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Encyclopedia > Stephen I of Hungary
Saint Stephen of Hungary

Saint Stephen
King of Hungary
Born 967/969/975, Esztergom
Died 15 August 1038, Esztergom
Canonized 20 August 1083, Esztergom by Pope Gregory VII
Major shrine Saint Stephen's Basilica in Budapest
Feast 16 August (20 August in Hungary)
Attributes crown, sceptre, globe
Saints Portal

Saint Stephen I (Hungarian: I. (Szent) István, Slovak: (Svätý) Štefan I.) (967/969/975, Esztergom, Hungary15 August 1038, Esztergom, Hungary), Grand Prince of the Magyars (997-1000/1001) and the first King of Hungary (1000/1001-1038). Stephen was born as a pagan (Vajk) but was baptised in his childhood. Following the death of his father, Géza, Stephen became the Grand Prince of the Magyars, but he could only strengthen his rule when he defeated his relative, Koppány. Shortly afterwards, he claimed and received a crown from the pope and he became the first King of Hungary. Stephen extended his rule in the Carpathian Basin with force by defeating several local chieftains. He maintained peace with the Holy Roman Empire during the first three decades of his reign, and later he could withdraw the attacks of Henry III, Holy Roman Emperor. Stephen established ten dioceses in his kingdom and he issued severe decrees against pagan customs and in favor of the Christian faith in order to strengthen Christianity among his subjects. He organised several counties (vármegye) in Hungary and his decrees could ensure the internal peace in his kingdom. Based on his acts, he is generally considered as the founder of Hungary. Following the death of his son, Emeric, Stephen wanted to ensure the maintenance of the Christianity in his kingdom and therefore he named his sister's son, the Venetian Peter Urseolo as his heir instead of his cousin, Vazul whom he suspected following pagan customs and ordered him blinded. Stephen was canonised, together with his son and Bishop Gerard of Csanád, on 20 August 1083 and he become one of the most popular saints in Hungary. This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... Events Emperor Reizei ascends to the throne of Japan The Khazar capital of Atil falls to the Kievan Rus around this year Births Deaths Emperor Murakami of Japan Abu al-Faraj Ali of Isfahan, scholar. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Coronation of King Edward the Martyr Births Deaths July 8 Edgar of England Categories: 975 ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... This article is about the process of declaring saints. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Sancho I of Aragon conqueres Graus. ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... Pope Gregory VII (c. ... Shrine is also used as a conventional translation of the Japanese Jinja. ... St Stephens Basilica (Szent István-bazilika in Hungarian) is an ecclesiastic basilica in Budapest, Hungary. ... For other uses, see Budapest (disambiguation). ... The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with one or more saints, and referring to the day as that saints day. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Saint symbology was important to people who couldnt read because they can figure out what symbols mean. ... Image File history File links Gloriole. ... Events Emperor Reizei ascends to the throne of Japan The Khazar capital of Atil falls to the Kievan Rus around this year Births Deaths Emperor Murakami of Japan Abu al-Faraj Ali of Isfahan, scholar. ... Events December 11 - John I becomes Emperor of the Eastern Roman Empire. ... Events Coronation of King Edward the Martyr Births Deaths July 8 Edgar of England Categories: 975 ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... is the 227th day of the year (228th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... Basilica in Esztergom. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... Géza of Hungary (born around 940-945, died in 997) (possibly Gyécsa in Old Hungarian, Gejza in Slovak), was the fejedelem (ruling prince) of the Magyars from c. ... Medieval depiction of the battle between István and Koppány. ... Topographic map The Pannonian Basin or Carpathian Basin is a large basin in Central Europe. ... This article is about the medieval empire. ... Henry III, from a miniature of 1040. ... Topics in Christianity Movements · Denominations Ecumenism · Relation to other religions Preaching · Prayer Music · Liturgy · Calendar Symbols · Art · Criticism Christianity Portal This box:      Christianity is a monotheistic[1] religion centered on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth as presented in the New Testament. ... The following lists show the administrative divisions of the lands belonging to the Hungarian crown (1000 _1918) at selected points of time. ... Note: There was also a king of Hungary named Imre (Emeric), who ruled from 1196 to 1204. ... For other uses, see Venice (disambiguation). ... Peter Urseolo (or Orseolo) was the second king of Hungary and reigned from 1038 till 1041 and from 1044 till 1046 after a brief interuption of three years in which Sámuel Aba ruled the nation. ... Vazul [Basil] (11th century) was a Hungarian noble of the Árpád family. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Sancho I of Aragon conqueres Graus. ...

Contents

Early years

St. Stephen was born Vajk[1] in the town of Esztergom. His father was Géza, Grand Prince of the Magyars; his mother was Sarolt, the daughter of Gyula of Transylvania.[2] According to his legends, Vajk was baptized by Saint Adalbert of Prague.[3] He was given the baptismal name Stephen (István) in honour of the original early Christian Saint Stephen.[4] Basilica in Esztergom. ... Géza of Hungary (born around 940-945, died in 997) (possibly Gyécsa in Old Hungarian, Gejza in Slovak), was the fejedelem (ruling prince) of the Magyars from c. ... Disambiguation: for the town in Hungary see Gyula (town) Gyula was originally a Turkic word which entered the Hungarian language at some point before 950 CE. Under the system of dual kingship which the Magyars used in the 9th century, the two kings of the tribal confederation were the kende... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Silver coffin of St. ... St. ...


When Stephen reached adolescence, Great Prince Géza convened an assembly where they decided that Stephen would follow his father as the monarch of the Magyars.[5] Nevertheless, this decision contradicted the Magyar tribal custom that gave preference to the eldest member of the ruling family to the deceased ruler's son. This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...


Stephen married Giselle of Bavaria, the daughter of Henry II the Wrangler and Gisela of Burgundy in or after 995.[6] By this marriage, he became the brother-in-law of the future Henry II, Holy Roman Emperor. Giselle arrived to her husband's court accompanied by German knights.[7] Giselle or Gizella of Bavaria (c. ... Henry II the Wrangler Henry II (951–995), called the Wrangler or the Quarrelsome, in German Heinrich der Zänker, was the son of Henry I and Judith of Bavaria. ... Gisela of Burgundy (before 952–July 21, 1006) was the daughter of Conrad of Burgundy, the Peaceful (ca 923/5–993), who inherited the Kingdom of Arles, and his second wife, Adelaide of Bellay. ... Henry II in an illuminated miniature from an imperial sacramentary. ... Giselle or Gizella of Bavaria (c. ...


Ruling prince of the Magyars

In 997, his father died and a succession struggle ensued.[8] Stephen claimed to rule the Magyars as the deceased monarch's son, while his relative Koppány, a powerful pagan chieftain in Somogy, claimed the traditional right of seniority.[9] Eventually, the two met in battle near Veszprém and Stephen was victorious, primarily thanks to his German retinue lead by the brothers Pázmány and Hont[10]. The nearly contemporary deed of foundation of the Abbey of Pannonhalma clearly described the battle as a struggle between the Germans and the Magyars. Thus, Stephen strengthened his power in Transdanubia, but several parts of Hungary still did not accept his rule. Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Medieval depiction of the battle between István and Koppány. ... Veszprém (in Slovak Vesprím) is a city with county rights in western Hungary. ... Hont (-Slovak and Hungarian and German, in Latin: Honthum, in Hungarian also: Honth) is the name of a historic administrative county (comitatus) of the Kingdom of Hungary and then shortly of Czechoslovakia. ... Pannonhalma is a small town in western Hungary, in Győr-Moson-Sopron county with approx. ...


According to Hungarian tradition Pope Silvester II, with the consent of Otto III, Holy Roman Emperor, sent a magnificent jeweled gold crown to Stephen along with an apostolic cross and a letter of blessing officially recognizing Stephen as the Christian king of Hungary. The date of this coronation is variously given as Christmas Day, 1000 or 1 January 1001. Gerbert of Aurillac, later known as pope Silvester II, (or Sylvester II), (ca. ... Otto III in a medieval manuscript Otto III (980 – January 23, 1002, Paterno, Italy) was the fourth ruler of the Saxon or Ottonian dynasty. ... The Holy Crown of Hungary, also known as the Crown of St. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary is named the first King of Hungary by Pope Silvester II. Canonisation of Edward the Martyr, king of England. ...


First king of Hungary

King Stephen's statue in his hometown, Esztergom
King Stephen's statue in his hometown, Esztergom

After (or just before) his coronation Stephen I founded several dioceses, ie, the dioceses of Veszprém, Győr, Kalocsa, Vác, Bihar (Romanian: Biharea). He also established the Archdiocese of Esztergom, thus he set up an ecclesiastical organisation independent of the German archbishops. He also began to organise a territory-based administration by founding several counties (comitatus, megye) in his kingdom. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 917 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stephen I of Hungary Árpád dynasty Esztergom Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (1704x2272, 917 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stephen I of Hungary Árpád dynasty Esztergom Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the... Basilica in Esztergom. ...


Stephen discouraged pagan customs and strengthened Christianity with various laws. In his first decree, issued in the beginning of his rule, he ordered that each ten villages are obliged to build a church. He invited foreign priests to Hungary to evangelize his kingdom; Saint Astricus served as his advisor, and Stephen also had Saint Gerard Sagredo as the tutor for his son Imre. Saint Astrik of Pannonhalma (also known as Anastasius, Astericus, Ascrick, Astricus) (d. ... Gerard Sagredo (also known as Gellért, c. ... Prince St. ...


Around 1003, he invaded and occupied Transylvania, a territory ruled by his maternal uncle, Gyula, a semi-independent chieftain; and after his victory, he organised the Diocese of Transylvania. In the next few years he also occupied the lands of the Black Magyars in the Southern part of Transdanubia, and organised there the Diocese of Pécs. Shortly afterwards, he probably made an agreement with Samuel Aba, the chieftain of the Kabar tribes settled in the Mátra region, who married Stephen's sister; in his brother-in-law's domains, Stephen founded the Diocese of Eger. Events Sweyn I of Denmark begins his first invasion of England. ... This article is about the region in Romania. ... Disambiguation: for the town in Hungary see Gyula (town) Gyula was originally a Turkic word which entered the Hungarian language at some point before 950 CE. Under the system of dual kingship which the Magyars used in the 9th century, the two kings of the tribal confederation were the kende... Samuel Aba (Hungarian: Aba Sámuel; in contemporary foreign sources: King Aba, on his coins: King Samuel) was the third king of Hungary. ... The Kabars (Gr. ... KékestetÅ‘ (1014 m) Mátra is a mountain range in northern Hungary, between to the towns Gyöngyös and Eger. ...


Finally, Stephen occupied the domains of Ajtony, a semi-pagan chieftain, who had been ruling over the territories of the later Banat, where he set up the Diocese of Csanád. Voivodship (Duchy) of Ahtum Ahtum (Bulgarian and Serbian Cyrillic: Ахтум; Hungarian: Ajtony; also spelled Ohtum or Achtum) was an early 11th century voivod (duke) of Banat (now mostly divided between Romania and Serbia) and a descendant of Glad, another local duke and governor in the First Bulgarian Empire. ... Location of Banat in Europe Map of the Banat region with largest cities shown The Banat (Romanian: Banat, Serbian: Банат or Banat, Hungarian: Bánát or Bánság, German: Banat, Slovak: Banát, Bulgarian: Банат) is a geographical and historical region of Central Europe currently divided between three countries: the...


External politics

A statue of the king in Miskolc
A statue of the king in Miskolc

In his external politics Stephen I allied himself with his brother-in-law, the Emperor Henry II against Prince Boleslaw I of Poland, who had extended his rule over the territories between the Morava and Vág Rivers. He sent troops to the Emperor's army, and in the Peace of Bautzen, in 1018, the Polish prince had to hand over the occupied territories to Stephen. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 465 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1860 × 2400 pixel, file size: 786 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of the first Hungarian king, St. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 465 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1860 × 2400 pixel, file size: 786 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Statue of the first Hungarian king, St. ... Nickname: Location of Miskolc in Hungary Coordinates: , Country Hungary Region Northern Hungary County Borsod-Abaúj-Zemplén Town since 1365 City since 1909 Urban county since 1970 Government  - Mayor Sándor Káli (MSZP) Area  - City 236. ... Henry II in an illuminated miniature from an imperial sacramentary. ... BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave (or Valiant) (Polish: ; Czech: Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 - June 17, 1025), in the past also known as BolesÅ‚aw I the Great, in Polish: BolesÅ‚aw I Wielki), of the Piast Dynasty — son of Mieszko I and of his first wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa — ruled... Morava may refer to: Moravia, eastern part of the territory of the Czech Republic; Morava River (Central Europe), a river in the Czech Republic, Austria and Slovakia; Great Moravia, early-medieval Empire in Central Europe; Great Morava (Velika Morava), a river in central Serbia; South Morava (Južna Morava), a... The Váh near PieÅ¡Å¥any. ... The permanent settlement of wars Poland with Germany in Bautzen, Budziszyn in 1018, which left Sorbian Meissen and Lusatia in Polish hands. ... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ...


Shortly afterwards, Stephen sent troops to help Boleslaw I in his campaign against the Kievan Rus'. In 1018, Stephen lead his armies against Bulgaria, in alliance with the Byzantine Emperor Basil II, and collected several relics during his campaign. BolesÅ‚aw I the Brave (or Valiant) (Polish: ; Czech: Boleslav Chrabrý; 967 - June 17, 1025), in the past also known as BolesÅ‚aw I the Great, in Polish: BolesÅ‚aw I Wielki), of the Piast Dynasty — son of Mieszko I and of his first wife, the Bohemian princess Dobrawa — ruled... Trydent of Yaroslav I Map of the Kievan Rus′, 11th century Capital Kiev Religion Orthodox Christianity Government Monarchy Historical era Middle Ages  - Established 9th century  - Disestablished 12th century Currency Hryvnia Kievan Rus′ was the early, predominantly East Slavic[1] medieval state of Rurikid dynasty dominated by the city of Kiev... // Team# 1018 Pike High School Robotics Team Team #1018 FIRST Logo Check Out Our FIRST WIKI Page Events Bulgaria becomes part of the Byzantine Empire. ... This is a list of Byzantine Emperors. ... Painting of Basil II, from an 11th century manuscript. ...


After the death of Henry II (July 3, 1024), Stephen broke with the German alliance, because the new Holy Roman Emperor, Conrad II claimed the supremacy over the kingdom of Hungary, while Stephen demanded the duchy of Bavaria for his son Emeric who was the nearest relative of the deceased Emperor Henry II (who himself had been the last male descendant of the old dukes of Bavaria). In 1027, Stephen had Bishop Werner of Strasbourg, the envoy sent by Conrad II to the Byzantine Empire, arrested at the frontier. In 1030, the Emperor lead his armies against Hungary, but Stephen's troops enforced their retreat. Stephen and the Emperor Conrad II concluded peace in 1031, and the territories between the Leitha (Hungarian:(Lajta)) and Fischa Rivers were ceded to Hungary. Henry II in an illuminated miniature from an imperial sacramentary. ... Conrad II (c. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... The following is a list of rulers of Bavaria: Dukes of Bavaria, 889-1623 Liutpolding Dynasty Liutpold 889-907 Arnulf the Bad 907-937 Eberhard 937 Berthold 938-947 Liudolfing ( Ottonian) Dynasty Henry I 947-955 Henry II the Quarrelsome 955-976 Otto I 976-982 Liutpolding Dynasty Henry III... Prince St. ... Henry II in an illuminated miniature from an imperial sacramentary. ... Events March 26 - Pope John XIX crowns Conrad II Holy Roman Emperor. ... Conrad II (c. ... Byzantine redirects here. ... Events July 29 - Battle of Stiklestad in Norway. ... Conrad II (c. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ... The Leitha (German: Leitha; Hungarian: Lajta; Czech: Litava) is a river in Central Europe with a length of approximately 180 km. ...


His last years

Stephen intended to retire to a life of holy contemplation and hand the kingdom over to his son Emeric, but Emeric was wounded in a hunting accident and died in 1031. In Stephen's words of mourning: Prince St. ... Prince St. ... Events Collapse of the Moorish Caliphate of Córdoba. ...

By God's secret decision death took him, so that wickedness would not change his soul and false imaginations would not deceive his mind – as the Book of Wisdom teaches about early death. Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ...

Stephen mourned for a very long time over the loss of his son, which took a great toll on his health. He eventually recovered, but never regained his original vitality. Having no children left, he could not find anyone among his remaining relatives who was able to rule the country competently and willing to maintain the Christian faith of the nation. He did not want to entrust his kingdom to his cousin, Duke Vazul whom he suspected to be following pagan customs. The disregarded duke took part in conspiracy aimed at the murder of Stephen I, but the assassination attempt failed and Vazul had his eyes gouged out and molten lead poured in his ears. For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ...


King Stephen died on the Feast of the Assumption in 1038 at Székesfehérvár, where he was then buried. His nobles and his subjects were said to have mourned for three straight years afterwards.[citation needed] The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ... Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ...


His legacy

The Hungarian Sacred Crown is closely devoted to King Stephen. According to Hartwick's legend Pope Silvester II sent a crown to Stephen, however, it is not true as the legend cannot be recognised as authentic source, and also, there are no evidence found in Vatican City. The date of his coronation is unknown, it is variously given as Christmas Day, 1000 or 1 January 1001. During this coronation, he dedicated the crown to the Holy Virgin, thereby sealing a contract between God and the crown (which is therefore considered a "holy" crown). This contract is also the base for the Doctrine of the Holy Crown, and the base of Apostolic Kingdom of Hungary. The Holy Crown of Hungary, also known as the Crown of St. ... Gerbert of Aurillac, later known as pope Silvester II, (or Sylvester II), (ca. ... The Holy Crown of Hungary, also known as the Crown of St. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Events Grand Prince Stephen I of Hungary is named the first King of Hungary by Pope Silvester II. Canonisation of Edward the Martyr, king of England. ... Holy Virgin is the first single from the album 21st Century by German trance group Groove Coverage. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Alternate meaning: See Apostle (Mormonism) The Christian Apostles were Jewish men chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth (as indicated by the Greek word απόστολος apostolos= messenger), by Jesus to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles, across the world. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ...


Stephen intended to retire to a life of holy contemplation and hand the kingdom over to his son Imre, but Imre was wounded in a hunting accident and died in 1031. In Stephen's words of mourning: Prince St. ...

By God's secret decision death took him, so that wickedness would not change his soul and false imaginations would not deceive his mind – as the Book of Wisdom teaches about early death. Wisdom or the Wisdom of Solomon is one of the deuterocanonical books of the Bible. ...

Stephen mourned for a very long time over the loss of his son, which took a great toll on his health. He eventually recovered, but never regained his original vitality. Having no children left, he could not find anyone among his remaining relatives who was able to rule the country competently and willing to maintain the Christian faith of the nation. Unable to choose an heir, King Stephen died on the Feast of the Assumption in 1038 at Székesfehérvár, where he was buried. His nobles and his subjects were said to have mourned for three straight years afterwards.[citation needed] For other uses, see Christian (disambiguation). ... The Assumption has been a subject of Christian art for centuries. ... Székesfehérvár (German: Stuhlweißenburg, Latin: Alba Regia, colloquial Hungarian: Fehérvár, Croatian: Stolni Biograd) is a city in central Hungary, located around 65 km southwest of Budapest. ...


Following Stephen's death, his nephew Peter Urseolo (his appointed heir) and brother-in-law Samuel Aba contended for the crown. Nine years of instability followed until Stephen's cousin Andrew I was crowned King of Hungary, re-establishing the Árpád dynasty in 1047. Hungarian historiography saw Peter and Samuel as members of the Árpád dynasty, and both are counted among the Árpád kings. Peter Urseolo (or Orseolo) was the second king of Hungary and reigned from 1038 till 1041 and from 1044 till 1046 after a brief interuption of three years in which Sámuel Aba ruled the nation. ... Samuel Aba (Hungarian: Aba Sámuel; in contemporary foreign sources: King Aba, on his coins: King Samuel) was the third king of Hungary. ... Andrew I (born c. ...

The Holy Right, the king's right hand
The Holy Right, the king's right hand

Shortly after Stephen's death, healing miracles were said to have occurred at his tomb. Stephen was canonized by Pope Gregory VII as Saint Stephen of Hungary in 1083, along with his son, Saint Imre and Bishop Gerhard (Hungarian: Szent Gellért). Thus Saint Stephen became the first of the canonized confessor kings, a new prototype of saints. Image File history File links Sztjobb. ... Image File history File links Sztjobb. ... Pope Gregory VII (c. ... Prince St. ... Gerard Sagredo (also Gellért, c. ...


Catholics venerate him as the patron saint of Hungary, kings, the death of children, masons, stonecutters, and bricklayers. His feast day was not included in the Tridentine Calendar. It was added in 1631 to the Roman Calendar as a commemoration in the feast of Saint Bernard of Clairvaux. In 1687 it was moved to 2 September. In the 1969 revision of the calendar, 16 August became free from other celebrations and the feast of Saint Stephen of Hungary was moved to that date, the day immediately after that of his death.[11] However, in Hungary the feast is observed on August 20, the day on which his sacred relics were transferred to the city of Buda. This day is a public holiday in Hungary. The calendar of saints is a traditional Christian method of organising a liturgical year on the level of days by associating each day with a saint, and referring to the day as the saints day of that saint. ... For the General Roman Calendar as it was in 1955, see Traditional Catholic Calendar. ... Saint Bernard of Clairvaux (1090–August 21, 1153) was a French abbot and the primary builder of the reforming Cistercian monastic order. ... is the 245th day of the year (246th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 228th day of the year (229th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 232nd day of the year (233rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Holidays in Hungary: Holidays not endorsed by the state See also Country info for Hungary, including the public holidays Categories: Hungarian society | Hungarian culture | Public holidays by country | Hungary-related lists ...


The king's right hand, known as "The Holy Right", is kept as a relic. His body was mummified after his death[citation needed], but the tomb was opened and his hand was separated some years later. Except for this, only some bone fragments remained (which are kept in churches throughout Hungary). Catholics honour the first king of their country on annual processions, where the Holy Right is exhibited.


Stephen was also canonised by the Eastern Orthodox Church in 2000, thus became the first saint recognised both by Orthodoxy and Catholicism since the Great Schism.[citation needed] Orthodox icon of Pentecost. ... “Orthodox” redirects here. ... As a Christian ecclesiastical term, Catholic—from the Greek adjective , meaning general or universal[1]—is described in the Oxford English Dictionary as follows: ~Church, (originally) whole body of Christians; ~, belonging to or in accord with (a) this, (b) the church before separation into Greek or Eastern and Latin or... The Second Ecumenical Council whose contributions to the Nicene Creed lay at the heart of the famous theological disputes underlying the East-West Schism. ...


The Holy Crown, popularly attributed to St. Stephen, was removed from the country in 1945 for safekeeping, and entrusted to the United States government. It was kept in a vault at Fort Knox until 1978, when it was returned to the nation by order of U.S. President Jimmy Carter. It has been enshrined in the Hungarian Parliament building in Budapest since 2000. The Holy Crown of Hungary, also known as the Crown of St. ... The United States Bullion Depository is a fortified vault building located near Fort Knox, Kentucky which is used to store a large portion of United States official gold reserves, as well as from time to time, other precious items belonging to, or entrusted to, the United States of America. ... For other persons named Jimmy Carter, see Jimmy Carter (disambiguation). ...


Quote

A miniature of the king from the Chronicon Pictum, 1360.
A miniature of the king from the Chronicon Pictum, 1360.
My beloved son, delight of my heart, hope of your posterity, I pray, I command, that at every time and in everything, strengthened by your devotion to me, you may show favor not only to relations and kin, or to the most eminent, be they leaders or rich men or neighbors or fellow countrymen, but also to foreigners and to all who come to you. By fulfilling your duty in this way you will reach the highest state of happiness. Be merciful to all who are suffering violence, keeping always in your heart the example of the Lord who said, "I desire mercy and not sacrifice." Be patient with everyone, not only with the powerful, but also with the weak.
Finally be strong lest prosperity lift you up too much or adversity cast you down. Be humble in this life, that God may raise you up in the next. Be truly moderate and do not punish or condemn anyone immoderately. Be gentle so that you may never oppose justice. Be honorable so that you may never voluntarily bring disgrace upon anyone. Be chaste so that you may avoid all the foulness of lust like the pangs of death.
All these virtues I have noted above make up the royal crown, and without them no one is fit to rule here on earth or attain to the heavenly kingdom.

--Excerpt from Saint Stephen's admonitions to his son Imre. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... Events October 24 - The Treaty of Brétigny is ratified at Calais, marking the end of the first phase of the Hundred Years War. ...

Saint Stephen on current 10,000 Hungarian Forint banknote
Saint Stephen on current 10,000 Hungarian Forint banknote
Gyula Benczúr's painting of Saint Stephen's baptism on the banknote commemorating the 1000th year of Hungarian statehood (2000)
Gyula Benczúr's painting of Saint Stephen's baptism on the banknote commemorating the 1000th year of Hungarian statehood (2000)

Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (896x406, 101 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hungarian forint ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (896x406, 101 KB) Summary Licensing File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Hungarian forint ... Forint, or HUF (Hungarian forint) is the official currency of Hungary. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 363 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 406 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 363 pixelsFull resolution (896 × 406 pixel, file size: 110 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Benczúr in 1917 Gyula Benczúr (1844-1920) was a Hungarian painter and pedagogue. ...

Artistic representation

King Stephen of Hungary has been a popular theme in art, especially from the 19th century on, with its development of nationalism. Paintings such as The Baptism of Vajk (1875) by Gyula Benczúr and many statues representing the king all over Hungary testify to Stephen's importance in Hungarian national thought. Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... Eugène Delacroixs Liberty Leading the People, symbolizing French nationalism during the July Revolution 1830. ... Benczúr in 1917 Gyula Benczúr (1844-1920) was a Hungarian painter and pedagogue. ...


The best known representations of St. Stephen in music are Ludwig van Beethoven's King Stephen Overture, and the 1983 rock opera István, a király (Stephen, the King) by Levente Szörényi and János Bródy. Szörényi's Veled, Uram! (With You, Lord! - 2000) was a sequel to István, a király. “Beethoven” redirects here. ... The Whos Tommy, the first album explicitly billed as a rock opera A rock opera is a rock music album or stage production that resembles the form of an opera. ... István, a király (Stephen, the King) is a Hungarian rock opera written by Levente Szörényi (music) and János Bródy (lyrics), based on the life of Saint Stephen of Hungary. ... For other uses, see Sequel (disambiguation). ...


Recent controversy

In Slovakia, the actual role of St. Stephen is highly debated. It is reflected by a recent debate in the Slovakian parliament [12] on whether to devote a national holiday for him or not.


References

  1. ^ He was referred as Waic by Thietmar of Merseburg. "Vajk" is probably a turkic name meaning rich or hero, but it may have originated from the Hungarian word for butter ("vaj"), as well.
  2. ^ Some Polish sources claim his mother was the Polish princess Adelajda from the dynasty of the Piasts, the second wife of Géza, after Sarolt's death, but this version is generally rejected by historians.
  3. ^ Legenda maior Sancti Regis Stephani (The major legend of King Saint Stephen)
  4. ^ The name Stephen derives from the Greek στεφανος, stephanos, meaning "crowned".
  5. ^ Legenda maior Sancti Regis Stephani (The major legend of King Saint Stephen)
  6. ^ Hermann of Reichenau: Chronicon de sex ætatibus mundi (Chronicle of the six ages of the world)
  7. ^ Chronicon Pictum
  8. ^ Legenda maior Sancti Regis Stephani (The major legend of King Saint Stephen)
  9. ^ Chronicon Pictum
  10. ^ Some authors call them Poznan and Hunt claiming that Poznan was a Slovakian landholder in the Nitra region, but the sources seem to strengthen the idea that the brothers arrived to Hungary in the company of Giselle.
  11. ^ Calendarium Romanum (Libreria Editrice Vaticana, 1969), pp. 100, 137
  12. ^ Tlačová agentúra Slovenskej republiky

Thietmar (Dietmar or Dithmar) of Merseburg (July 25, 975 - December 1, 1018), German chronicler, was a son of Siegfried, count of Walbeck, and was related to the family of the emperor Otto the Great. ... This is the disambiguation page for the terms Turk, Turkey, Turkic, and Turkish. ... The Piast dynasty is a line of Kings and dukes that ruled Poland from its beginnings as an independent state up to 1370. ... Hermannus Contractus (also called Hermannus Augiensis, Hermann of Reichenau) (1013 – 1054) was an 11th century scholar, composer, and music theorist. ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... A miniature from the Chronicon Pictum. ... Poznan was a Slovak noble house in the Kingdom of Hungary and at the same time the (entire) name of several members of the family. ... Hunt (or wrongly Hont) was a Slovak noble house in the Kingdom of Hungary. ... Giselle or Gizella of Bavaria (c. ...

See also

Crown of Saint Stephen The Crown of Saint Stephen (Hungarian: Szent Korona, Croatian: Kruna svetoga Stjepana), also known as the Holy Crown of Hungary, was used to crown Hungarian kings from the 13th century onward. ...

External links

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:
Stephen I of Hungary
  • Stephen I, the First Christian Hungarian King (CryingVoice.com)
  • His picture on the Hungarian 10,000 forint banknote
  • a BBC report on Saint Stephen's day celebrations in Hungary
  •   "St. Stephen (2)". Catholic Encyclopedia. (1913). New York: Robert Appleton Company. 
Preceded by
Géza
Grand Prince of the Magyars
9971000
Succeeded by
became king
Preceded by
himself as ruling prince
King of Hungary
10001038
Succeeded by
Peter Urseolo
Image File history File links Wikisource-logo. ... Not to be confused with New Catholic Encyclopedia. ... Géza of Hungary (born around 940-945, died in 997) (possibly Gyécsa in Old Hungarian, Gejza in Slovak), was the fejedelem (ruling prince) of the Magyars from c. ... Events City of Gdansk is founded Saint Adalbert of Prague is sent to Prussia by Boleslaus I of Poland Samuil of Bulgaria crowned Tsar by Pope Gregory V The town of Trondheim is founded. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... This is a list of all rulers of Hungary since Árpád. ... Europe in 1000 The year 1000 of the Gregorian Calendar was the last year of the 10th century as well as the last year of the first millennium. ... Events Independent declaration of Western Xia. ... Peter Urseolo (or Orseolo) was the second king of Hungary and reigned from 1038 till 1041 and from 1044 till 1046 after a brief interruption of three years in which Sámuel Aba ruled the nation. ...

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stephen I of Hungary - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1046 words)
Stephen and Gizella had at least three children; we know the names of the sons Imre (Henry or Emeric) and Ottó (Otto) and the daughter Hedvig (Hedwig).
Between 995 and 997, Stephen (under the name "Vajk") was the prince of Nitra (a Slovak Christian center and the capital of the Nitrian principality in present day south-western Slovakia) and was living in Nitra together with his wife.
According to Hungarian tradition, Pope Silvester II sent a magnificent jeweled gold crown to Stephen (which became the symbol of Hungary under the name of the Holy Crown) along with an apostolic cross and a letter of blessing in the beginning of January, 1001 to officially recognize him as a Christian king of Europe.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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