all cancers worldwide, responsible for 1. ... Cast-iron architecture in Greene Street SoHo is a neighborhood in the New York City borough of Manhattan. ...


As a scientist

Gould began his higher education at Antioch College, a liberal arts school in Ohio, graduating with a degree in geology in 1963. During this time he also studied abroad at the University of Leeds in the United Kingdom.[8] After completing his graduate work at Columbia University in 1967 under the guidance of Norman Newell, he was immediately hired by Harvard University where he worked until the end of his life (1967-2002). In 1973 Harvard promoted him to Professor of Geology and Curator of Invertebrate Paleontology at the institution's Museum of Comparative Zoology, and in 1982 he was awarded the title of Alexander Agassiz Professor of Zoology. In 1983 he was awarded fellowship into the American Association for the Advancement of Science, where he later served as president (1999-2001). The AAAS news release cited his "numerous contributions to both scientific progress and the public understanding of science." He also served as president of the Paleontological Society (1985-1986) and the Society for the Study of Evolution (1990-1991). In 1989 Gould was elected into the body of the National Academy of Sciences. Through 1996-2002 Gould was Vincent Astor Visiting Research Professor of Biology at New York University. Antioch College is a private, independent liberal arts college in Yellow Springs, Ohio and founder of the six campus Antioch University system. ... A liberal arts college is an institution of higher education found in the United States, offering programs in the liberal arts at the post-secondary level. ... Official language(s) None Capital Columbus Largest city Columbus Largest metro area Cleveland Area  Ranked 34th  - Total 44,825 sq mi (116,096 km²)  - Width 220 miles (355 km)  - Length 220 miles (355 km)  - % water 8. ... This article includes a list of works cited but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Year 1963 (MCMLXIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... The University of Leeds is a major teaching and research university, one of the largest in the United Kingdom with over 32,000 full-time students. ... Columbia University is a private research university in the United States and a member of the prestigious Ivy League. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Norman D. Newell (January 27, 1909 - April 18, 2005) was Curator Emeritus at the American Museum of Natural History and Professor Emeritus at Columbia University. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... Year 1967 (MCMLXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the 1967 Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... For the song by James Blunt, see 1973 (song). ... A curator of a cultural heritage institution (e. ... A Classification of Invertebrate Paleontology Kingdom Protoctista Phylum Protozoa Subphylum Sarcomastigophora Class Sarcodina Subclass Rhizopoda Order Foraminifera Suborder Allogromiina Suborder Textulariina Suborder Fusulinina Suborder Miliolina Suborder Rotaliina Subclass Actinopoda Order Radiolaria Kingdom Monera Division Schizomycophyta (bacteria) Division Cyanophyta (cyanobacteria) Kingdom Animalia Phylum Porifera (sponges) Phylum Coelenterata / Cnidaria Phylum Bryzoa Phylum... Year 1982 (MCMLXXXII) was a common year starting on Friday (link displays the 1982 Gregorian calendar). ... Alexander Agassiz Alexander Emanuel Agassiz (December 17, 1835 – March 27, 1910), son of Louis Agassiz, was an American scientist and engineer. ... Year 1983 (MCMLXXXIII) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays the 1983 Gregorian calendar). ... The American Association for the Advancement of Science (AAAS) is an organization that promotes cooperation between scientists, defends scientific freedom, encourages scientific responsibility and supports scientific education for the betterment of all humanity. ... This article is about the year. ... Year 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 2001 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1985 (MCMLXXXV) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link displays 1985 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Year 1996 (MCMXCVI) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display full 1996 Gregorian calendar). ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Vincent Astor by Benjamin N. Duke William Vincent Astor (November 15, 1891, New York, New York, United States - February 3, 1959) was a businessman and philanthropist and a member of the prominent Astor family. ... New York University (NYU) is a private, nonsectarian, coeducational research university in New York City. ...


Early in his career Gould developed with Niles Eldredge the theory of punctuated equilibrium, where evolutionary change occurs relatively rapidly to comparatively longer periods of evolutionary stability.[9] According to Gould, punctuated equilibrium revised a key pillar "in the central logic of Darwinian theory."[10] Some evolutionary biologists have argued that while punctuated equilibrium was "of great interest to biology,"[11] it merely modified neo-Darwinism in a manner which was fully compatible with what had been known before.[12] Others however emphasized its theoretical novelty, and argued that evolutionary stasis had been "unexpected by most evolutionary biologists"[13] and "had a major impact on paleontology and evolutionary biology."[14] Dr. Niles Eldredge (born August 25, 1943) is an American paleontologist, who, along with Stephen Jay Gould, proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium in 1972. ... Punctuated equilibrium (or punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which states that most sexually reproducing species will show little to no evolutionary change throughout their history. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


In addition to his work on punctuated equilibrium, Gould made contributions to evolutionary developmental biology, and championed biological constraints as well as other non-selectionist forces in evolution. With Richard Lewontin he wrote an influential 1979 paper entitled "The Spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossian Paradigm,"[15] which introduced the evolutionary concept of "spandrels," a term which originated from the field of architecture. Gould and Lewontin defined "spandrels" to mean a feature of an organism that arises as a necessary side consequence of other features, which is not built directly, piece by piece, by natural selection. Examples include the "masculinized genitalia in female hyenas, exaptive use of an umbilicus as a brooding chamber by snails, the shoulder hump of the giant Irish deer, and several key features of human mentality."[16] The relative frequency of spandrels, so defined, versus adaptive features in nature, remains a controversial topic in evolutionary biology.[17] Punctuated equilibrium (or punctuated equilibria) is a theory in evolutionary biology which states that most sexually reproducing species will show little to no evolutionary change throughout their history. ... Evolutionary developmental biology (evolution of development or informally, evo-devo) is a field of biology that compares the developmental processes of different animals in an attempt to determine the ancestral relationship between organisms and how developmental processes evolved. ... Richard Lewontin Richard Charles Dick Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and social commentator. ... Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... For the Basilica di San Marco in Rome, see Basilica di San Marco (Rome). ... Pangloss is a character in Voltaires novel Candide. ... For other uses, see Paradigm (disambiguation). ... A spandrel is a phenotypic characteristic that evolved as a side effect of a true adaptation. ... A spandrel is originally a term from Architecture, but has more recently been given an analogous meaning in Evolutionary biology. ... This article is about building architecture. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


Most of Gould's empirical research was on land snails. His early work was on the Bermudian genus Poecilozonites, while his later work concentrated on the West Indian genus Cerion. According to Gould "Cerion is the land snail of maximal diversity in form throughout the entire world. There's 600 described species of this single genus. In fact, they're not really species, they all interbreed, but the names exist to express a real phenomenon which is this incredible morphological diversity. Some are shaped like golf balls, some are shaped like pencils.…Now my main subject is the evolution of form, and the problem of how it is that you can get this diversity amid so little genetic difference, so far as we can tell, is a very interesting one. And if we could solve this we'd learn something general about the evolution of form."[18] The Bermuda Land Snail is an endemic species of pulmonate land snail that scientists believe colonised the mid-Atlantic island of Bermuda at least 300,000 years ago and make up 95% of Bermudas terrestrial fossils. ... “West Indian” redirects here. ...


Gould is also one of the most highly cited scientists in the field of evolutionary theory. His 1979 "spandrels" paper has been cited more than 1,600 times. In Palaeobiology—the flagship journal of his own speciality—only Charles Darwin and G.G. Simpson have been cited more often.[19] Gould was also a considerably respected historian of science. Historian Ronald Numbers has been quoted as saying: "I can't say much about Gould's strengths as a scientist, but for a long time I've regarded him as the second most influential historian of science (next to Thomas Kuhn)."[20] Also: 1979 by Smashing Pumpkins. ... For other people of the same surname, and places and things named after Charles Darwin, see Darwin. ... George Gaylord Simpson (June 16, 1902 – October 6, 1984) was an American paleontologist. ... Ronald Numbers Ronald L. Numbers (born 1942) is an American historian of science who received his Ph. ... Thomas Samuel Kuhn (July 18, 1922 – June 17, 1996) was an American intellectual who wrote extensively on the history of science and developed several important notions in the philosophy of science. ...


Shortly before his death, Gould published a long treatise recapitulating his version of modern evolutionary theory: The Structure of Evolutionary Theory (2002). The Structure of Evolutionary Theory is a 2002 book by Stephen Jay Gould. ...


As a public figure

Gould became widely known through his popular science essays in Natural History magazine and his best-selling books on evolution. Many of his essays were reprinted in collected volumes, such as Ever Since Darwin and The Panda's Thumb, while his popular treatises included books such as The Mismeasure of Man, Wonderful Life and Full House. Natural History is a magazine on science and nature aimed at the general public which is published by the American Museum of Natural History. ... A bestseller is a book that is identified as extremely popular by its inclusion on lists of currently top selling titles that are based on publishing industry and booktrade figures and published by newspapers, magazines, or bookstore chains. ... Natural History magazine Stephen Jay Gould (September 10, 1941 – May 20, 2002) was an American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science. ... This article is about evolution in biology. ... Ever Since Darwin was American paleontologist Stephen Jay Goulds first book. ... The Pandas Thumb: More Reflections in Natural History (ISBN 0-393-01380-4 ), published in 1980, is the second volume of collected essays from evolutionary biologist and well-known science writer Stephen Jay Gould; the essays were culled from his monthly column The View of Life in Natural History... First edition (1981) of The Mismeasure of Man The Mismeasure of Man is a controversial, best-selling 1981 book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). ... Wonderful Life (1989) is a book on evolution by Stephen Jay Gould. ...


Gould was a passionate advocate of evolutionary theory and wrote prolifically on the subject, trying to communicate his understanding of contemporary evolutionary biology to a wide audience. A recurring theme in his writings is the history and development of evolutionary, and pre-evolutionary, thought. He was also an enthusiastic baseball fan and made frequent references to the sport in his essays.[21] Evolutionary thought has roots in antiquity as philosophical ideas conceived during the Ancient Greek and Roman eras, but until the 18th century, biological thought was dominated by essentialism, the idea that living forms are static and unchanging in time. ... This article is about the sport. ...


Although a proud Darwinist, his emphasis was less gradualist and reductionist than most neo-Darwinists. He also opposed many aspects of sociobiology and its intellectual descendant evolutionary psychology. He spent much of his time fighting against creationism (and the related constructs Creation Science and Intelligent Design). Most notably, Gould provided expert testimony against the equal-time creationism law in McLean v. Arkansas. Gould used the term "Non-Overlapping Magisteria" (NOMA) to describe how, in his view, science and religion could not comment on each other's realm.[22] The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ... Gradualism is the belief that changes occur, or ought to occur, slowly in the form of gradual steps (see also incrementalism) In politics, the concept of gradualism is used to describe the belief that change ought to be modified in small, discrete increments rather than abrubt changes such as revolutions... Descartes held that non-human animals could be reductively explained as automata — De homines 1622. ... The modern evolutionary synthesis (often referred to simply as the modern synthesis), neo-Darwinian synthesis or neo-Darwinism, brings together Charles Darwins theory of the evolution of species by natural selection with Gregor Mendels theory of genetics as the basis for biological inheritance. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Creationism is the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (typically God), whose existence is presupposed. ... Creation science is the attempt to find scientific evidence that would justify a literal interpretation of the Biblical account of creation. ... For other uses, see Intelligent design (disambiguation). ... McLean v. ...


Gould also became a noted public face of science, and often appeared on television. He once voiced a cartoon version of himself on the The Simpsons, a widely popular animated television program.[23] The Simpsons also paid tribute to him after his death. In an episode entitled Papa's Got a Brand New Badge, at the beginning of the credits, the message "Dedicated to the memory of Stephen Jay Gould" appears with a picture from the episode he was in. Simpsons redirects here. ... The bouncing ball animation (below) consists of these 6 frames. ... A television program (US), television programme (UK) or simply television show is a segment of programming in television broadcasting. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Papas Got a Brand New Badge is the 22nd episode of The Simpsons thirteenth season. ...


Gould was also featured prominently as a guest in Ken Burns' PBS documentary Baseball, PBS's Evolution series, CNN's Crossfire, NBC's The Today Show, and was a guest in all seven episodes of the Dutch 90's talkshow-series "Een Schitterend Ongeluk" "A Marvellous Accident." He was also on the Board of Advisors to the influential Children's Television Workshop television show, 3-2-1 Contact, where he made frequent guest appearances. In addition, he is one of several luminaries who are heroes of the climax of the science fiction novel Ancient Shores. This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Baseball was an Emmy Award-winning 1994 documentary series by Ken Burns about the game of baseball. ... Not to be confused with Public Broadcasting Services in Malta. ... Evolution is a 2001 documentary series by the American broadcaster PBS and WGBH on evolutionary biology. ... The Cable News Network, commonly known as CNN, is a major cable television network founded in 1980 by Ted Turner. ... December 6, 2004 edition of Crossfire. ... The National Broadcasting Company (NBC) is an American television network headquartered in the GE Building in New York Citys Rockefeller Center. ... For other uses, see Today. ... Sesame Workshop, formerly known as the Childrens Television Workshop (or CTW), is a non-profit organization behind the production of several educational childrens programs that have run on public broadcasting around the world (including PBS in the United States), as well as Noggin, a joint venture with Viacom... 3-2-1 Contact was an American science educational television show which aired on PBS from 1980 to 1992. ... Ancient Shores, published in 1996, is a science fiction novel written by Jack McDevitt. ...


Controversies

Gould received many accolades for his scholarly work and popular expositions of natural history,[7][24] but was not immune from criticism by those in the biological community who felt his public presentations were, for various reasons, out of step with mainstream evolutionary theory.[25] The public debates between Gould's proponents and detractors have been so quarrelsome that they have been dubbed "The Darwin Wars" by several commentators.[26]


John Maynard Smith, an eminent British evolutionary biologist, was among Gould's strongest critics. Maynard Smith thought that Gould misjudged the vital role of adaptation in biology, and was also critical of Gould's acceptance of species selection as a major component of biological evolution.[27] In a review of Daniel Dennett's book Darwin's Dangerous Idea, Maynard Smith wrote that Gould "is giving non-biologists a largely false picture of the state of evolutionary theory."[28] But Maynard Smith has not been consistently negative, writing in a review of The Panda's Thumb that "Stephen Gould is the best writer of popular science now active. . . . Often he infuriates me, but I hope he will go right on writing essays like these."[29] Maynard Smith was also among those who welcomed Gould's reinvigoration of evolutionary paleontology.[30] Professor John Maynard Smith[1], F.R.S. (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British evolutionary biologist and geneticist. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (b. ... cover Darwins Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life (1995) is a controversial book by Daniel Dennett that argues that Darwinian processes are the central organising force not only in biology (which is not controversial), but also in most other aspects of the Universe, including the human mind... The Pandas Thumb: More Reflections in Natural History (ISBN 0-393-01380-4 ), published in 1980, is the second volume of collected essays from evolutionary biologist and well-known science writer Stephen Jay Gould; the essays were culled from his monthly column The View of Life in Natural History...


One reason for such criticism was that Gould appeared to be presenting his ideas as a revolutionary way of understanding evolution, which relegated natural selection to a much less important position. As a result, many non-specialists inferred from his early writings that Darwinian explanations had been proven to be unscientific (which Gould never wanted to imply). His works were sometimes used out of context as a "proof" that scientists no longer understood how organisms evolved, giving creationists ammunition in their battle against evolutionary theory.[31] Gould himself corrected some of these misinterpretations and distortions of his writings in later works.[32]. Darwins illustrations of beak variation in the finches of the Galápagos Islands, which hold 13 closely related species that differ most markedly in the shape of their beaks. ... Creationism is the belief that humanity, life, the Earth, and the universe were created in their original form by a deity or deities (typically God), whose existence is presupposed. ...


Gould also had a long-running public feud with E. O. Wilson and other evolutionary biologists over human sociobiology and its descendant evolutionary psychology, which Gould, Lewontin, and Maynard Smith opposed, but which Richard Dawkins, Daniel Dennett, and Steven Pinker advocated.[33] Gould and Dawkins also disagreed over the importance of gene selection in evolution. Dawkins argued that evolution is best understood as competition among genes (or replicators), while Gould advocated the importance of multi-level competition, including selection amongst genes, cell lineages, organisms, demes, species, and clades. Strong criticism of Gould can be found in chapter 9 of Dawkins' The Blind Watchmaker and chapter 10 of Dennett's Darwin's Dangerous Idea. Dennett's criticism has tended to be harsher, while Dawkins praises Gould in evolutionary topics other than those of contention. Pinker accuses Gould, Lewontin and other opponents of evolutionary psychology of being "radical scientists," whose stance on human nature is influenced by politics rather than science.[34] Gould contended that sociobiologists and evolutionary psychologists are often heavily influenced, perhaps unconsciously, by their own prejudices and interests.[35] Edward Osborne Wilson (b. ... This article or section includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... This article includes a list of works cited or a list of external links, but its sources remain unclear because it lacks in-text citations. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... Daniel Clement Dennett (b. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... The gene-centric view of evolution or gene selection theory holds that evolution can be viewed as acting only at the level of genes, and that selection on higher units such as populations and species (group selection) is negligible. ... Transposons are sequences of DNA that can move around to different positions within the genome of a single cell, a process called transposition. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hooke from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell being used to describe the smallest unit of a living organism Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) The cell is the... “Life on Earth” redirects here. ... In biology, a deme (rhymes with team) is another word for a local population of organisms of one species that actively interbreed with one another and share a distinct gene pool. ... The hierarchy of scientific classification. ... A clade is a term belonging to the discipline of cladistics. ... Cover illustration by the zoologist Desmond Morris The Blind Watchmaker is a 1986 book by Richard Dawkins in which he presents an explanation of, and argument for, the theory of evolution by means of natural selection. ... cover Darwins Dangerous Idea: Evolution and the Meanings of Life (1995) is a controversial book by Daniel Dennett that argues that Darwinian processes are the central organising force not only in biology (which is not controversial), but also in most other aspects of the Universe, including the human mind... Richard Lewontin Richard Charles Dick Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and social commentator. ...


Gould's interpretation of the Cambrian Burgess Shale fossils in his book Wonderful Life was criticized by Simon Conway Morris in his 1998 book The Crucible Of Creation.[36] Gould had emphasized the striking morphological disparity (or "weirdness") of the Burgess Shale fauna, and the role of contingency in determining which members of this fauna survived and flourished. Conway Morris stressed the phylogenetic linkages between the Cambrian forms and modern taxa, particularly, the importance of convergent evolution in producing general predictable responses to similar environmental circumstances. Paleontologist Richard Fortey noted that prior to the release of Wonderful Life, Conway Morris shared many of Gould's sentiments and views. It was only after publication of Wonderful Life that Conway Morris revised his interpretation and adopted a more progressive stance towards the history of life.[37]. Paleontologists Derek Briggs and Richard Fortey have also made criticisms of Gould's interpretation of Cambrian disparity, arguing that cladistic analyses have incorporated much of the Cambrian fauna as stem groups of living taxa[38], though this is still a subject of intense research in palaeontology. The Cambrian is a major division of the geologic timescale that begins about 542 ± 1. ... Hallucigenia sparsa, one of the organisms unique to the Burgess Shale. ... Wonderful Life (1989) is a book on evolution by Stephen Jay Gould. ... Simon Conway Morris is a British paleontologist. ... In philosophy and logic, contingency is the status of facts that are not logically necessary. ... In evolutionary biology, convergent evolution is the process whereby organisms not closely related, independently evolve similar traits as a result of having to adapt to similar environments or ecological niches. ... Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... Wonderful Life (1989) is a book on evolution by Stephen Jay Gould. ... Wonderful Life (1989) is a book on evolution by Stephen Jay Gould. ... Three billion years ago, life on Earth consisted of single-celled organisms, but now there is a tremendous variety of complex multi-celled creatures. ... Derek Briggs is an Irish paleontologist based at Yale University, USA. Whilst at Cambridge University, he worked on the fossils of the Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia, along with Harry Blackmore Whittington and Simon Conway Morris. ... Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... In palaeontology, a stem group is a systematic grouping that is required to accommodate fossils in the classification of organisms. ...


Non-Overlapping Magisteria (NOMA)

In his book Rocks of Ages, Gould put forward what he described as "a blessedly simple and entirely conventional resolution to . . . the supposed conflict between science and religion."[39] He defines the term magisterium as "a domain where one form of teaching holds the appropriate tools for meaningful discourse and resolution"[40] and the NOMA principle is "the magisterium of science covers the empirical realm: what the Universe is made of (fact) and why does it work in this way (theory). The magisterium of religion extends over questions of ultimate meaning and moral value. These two magisteria do not overlap, nor do they encompass all inquiry (consider, for example, the magisterium of art and the meaning of beauty)."[41] Rocks of Ages was short book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould on the relationship between science and religion. ...


In his view, "Science and religion do not glower at each other...[but] interdigitate in patterns of complex fingering, and at every fractal scale of self-similarity."[42] He suggests, with examples, that "NOMA enjoys strong and fully explicit support, even from the primary cultural stereotypes of hard-line traditionalism" and that it is "a sound position of general consensus, established by long struggle among people of goodwill in both magisteria."[43] The boundary of the Mandelbrot set is a famous example of a fractal. ... A self-similar object is exactly or approximately similar to a part of itself. ...


A similar position has been adopted by the National Academy of Sciences. Its publication Science and Creationism states that "Scientists, like many others, are touched with awe at the order and complexity of nature. Indeed, many scientists are deeply religious. But science and religion occupy two separate realms of human experience. Demanding that they be combined detracts from the glory of each."[44] This was subsequently signed by NAS President Bruce Alberts. President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ... Dr. Bruce Alberts (b. ...


Richard Dawkins in his book The God Delusion argues against the effectiveness of the NOMA principle in shielding religions from scientific scrutiny. According to Dawkins, "the God Hypothesis," that "there exists a super-human, supernatural intelligence who deliberately designed and created the universe and everything in it, including us," is a scientific hypothesis, and is therefore not exempt from scientific examination. Dawkins suggests both that NOMA is wrong and that Gould did not believe in it, but simply wanted to pay lip service to certain aspects of political correctness. With the exception of this last explanation, Sam Harris has suggested the same. (Harris has not openly stated what explanation, if any, he finds tenable.) Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... The God Delusion is an anti-theistic book by British ethologist Richard Dawkins, Professor for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... A scientific hypothesis is a hypothesis (a testable conjecture) which is used as a tentative explanation of an observation, but which has not yet been fully tested by the prediction validation process for a scientific theory. ... Political correctness is the alteration of language to redress real or alleged injustices and discrimination or to avoid offense. ... For other persons named Sam Harris, see Sam Harris (disambiguation). ...


Mismeasure of Man

Main article: The Mismeasure of Man

Stephen Jay Gould was also the author of The Mismeasure of Man (1981), a history and skeptical inquiry of psychometrics and intelligence testing. Gould investigated nineteenth century craniometry, as well as modern-day psychological testing, and claimed that they developed from an unfounded faith in biological determinism. The Mismeasure of Man has generated perhaps the greatest controversy of all of Gould's books, and has received both widespread praise (by skeptics) and extensive criticism (by certain psychologists), including claims of misrepresentation by some scientists.[45] First edition (1981) of The Mismeasure of Man The Mismeasure of Man is a controversial, best-selling 1981 book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). ... First edition (1981) of The Mismeasure of Man The Mismeasure of Man is a controversial, best-selling 1981 book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). ... Year 1981 (MCMLXXXI) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays the 1981 Gregorian calendar). ... Science is a body of empirical, theoretical, and practical knowledge about the natural world, produced by a global community of researchers making use of a body of techniques known as scientific methods, emphasizing the observation, experimentation and scientific explanation of real world phenomena. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Psychometrics is the field of study concerned with the theory and technique of psychological measurement, which includes the measurement of knowledge, abilities, attitudes, and personality traits. ... “IQ” redirects here. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... This article does not cite its references or sources. ... “IQ” redirects here. ... Categories: Biology stubs ... Debunkers are scientific skeptics who attempt to disprove and pursue what they consider to be false, unscientific, bizarre or abnormal claims. ... Psychology (from Greek: ψυχή, psukhÄ“, spirit, soul; and λόγος, logos, knowledge) is both an academic and applied discipline involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ...


Books

Ontogeny and Phylogeny is Stephen Jay Goulds first technical book, published in 1977 by Belknap, a division of Harvard University Press. ... Ever Since Darwin was American paleontologist Stephen Jay Goulds first book. ... The Pandas Thumb is the second volume of collected essays by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould. ... First edition (1981) of The Mismeasure of Man The Mismeasure of Man is a controversial, best-selling 1981 book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). ... Hens Teeth and Horses Toes is Stephen Jay Goulds third volume of collected essays reprinted from his monthly columns for Natural History magazine, entitled This view of life. ... The Flamingos Smile: Reflections in Natural History, published in 1985, is the fourth volume of collected essays from evolutionary biologist and well-known science writer Stephen Jay Gould; the essays were culled from his monthly column The View of Life in Natural History magazine, to which Gould contributed for... Times Arrow, Times Cycle Publisher: Harvard University Press ISBN: 0-674-89198-8 (Hardback 1987) ISBN: 0-674-89199-6 (Paperback 1988) Language: English In this volume Stephen Jay Gould discusses the discovery of Deep Time, and the works of Thomas Burnet, James Hutton, and Charles Lyell. ... An Urchin in the Storm (W.W. Norton, 1987, ISBN 0-393-02492-X) is a volume of collected essays from paleontologist and well-known science writer Stephen Jay Gould. ... Wonderful Life (1989) is a book on evolution by Stephen Jay Gould. ... Bully for Brontosaurus, published in 1991, is the fifth volume of collected essays from evolutionary biologist and well-known science writer Stephen Jay Gould; the essays were culled from his monthly column The View of Life in Natural History magazine, to which Gould contributed for more than two decades. ... Eight Little Piggies, published in 1985, is the sixth volume of collected essays from evolutionary biologist and well-known science writer Stephen Jay Gould; the essays were culled from his monthly column The View of Life in Natural History magazine, to which Gould contributed for more than two decades. ... A collection of essays on evolution by science writer Stephen Jay Gould which originally appeared in Natural History. ... Questioning the Millennium is Stephen Jay Goulds 1997 book on the cultural and historical meaning of the millennium. ... Leonardos Mountain of Clams and the Diet of Worms, subtitled Essays in Natural History, is a collection of essays on evolution and the history of science by paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould, most of which originally appeared in Natural History. ... Rocks of Ages was short book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould on the relationship between science and religion. ... The Lying Stones of Marrakech was Stephen Jay Goulds 9th and second to last volume of collected essays written for Natural History magazine. ... The Structure of Evolutionary Theory is a 2002 book by Stephen Jay Gould. ... I Have Landed was Stephen Jay Goulds 10th and final collection of essays written for Natural History magazine. ... The Hedgehog, the Fox, and the Magisters Pox is Stephen Jay Goulds posthumous volume exploring the historical conflict and division between the sciences and the humanities. ...

Notes

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Stephen Jay Gould
  1. ^ Stephen Jay Gould, 1997. "Nonoverlapping Magisteria" Natural History 106 (March): 16-22, 61.
  2. ^ Stephen Jay Gould, 2002. The Structure of Evolutionary Theory Cambridge MA: Harvard University Press, p. 1018.
  3. ^ Official Transcript for his deposition in McLean v. Arkansas, November 27, 1981, p. 154. When asked about his political views, Gould was quoted as saying: "My political views tend to the left of center. Q. Could you be more specific about your political views? A. I don't know how to be. I am not a joiner, so I am not a member of any organization. So I have always resisted labeling. But if you read my other book, The Mismeasure of Man, which is not included because it is not about evolution, you will get a sense of my political views." p. 153.
  4. ^ Richard Lewontin and Richard Levins write: "The public intellectual and political life of Steve Gould was extraordinary, if not unique. First, he was an evolutionary biologist and historian of science whose intellectual work had a major impact on our views of the process of evolution. Second, he was, by far, the most widely known and influential expositor of science who has ever written for a lay public. Third, he was a consistent political activist in support of socialism and in opposition to all forms of colonialism and oppression. The figure he most closely resembled in these respects was the British biologist of the 1930's, J. B. S. Haldane, a founder of the modern genetical theory of evolution, a wonderful essayist on science for the general public, and an idiosyncratic Marxist and columnist for the Daily Worker who finally split with the Communist Party over its demand that scientific claims follow Party doctrine." Monthly Review, Nov. 2002.
  5. ^ Stephen Jay Gould, quoted in Lester Grinspoon, 1993. Marihuana, The Forbidden Medicine, New Haven: Yale University Press, pp. 39-41.
  6. ^ Jill Krementz, 2002. "Jill Krementz Photo Journal" New York Social Diary June 2.
  7. ^ a b The Harvard Gazette, "Paleontologist, author Gould dies at 60" May 20, 2002.
  8. ^ Masha Etkin, 2002. "A Tribute to Stephen Jay Gould '63" Antiochian, Winter edition.
  9. ^ Niles Eldredge and Stephen Jay Gould, 1972. "Punctuated equilibria: an alternative to phyletic gradualism" In T.J.M. Schopf, ed., Models in Paleobiology. San Francisco: Freeman, Cooper and Company, pp. 82-115.
  10. ^ Stephen Jay Gould, 2002. The Structure of Evolutionary Theory, pp. 15-21.
  11. ^ Richard Dawkins, 1982. The Extended Phenotype. Oxford University Press, p. 101.
  12. ^ John Maynard Smith, 1984. "Paleontology at the high table." Nature 309: 401-402.
  13. ^ Ernst Mayr, 1992."Speciational Evolution or Punctuated Equilibria" In Albert Somit and Steven Peterson The Dynamics of Evolution. New York: Cornell University Press. p. 33.
  14. ^ ibid. p. 24.
  15. ^ "The spandrels of San Marco and the Panglossion paradigm: a critique of the adaptationist programme" Proc R Soc Lond B 205 (1161): 581–598. See also Gould's "The Pattern of Life's History" for the background. Published in John Brockman The Third Culture, pp. 55-56.
  16. ^ Stephen Jay Gould, 1997. "The Exaptive Excellence of Spandrels as a Term and Prototype" Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. USA. 94: 10750-55.
  17. ^ John Maynard Smith writes: "By and large, I think their [Spandrels] paper had a healthy effect. . . . Their critique forced us to clean up our act and to provide evidence for our stories. But adaptationism remains the core of biological thinking." "Genes, Memes, & Minds" The New York Review of Books, 42 (Nov. 30, 1995): 47; and a similar appraisal is reflected by Ernst Mayr in his paper "How to Carry Out the Adaptationist Program?" The American Naturalist, 121 (March 1983): 324-334.
  18. ^ Interview, quoted in L. Wolpert and A. Richards, 1988. A Passion for Science. Oxford: Oxford University Press, p. 145.
  19. ^ Donald Prothero "Evolution Revolution: Paleontology, History, Biography" Festschrift lecture for Stephen Jay Gould, 2000.
  20. ^ Michael Shermer, 2002. "This View of Science" Social Studies of Science 32 (August): 492.
  21. ^ Gould also publish a posthumous anthology of baseball essays Triumph and Tragedy in Mudville. See his essays "Thcience Studies", "The streak of streaks", and "Baseball's reliquary".
  22. ^ Gould went on to develop this idea in some detail, particularly in the books Rocks of Ages (1999) and The Hedgehog, the Fox, and the Magister's Pox (2003). In a 1982 essay for Natural History Gould writes: "Our failure to discern a universal good does not record any lack of insight or ingenuity, but merely demonstrates that nature contains no moral messages framed in human terms. Morality is a subject for philosophers, theologians, students of the humanities, indeed for all thinking people. The answers will not be read passively from nature; they do not, and cannot, arise from the data of science. The factual state of the world does not teach us how we, with our powers for good and evil, should alter or preserve it in the most ethical manner." Stephen Jay Gould, "Nonmoral Nature" Natural History 91 (February): 19-26; and reprinted in Hen's Teeth and Horse's Toes. New York: W.W. Norton, 1983, pp. 42-43.
  23. ^ FOX. The Simpsons. "Lisa the Skeptic," November 23, 1997.
  24. ^ Michael Shermer, 2002. "This View of Science" Social Studies of Science 32/4 (August): 518.

    Awards include a National Book Award for The Panda’s Thumb, a National Book Critics Circle Award for The Mismeasure of Man, the Phi Beta Kappa Book Award for Hen’s Teeth and Horse’s Toes, and a Pulitzer Prize Finalist for Wonderful Life, on which Gould commented ‘close but, as they say, no cigar’. Forty-four honorary degrees and 66 major fellowships, medals, and awards bear witness to the depth and scope of his accomplishments in both the sciences and humanities: Member of the National Academy of Sciences, President and Fellow of AAAS, MacArthur Foundation ‘genius’ Fellowship (in the first group of awardees), Humanist Laureate from the Academy of Humanism, Fellow of the Linnean Society of London, Fellow of the Royal Society of Edinburgh, Fellow of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences, Fellow of the European Union of Geosciences, Associate of the Muséum National D’Histoire Naturelle Paris, the Schuchert Award for excellence in paleontological research, Scientist of the Year from Discover magazine, the Silver Medal from the Zoological Society of London, the Gold Medal for Service to Zoology from the Linnean Society of London, the Edinburgh Medal from the City of Edinburgh, the Britannica Award and Gold Medal for dissemination of public knowledge, Public Service Award from the Geological Society of America, Anthropology in Media Award from the American Anthropological Association, Distinguished Service Award from the National Association of Biology Teachers, Distinguished Scientist Award from UCLA, the Randi Award for Skeptic of the Year from the Skeptics Society, and a Festschrift in his honour at Caltech. Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Wikiquote is a sister project of Wikipedia, using the same MediaWiki software. ... McLean v. ... First edition (1981) of The Mismeasure of Man The Mismeasure of Man is a controversial, best-selling 1981 book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould (1941-2002). ... Richard Lewontin Richard Charles Dick Lewontin (born March 29, 1929) is an American evolutionary biologist, geneticist and social commentator. ... Richard (Dick) Levins: Mathematical ecologist, tropical farmer, and political activist. ... John Burdon Sanderson Haldane (November 5, 1892 – December 1, 1964), who normally used J.B.S. as a first name, was a British geneticist and evolutionary biologist. ... Lester Grinspoon. ... Dr. Niles Eldredge (born August 25, 1943) is an American paleontologist, who, along with Stephen Jay Gould, proposed the theory of punctuated equilibrium in 1972. ... The Structure of Evolutionary Theory is a 2002 book by Stephen Jay Gould. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... A cathedral termite mount – a small animal with a very noticeable extended phenotype The Extended Phenotype: The Long Reach of the Gene is a 1982 book by British ethologist Richard Dawkins. ... This article has been identified as possibly containing errors. ... Look up ibid, idem in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... The Third Culture is the title of a book by John Brockman which discusses the work of several well-known thinkers who are directly communicating their new, sometimes provocative, ideas to the general public. ... Professor John Maynard Smith[1], F.R.S. (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British evolutionary biologist and geneticist. ... This article is about the literary magazine. ... This article has been identified as possibly containing errors. ... The Fox Broadcasting Company, usually referred to as just Fox (the company itself prefers the capitalized version FOX), is a television network in the United States. ... Simpsons redirects here. ... Lisa the Skeptic is the eighth episode of The Simpsons ninth season, first aired on November 23, 1997. ...

  25. ^ Leda Cosmides and John Tooby (1997) write:

    John Maynard Smith, one of the world's leading evolutionary biologists, recently summarized in the NYRB the sharply conflicting assessments of Stephen Jay Gould: "Because of the excellence of his essays, he has come to be seen by non-biologists as the preeminent evolutionary theorist. In contrast, the evolutionary biologists with whom I have discussed his work tend to see him as a man whose ideas are so confused as to be hardly worth bothering with, but as one who should not be publicly criticized because he is at least on our side against the creationists." (NYRB, Nov. 30th 1995, p. 46). No one can take any pleasure in the evident pain Gould is experiencing now that his actual standing within the community of professional evolutionary biologists is finally becoming more widely known. . . But as Maynard Smith points out, more is at stake. Gould "is giving non-biologists a largely false picture of the state of evolutionary theory"—or as Ernst Mayr says of Gould and his small group of allies—they "quite conspicuously misrepresent the views of [biology's] leading spokesmen." Indeed, although Gould characterizes his critics as "anonymous" and "a tiny coterie," nearly every major evolutionary biologist of our era has weighed in a vain attempt to correct the tangle of confusions that the higher profile Gould has inundated the intellectual world with.* The point is not that Gould is the object of some criticism—so properly are we all—it is that his reputation as a credible and balanced authority about evolutionary biology is non-existent among those who are in a professional position to know. *These include Ernst Mayr, John Maynard Smith, George Williams, Bill Hamilton, Richard Dawkins, E.O. Wilson, Tim Clutton-Brock, Paul Harvey, Brian Charlesworth, Jerry Coyne, Robert Trivers, John Alcock, Randy Thornhill, and many others. This article has been identified as possibly containing errors. ... Professor John Maynard Smith[1], F.R.S. (6 January 1920 – 19 April 2004) was a British evolutionary biologist and geneticist. ... George Williams Professor George Christopher Williams (b. ... W. D. Hamilton William Donald Bill Hamilton, F.R.S. (1 August 1936 — 7 March 2000) was a British evolutionary biologist, considered one of the greatest evolutionary theorists of the 20th century. ... Clinton Richard Dawkins (born March 26, 1941) is a British ethologist, evolutionary biologist and popular science writer who holds the Charles Simonyi Chair for the Public Understanding of Science at Oxford University. ... Edward Osborne Wilson (b. ... Brian Charlesworth Professor Brian Charlesworth FRS (born 29 April 1945) is a British evolutionary biologist. ... Jerry Coyne is a Professor in the Department of Ecology and Evolution at the University of Chicago. ... Robert L. Trivers, (born 19 February 1943) is an American evolutionary biologist and sociobiologist, most noted for proposing the theories of reciprocal altruism (1971), parental investment (1972), and parent-offspring conflict (1974). ...

    It should be noted that Ernst Mayr in this quotation is not speaking of Gould in particular, and does not mention him by name, but is speaking of many critics of the Neo-Darwinian Synthesis generally. Some of the names Tooby and Cosmides cite are also quite debatable—Mayr, Williams, Hamilton, Dawkins, Wilson, Coyne, and Trivers, for example, have shown great respect for Gould as a scientist. In reference to Maynard Smith's comments, Gould writes "Darwinian Fundamentalism" New York Review of Books 44 (June 12, 1997): 34-37:
    A false fact can be refuted, a false argument exposed; but how can one respond to a purely ad hominem attack? This harder, and altogether more discouraging, task may best be achieved by exposing internal inconsistency and unfairness of rhetoric. . . . It seems futile to reply to an attack so empty of content, and based only on comments by anonymous critics . . . Instead of responding to Maynard Smith's attack against my integrity and scholarship, citing people unknown and with arguments unmentioned, let me, instead, merely remind him of the blatant inconsistency between his admirable past and lamentable present. Some sixteen years ago he wrote a highly critical but wonderfully supportive review of my early book of essays, The Panda's Thumb, stating: "I hope it will be obvious that my wish to argue with Gould is a compliment, not a criticism." He then attended my series of Tanner Lectures at Cambridge in 1984 and wrote in a report for Nature, and under the remarkable title "Paleontology at the High Table," the kindest and most supportive critical commentary I have ever received. He argued that the work of a small group of American paleobiologists had brought the entire subject back to theoretical centrality within the evolutionary sciences. . . . So we face the enigma of a man who has written numerous articles, amounting to tens of thousands of words, about my work—always strongly and incisively critical, always richly informed (and always, I might add, enormously appreciated by me). But now Maynard Smith needs to canvass unnamed colleagues to find out that my ideas are "hardly worth bothering with." He really ought to be asking himself why he has been bothering about my work so intensely, and for so many years.
  26. ^ Andrew Brown, 1999. The Darwin Wars. New York: Simon & Schuster; Richard Morris, 2001. The Evolutionists. New York: Henry Holt & Company; Steven Rose "Obituaries: Stephen Jay Gould" The Guardian (May 22, 2002): 20; Harvey Blume "The Origin of Specious" The American Prospect 13 (August 23, 2002): 41-43.
  27. ^ John Maynard Smith, 1981. "Did Darwin get it right?" The London Review of Books. 3 (11): 10-11; Also reprinted in Did Darwin Get it Right? New York: Chapman and Hall, 1989, pp. 148-156.
  28. ^ John Maynard Smith, 1995. "Genes, Memes, & Minds" The New York Review of Books 42 (Nov.): 46-48. Also quoted in John Tooby and Leda Cosmides, 1997. "Letter to the Editor of The New York Review of Books"
  29. ^ John Maynard Smith, 1981. "Review of The Panda's Thumb" The London Review of Books. September, pp. 17-30; Reprinted as "Tinkering," in Did Darwin Get it Right? pp. 94, 97.
  30. ^ John Maynard Smith, 1984. "Paleontology at the high table." Nature 309: 401-402.
  31. ^ Robert Wright, 1999. "The Accidental Creationist" The New Yorker (Dec. 13): 56-65.
  32. ^ Stephen Jay Gould, "Evolution as fact and theory" Discover 2 (May 1981): 34-37.
  33. ^ But Gould also writes: "Sociobiologists have broadened their range of selective stories by invoking concepts of inclusive fitness and kin selection to solve (successfully I think) the vexatious problem of altruism—previously the greatest stumbling block to a Darwinian theory of social behavior. . . . Here sociobiology has had and will continue to have success. And here I wish it well. For it represents an extension of basic Darwinism to a realm where it should apply." Gould, 1980. "Sociobiology and the Theory of Natural Selection" In G. W. Barlow and J. Silverberg, eds., Sociobiology: Beyond Nature/Nurture? Boulder CO: Westview Press, pp. 257-269.
  34. ^ Steven Pinker, 2002. The Blank Slate. New York: Penguin.
  35. ^ Stephen Jay Gould , 1997. "Evolution: The Pleasures of Pluralism" New York Review of Books, June 26, pp. 47-52.
  36. ^ Gould and Conway Morris debated the issue in a piece titled "Showdown on the Burgess Shale" published in Nat. Hist. 107 (10): 48-55.
  37. ^ Richard Fortey, 1998. "Shock Lobsters" London Review of Books, Vol. 20, October 1.
  38. ^ Derek Briggs and Richard Fortey, 2005. "Wonderful strife" Paleobiology 31 (June): 94-112.
  39. ^ Stephen Jay Gould, 1999. Rocks of Ages. Ballantine Books, p. 3.
  40. ^ ibid. p. 5.
  41. ^ ibid. p. 6.
  42. ^ ibid. p. 65.
  43. ^ ibid. pp. 69-70.
  44. ^ NAS, 1999. Science and Creationism: A View from the National Academy of Sciences Second Edition, p. ix.
  45. ^ Arthur Jensen, 1982. "The debunking of scientific fossils and straw persons" Contemporary Education Review 1 (2): 121-135.

The Guardian is a British newspaper owned by the Guardian Media Group. ... The American Prospect is a monthly magazine which focuses on US politics and public policy. ... Robert Wright. ... The New Yorker is an American magazine that publishes reportage, criticism, essays, cartoons, poetry and fiction. ... Inclusive fitness encompasses conventional Darwinian fitness with the addition of behaviors that contribute to an organism’s individual fitness through altruism. ... In evolutionary biology, kin selection refers to changes in gene frequency across generations that are driven at least in part by interactions between related individuals, and this forms much of the conceptual basis of the theory of social evolution. ... Steven Pinker Steven Arthur Pinker (born September 18, 1954) is a prominent Canadian-born American experimental psychologist, cognitive scientist, and popular science writer known for his spirited and wide-ranging advocacy of evolutionary psychology and the computational theory of mind. ... The Blank Slate: The Modern Denial of Human Nature is a 2002 book (published by Penguin Putnam, ISBN 0670031518) by Steven Pinker arguing against tabula rasa models of psychology, claiming that the human mind is shaped by evolutionary psychological adaptations. ... Derek Briggs is an Irish paleontologist based at Yale University, USA. Whilst at Cambridge University, he worked on the fossils of the Cambrian Burgess Shale of British Columbia, along with Harry Blackmore Whittington and Simon Conway Morris. ... Professor Richard A. Fortey FRS (born 1946 in London) is a British paleontologist and writer, formerly a Merit Researcher at the Natural History Museum in London. ... Rocks of Ages was short book written by the Harvard paleontologist Stephen Jay Gould on the relationship between science and religion. ... President Harding and the National Academy of Sciences at the White House, Washington, DC, April 1921 The National Academy of Sciences (NAS) is a corporation in the United States whose members serve pro bono as advisers to the nation on science, engineering, and medicine. ...

External links

Persondata
NAME Gould, Stephen Jay
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION American paleontologist, evolutionary biologist, and historian of science
DATE OF BIRTH September 10, 1941
PLACE OF BIRTH New York City, New York
DATE OF DEATH May 20, 2002
PLACE OF DEATH

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Stephen Jay Gould - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (2801 words)
Gould was a passionate advocate of evolutionary theory and wrote prolifically on the subject, trying to communicate his understanding of contemporary evolutionary theories to a wide audience.
Gould was also the author of The Mismeasure of Man, a study of the history of psychometrics and intelligence testing as a form of scientific racism.
Gould was twice married; to Deborah Lee in 1965 which ended in divorce, and to artist Rhonda Roland Shearer in 1995.
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Profesor Stephen Jay Gould, who has died of cancer aged 60, was an unlikely figure to have been canonised in his lifetime by the US Congress, which named him as one of America's "living legends".
Gould's critique of the pseudoscience of claims concerning the inheritance of intelligence, developed in one of his best-known books, The Mismeasure Of Man (1981), became a major source for anti-racist campaigners.
Gould and Eldredge re-addressed this question, pointing out that the fossil record was one of millions of years of stasis, punctuated by relatively brief periods of rapid change - hence punctuated equilibrium.
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