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Encyclopedia > Stephen Harper
The Rt. Hon. Stephen Joseph Harper,
PC, MP, MA
Stephen Harper

Incumbent
Assumed office 
February 6, 2006
Preceded by Paul Martin

Born April 30, 1959 (age 47)
Toronto, Ontario
Political party Conservative
Spouse Laureen Harper
Religion Christian and Missionary Alliance
Signature

Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. He was appointed Prime Minister of Canada after leading the Conservative Party to a minority government win in the January 2006 federal election. Stephen Harper became the first Conservative Prime Minister after more than twelve years of Liberal government. The Right Honourable (abbreviated The Rt. ... The Privy Council Office as it appeared in the 1880s The Queens Privy Council for Canada (French: Conseil privé de la Reine pour le Canada) is the council of advisers to the Queen of Canada, whose members are appointed by the Governor General of Canada for life on the... 38th Parliament Members of the House of Commons in the 38th Parliament of Canada, as of May 17, 2005. ... A Master of Arts is a postgraduate academic masters degree awarded by universities in North America and the United Kingdom (excluding the ancient universities of Scotland and Oxbridge. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1532x2000, 382 KB) Summary Officially released photo of Prime Minister Stephen Harper, released with permission for use on Wikipedia. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... The incumbent, in politics, is the current holder of a political office. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Paul Edgar Philippe Martin (born August 28, 1938), sometimes referred to as Paul Martin Jr, was the 21st Prime Minister of Canada and a former leader of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Laureen Harper, née Teskey is the wife of Stephen Harper, leader of the federal Conservative Party of Canada and Prime Minister, as of January 23, 2006. ... The Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA) is an Evangelical Protestant denomination within Christianity. ... Image File history File links StephenHarper-Signature. ... April 30 is the 120th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (121st in leap years), with 245 days remaining. ... Year 1959 (MCMLIX) was a common year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... A minority government or a minority cabinet is a cabinet of a parliamentary system formed when no political party has won a majority of seats in the parliament, typically by the party that does have a plurality. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ...


Harper has been the Member of Parliament (MP) for the riding of Calgary Southwest in Alberta since 2002, having previously served as the MP for Calgary West from 1993 to 1997. According to Canadian protocol, as Prime Minister, he is styled "The Right Honourable" for life. A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters to a parliament. ... In the British Isles since Anglo-Saxon times, a riding is traditionally a sub-division (especially in three) of a county, in Australia analogous. ... Calgary Southwest is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1988. ... Motto: Fortis et liber (Latin: Strong and free) Official languages English (see below) Flower   Wild rose Tree Lodgepole Pine Bird Great Horned Owl Capital Edmonton Largest city Calgary Lieutenant-Governor Norman Kwong Premier Ed Stelmach (PC) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 28 6 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total... For the provincial electoral district, see Calgary West (provincial electoral district) Calgary West is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada. ... The Right Honourable (abbreviated The Rt. ...


One of the founding members of the Reform Party, Harper ended his first stint as an MP to join, and shortly thereafter head, the National Citizens Coalition. In 2002, Stephen Harper succeeded Stockwell Day as leader of the Canadian Alliance and returned to Parliament as Leader of the Opposition. In 2003, he successfully reached an agreement with Progressive Conservative leader Peter MacKay to merge the Canadian Alliance with the Progressive Conservative Party to form the Conservative Party of Canada. The merger was overwhelmingly approved by both memberships. He was elected as the party's first non-interim leader in March 2004. The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... The National Citizens Coalition is a Canadian libertarian-conservative lobby group. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Peter Gordon MacKay, PC, BA, LL.B, MP (born September 27, 1965) serves as the member of Parliament (MP) for Central Nova, Nova Scotia, Canadas Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. ...

Contents

Background

Stephen Harper was born in Toronto. He is the eldest of three sons of Margaret Johnston and Joseph Harper. Harper attended Northlea Public School, while living at 332 Bessborough Avenue in Leaside. He later attended John G. Althouse Middle School and Richview Collegiate Institute (both in Central Etobicoke), while living at 57 Princess Anne Crescent. He graduated in 1978 as the top student of his graduating year with a 95.7% average, and represented his high school on the TV quiz and trivia show Reach for the Top.[1] Harper briefly studied at the University of Toronto before travelling to Edmonton, where he found employment in the oil and gas industry as a computer programmer in his early twenties. He later attended the University of Calgary, receiving a Master's degree in economics. Harper is the first prime minister since Lester B. Pearson not to have attended law school. His links to the University remain strong, and he has been a frequent lecturer there. Leaside is a neighbourhood in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... John G. Althouse Middle School (JGA) is a middle school located in Toronto, Ontario, near the intersection of Martingrove Road and Princess Margaret Boulevard. ... Richview Collegiate Institute is a secondary school in Etobicoke, a suburb in the west end of Toronto, Ontario. ... Etobicoke (pronounced a-TOE-ba-coe; in SAMPA [@toUb@koU]), is the western region of Toronto, Ontario. ... Reach for the Top is a Canadian game show in which teams of high school students participate in national and provincial trivia tournaments. ... The University of Toronto (U of T) is a coeducational public research university in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ... Edmonton is the capital of the Canadian province of Alberta, situated in the north central region of the province, an area with some of the most fertile farm land on the prairies. ... The Oil industry brings to market what is currently considered the lifeblood of nearly all other industry, if not industrialized civilization itself. ... In computing, a programmer is someone who does computer programming and develops computer software. ... The University of Calgary is a public university located in the north-western quadrant of Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... A masters degree is an academic degree usually awarded for completion of a postgraduate (or graduate) course of one to three years in duration. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Lester Bowles Mike Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... // A law school is an institution where future lawyers obtain legal degrees. ...


Harper married Laureen Teskey in 1993. They have two children: Benjamin, born in 1996, and Rachel, born in 1999. Harper is the third Prime Minister, after Pierre Trudeau and John Turner, to send their children to Rockcliffe Park Public School, a public school in Ottawa. Stephen Harper occasionally[2] attends church at the East Gate Alliance Church in Ottawa,[3] a member of the evangelical Christian and Missionary Alliance. Laureen Teskey is the wife of Stephen Harper, leader of the federal Conservative Party of Canada and Prime Minister-designate, as of January 23, 2006. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... John Turner, PC, CC, QC, MA, BCL, LLD (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... Rockcliffe Park Public School (RPPS) is a public elementary school in the wealthy Ottawa neigbourhood of Rockcliffe Park. ... Motto: Advance Ottawa/Ottawa en avant Location of the City of Ottawa in the Province of Ontario Coordinates: Country Canada Province Ontario Established 1850 as Town of Bytown Incorporated 1855 as City of Ottawa Amalgamated January 1, 2001  - Mayor Larry OBrien  - City Council Ottawa City Council  - Representatives 8 MPs... The word evangelicalism usually refers to religious practices and traditions which are found in conservative, almost always Protestant Christianity. ... The Christian and Missionary Alliance (C&MA) is an Evangelical Protestant denomination within Christianity. ...


Harper has several hobbies and has participated in many artistic endeavours. He is an avid fan of ice hockey and of the Calgary Flames, although on a October 4, 2006 Toronto Maple Leafs game, cameras had caught him raising his arms after a Toronto goal which raised questions by hockey fans. His son Ben was wearing a Maple Leaf jersey at the game.[4] Ice hockey, known simply as hockey in areas where it is more common than field hockey, is a team sport played on ice. ... The Calgary Flames are a professional ice hockey team based in Calgary, Alberta. ... The Toronto Maple Leafs are a professional ice hockey team based in Toronto, Ontario, Canada. ...


Stephen Harper has ventured into the arena of sports broadcasting. During the TSN broadcast of the Canada-Russia final of the World Junior Hockey Championships, Stephen Harper appeared in an interview and expressed several views on the state of hockey today. Among his comments was his preference for an overtime period in lieu of a shoot-out.[5][6] TSN may also refer to The Sporting News, The Sierra Network, Team Sportscast Network or taxonomic serial number. ... The World Junior Ice Hockey Championship, (WJHC, formally the IIHF World U-20 Hockey Championship) is an annual event organized by the International Ice Hockey Federation for national under-20 ice hockey teams from around the world. ...


He is also currently writing a history book about the sport.[7] His father was also a published author.[8] Harper recently taped a cameo appearance in an upcoming episode of the television show Corner Gas to be aired in spring 2007.[9] Harper reportedly owns a large vinyl record collection and is an avid fan of The Beatles and AC/DC.[10] Martin Scorsese appears briefly in an uncredited role in this scene from his feature film Taxi Driver. ... Corner Gas is a Canadian situation comedy which has aired on CTV and The Comedy Network since 2004. ... The Beatles Magical Mystery Tour as a 33 â…“ LP vinyl record A gramophone record (also phonograph record, or simply record) is an analogue sound recording medium consisting of a flat disc with an inscribed modulated spiral groove starting near the periphery and ending near the center of the disc. ... The Beatles were an English rock band from Liverpool whose members were John Lennon, Paul McCartney, George Harrison and Ringo Starr. ... This article is about the band. ...


Political beginnings

Stephen Harper, pictured right, here with young Progressive Conservatives, in 1985.
Stephen Harper, pictured right, here with young Progressive Conservatives, in 1985.

Harper became involved in politics as a member of his high school's Young Liberals Club. He later changed his political allegiance because of the Trudeau Liberal government's National Energy Program (NEP), which he thought was harmful to Alberta's energy industry. He became chief aide to Progressive Conservative MP Jim Hawkes in 1985, but later became disillusioned with both the party and the government of Brian Mulroney. Harper was especially critical of the Mulroney government's fiscal policy, and its inability to fully revoke the NEP until 1986. He left the PC Party that same year.[citation needed] Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (767x627, 289 KB)Steven Harper, Outlook Magazine, the Official Newspaper of the Alberta PC Youth Association, 1985 edition - Released into the public domain by the Alberta PC Youth Association, and the now defunct PC Youth Federation as late as 2002. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (767x627, 289 KB)Steven Harper, Outlook Magazine, the Official Newspaper of the Alberta PC Youth Association, 1985 edition - Released into the public domain by the Alberta PC Youth Association, and the now defunct PC Youth Federation as late as 2002. ... The Young Liberals of Canada is the national youth wing of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The National Energy Program (NEP) was an energy policy of the Government of Canada. ... The energy industry is a generic term for all of the industries involved the production and sale of energy, including fuel extraction, manufacturing fuel and refining, and fuel distribution. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Frederick James Jim Hawkes, M.Sc. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Fiscal policy is the economic term that defines the set of principles and decisions of a government in setting the level of public expenditure and how that expenditure is funded. ...


He was then recommended by Western economist Bob Mansell to Preston Manning, the founder and leader of the Reform Party of Canada. Harper impressed Manning, who invited him to participate in the party. Harper gave an important speech at Reform's 1987 founding convention in Winnipeg. He became the Reform Party's Chief Policy Officer, and he played a major role in drafting the 1988 election platform. He is credited with creating Reform's campaign slogan, "The West wants in!"[citation needed] Preston Manning Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a Canadian politician. ... Motto: Template:Unhide = Unum Cum Virtute Multorum (One With the Strength of Many) Location City Information Established: 1738 (Fort Rouge), 1873 (City of Winnipeg) Area: 465. ...


Harper ran for the Canadian House of Commons in the 1988 federal election, appearing on the ballot as Steve Harper in Calgary West. He lost by a wide margin to Hawkes, his former employer. The Reform Party did not win any seats in this election, although party candidate Deborah Grey was elected as the party's first MP in a by-election shortly thereafter. Harper became Grey's executive assistant, and was her chief adviser and speechwriter until 1993.[11] He remained prominent in the Reform Party's national organization in his role as policy chief, encouraging the party to expand beyond its Western base and arguing that strictly regional parties were at risk of being taken over by radical elements.[12] He delivered a speech at the Reform Party's 1991 national convention, in which he condemned extremist views.[13] The House of Commons (French: Chambre des communes) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the Senate. ... Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... For the provincial electoral district, see Calgary West (provincial electoral district) Calgary West is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada. ... Deborah Cleland Grey (born July 1, 1952) is a former prominent Canadian Member of Parliament from Alberta for the Reform Party of Canada, Canadian Alliance and Conservative Party of Canada. ... A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ...


Harper's relationship with Manning became strained in 1992, due to conflicting strategies over the Charlottetown Accord. Harper opposed the Accord on principle for ideological reasons, while Manning was initially more open to compromise. Harper also criticized Manning's decision to hire Rick Anderson as an adviser, believing that Anderson was not sufficiently committed to the Reform Party's principles.[14] He resigned as policy chief in October 1992. Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ... Rick Anderson is a prominent Canadian political strategist. ...


Harper stood for office again in the 1993 federal election, and defeated Jim Hawkes amid a significant Reform breakthrough in Western Canada. His campaign likely benefited from a $50,000 print and television campaign organized by the National Citizens Coalition against Hawkes, although the NCC did not endorse Harper directly.[15] Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... The National Citizens Coalition is a Canadian libertarian-conservative lobby group. ...


Reform MP

Harper emerged a prominent member of the Reform Party caucus, and earned respect even from political opponents for his intellect and ideological commitment. Author Mordecai Richler once described him as the "one MP of substance" in the party.[16] Mordecai Richler, CC (January 27, 1931 – July 3, 2001) was a Canadian author, screenwriter and essayist. ...


Harper was active on constitutional issues during his first term in parliament, and played a prominent role in drafting the Reform Party's strategy for the 1995 Quebec referendum. A long-standing opponent of centralized federalism, he stood with Preston Manning in Montreal to introduce a twenty-point plan to "decentralize and modernize" Canada in the event of a "no" victory.[17] Harper later argued that the "no" side's narrow plurality was a worst-case scenario, in that no-one had won a mandate for change.[18] Bill on the referendum and eventual declaration of independence. ... Canadian federalism is one of the three pillars of the constitutional order, along with responsible government and the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms. ... Nickname: City of Mary Motto: Concordia Salus Coordinates: Country Canada Province Québec Founded 1642 Established 1832  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1] [2]    - City 185. ... A plurality, or relative/simple majority as it is also referred to outside the United States (especially in non-English speaking countries; in the US, simple majority has another meaning), is the largest share of something, which may or may not be a majority in the American sense of the...


Although not associated with the Reform Party's radical wing, Harper expressed socially conservative views on some issues. In 1994, he opposed plans by federal Justice Minister Allan Rock to introduce spousal benefits for same-sex couples. Citing the recent failure of a similar initiative in Ontario, he was quoted as saying, "What I hope they learn is not to get into it. There are more important social and economic issues, not to mention the unity question".[19] Harper also spoke against the possibility of the Canadian Human Rights Commission or the Supreme Court changing federal policy in these and other matters.[20] SoCon redirects here, for the athletic conference see: Southern Conference // Social conservatism, is a political philosophy that supports what its adherents believe to be traditional morality. They are not opposed to social change per se, but believe that any changes should be directed in such a way as to prohibit... The Minister of Justice (French: Ministre de la Justice) of Canada is the minister in the Cabinet of Canada who is responsible for the Department of Justice and is also Attorney General of Canada. ... This article is about the Canadian statesman. ... A same-sex couple is a pair of people of the same sex, who pursue a relationship similar to that of a heterosexual married couple. ... Motto: Ut Incepit Fidelis Sic Permanet (Latin: Loyal she began, loyal she remains) Official languages English (de facto) Capital Toronto Largest city Toronto Lieutenant-Governor James K. Bartleman Premier Dalton McGuinty (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 106 24 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 4th 1,076... The Canadian Human Rights Commission was established in 1977 by the government of Canada. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ...


At the Reform Party's 1994 policy convention, Harper was part of a small minority of delegates who voted against restricting the definition of marriage to "the union of one man and one woman".[21] He actually opposed both same-sex marriage and mandated benefits for same-sex couples, but argued that political parties should refrain from taking official positions on these and other issues of conscience.[22] Same-sex marriage was legalized across Canada by the Civil Marriage Act enacted on July 20, 2005. ...


Harper was the only Reform MP to vote for a bill establishing the Canadian gun registry at second reading stage in 1995, although he voted against it at third reading. He made his initial decision after concluding that a majority of his constituents supported the measure, but changed his mind after deciding there was substantial opposition.[23] It was reported in April 1995 that some Progressive Conservatives opposed to Jean Charest's leadership wanted to remove both Charest and Manning, and unite the Reform and Progressive Conservative parties under Harper's leadership.[24] The Canadian gun registry is a government-run registry of all legally-owned guns in Canada. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ...


Despite his prominent position in the party, Harper's relationship with the Reform Party leadership was frequently strained. In early 1994, he criticized a party decision to establish a personal expense account for Preston Manning at a time when other Reform MPs had been asked to forego parliamentary perquisites.[25] His criticism proved divisive in the party, and he was formally rebuked by the Reform executive council despite winning support from some MPs. His relationship with Manning grew increasingly fractious in the mid-1990s, and he pointedly declined to express any opinion on Manning's leadership during a 1996 interview.[26] This friction was indictative of a fundamental divide between the two men: Harper was strongly committed to conservative principles and opposed Manning's inclinations toward populism, which he saw as leading to compromise on core ideological matters.[27] Employee benefits (also called fringe benefits, perquisites, or perks) are various non-wage compensations provided to employees in addition to their normal wages or salaries. ...


These tensions culminated in late 1996 when Harper announced that he would not be a candidate in the next federal election. He resigned his parliamentary seat on January 14, 1997, the same day that he was appointed as a vice-president of the National Citizens Coalition (NCC), a conservative think-tank and advocacy group.[28] He was promoted to NCC president later in the year. 36th Parliament The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... January 14 is the 14th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1997 (MCMXCVII) was a common year starting on Wednesday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In April 1997, Harper suggested that the Reform Party was drifting toward social conservatism and ignoring the principles of economic conservatism.[29] The Liberal Party won a second majority government in the 1997 federal election, while Reform made only modest gains. 36th Parliament The Canadian federal election of 1997 was held on June 2, 1997, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ...


Out of parliament

Harper was out of parliament between 1997 and 2001, though he remained active in political circles, authoring or co-authoring a number of essays and articles, one of the most notable being the piece written with Tom Flanagan, entitled Our Benign Dictatorship, which argued that the Liberal Party only retained power through a dysfunctional political system and a divided opposition.[30] After Pierre Elliot Trudeau's death in 2000, Harper also wrote an editorial criticizing Trudeau's policies as they affected Western Canada and accused Trudeau of promoting "unabashed socialism."[31][32] Soon after leaving parliament, Harper and Tom Flanagan co-authored an opinion piece entitled Our Benign Dictatorship, which argued that the Liberal Party only retained power through a dysfunctional political system and a divided opposition. ... Thomas Eugene Flanagan is an American-born writer and professor of political science at the University of Calgary in Alberta, Canada. ... Name Pierre Elliott Trudeau Number Fifteenth First term April 20, 1968–June 4,1979 Second term March 3, 1980–June 30, 1984 Predecessor Lester Bowles Pearson Successors Joe Clark John Napier Turner Date of birth October 18, 1919 Place of birth Montreal, Quebec Date of death September 28... Socialism refers to a broad array of doctrines or political movements that envisage a socio-economic system in which property and the distribution of wealth are subject to social control. ...


Encouraged by senior aides to Ontario Premier Mike Harris, including Tony Clement and Tom Long, Harper considered campaigning for the Progressive Conservative Party leadership in 1998. Image:Mcguinty77. ... Michael Deane Harris (born January 23, 1945, in Toronto, Ontario) was the twenty-second Premier of Ontario from June 26, 1995 to April 15, 2002. ... Hon. ... Tom Long (born 1958) is a Canadian political strategist. ...


In late 1999, Harper called for the federal government to establish clear rules for any future Quebec referendum on sovereignty.[33] Some have identified Harper's views as an influence on the Chrétien government's Clarity Act.[34] The Clarity Act (known as Bill C-20 before it became law) is legislation of Canadas federal parliament that established the conditions under which the Government of Canada would enter into negotiations that might lead to secession following such a vote by one of the provinces. ...


When the United Alternative created the Canadian Alliance in 2000 as a successor party to Reform, Harper endorsed Tom Long for the leadership, believing him to be better suited than Manning and third candidate Stockwell Day.[35][36] When Day placed first on the first ballot, Harper said that the Canadian Alliance was shifting "more towards being a party of the religious right".[37] Day won on the second ballot, but lost the general election that followed. His leadership became increasingly troubled throughout the summer of 2001, as many MPs began calling for his resignation. In June, the National Post newspaper reported that former Reform MP Ian McClelland was organizing a possible leadership challenge on Harper's behalf.[38] Harper resigned from the NCC presidency in August 2001 to prepare a campaign.[39] The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ... The term Religious Right is a broad label applied by both scholars and critics to a number of political and religious movements and groups that primarily are active around conservative and right wing social issues. ... The 2000 Canadian federal election was held on November 27, 2000, to elect 301 Members of Parliament to the House of Commons of Canada. ... The National Post is a major Canadian English-language national newspaper based in Don Mills, Ontario, a district of Toronto. ... Ian G. McClelland (born 22 June 1942 in Trail, British Columbia) was a member of the Canadian House of Commons from 1993 to 2000. ...


Harper dismissed the Kyoto Accord as a 'socialist scheme' designed to suck money out of rich countries in a letter he wrote to party supporters in 2002.[40] The letter was made public in 2007. Earth as seen by Apollo 17 The Kyoto Protocol is an amendment to the United Nations Framework Convention on Climate Change (UNFCCC), an international treaty on global warming. ...


Canadian Alliance leadership

Stockwell Day bowed to pressure and called a new Canadian Alliance leadership race for 2002, and soon declared himself a candidate. Harper emerged as Day's main rival, and declared his own candidacy on December 3, 2001. He eventually won the support of at least twenty-eight Alliance MPs,[41] including Scott Reid, James Rajotte[42] and Keith Martin.[43] During the campaign, Harper reprised his earlier warnings against an alliance with Quebec nationalists, and called for his party to become the federalist option in Quebec.[44] He argued that "the French language is not imperilled in Quebec", and opposed "special status" for the province in the Canadian Constitution accordingly.[45] He also endorsed greater provincial autonomy on Medicare, and said that he would not co-operate with the Progressive Conservatives as long as they were led by Joe Clark.[46] On social issues, Harper argued for "parental rights" to use corporal punishment against their children and supported raising the age of sexual consent.[47] He described his potential support base as "similar to what George Bush tapped".[48] December 3 is the 337th (in leap years the 338th) day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2001 (MMI) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Not to be confused with the Scott Reid who serves as press secretary to Canadian Prime Minister Paul Martin, see Scott Reid (political advisor). ... James Rajotte, BA, MA, (born August 19, 1970 in Edmonton, Alberta) is a Canadian politician. ... Keith P. Martin, PC, MP, BSc, MD (born April 13, 1960, in London, UK) is a Canadian physician and politician. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... The Constitution of Canada is the supreme law in Canada. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Corporal punishment is the deliberate infliction of pain intended to correct behavior or to punish. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ...


The tone of the leadership contest turned hostile in February 2002. Harper described Day's governance of the party as "amateurish",[49] while his campaign team argued that Day was attempting to win re-election by building a narrow support base among different groups in the religious right.[50] The Day campaign accused Harper of "attacking ethnic and religious minorities".[51] In early March, the two candidates had an especially fractious debate on CBC Newsworld.[52] The leadership vote was held on March 20, 2002. Harper was elected on the first ballot with 55% support, against 37% for Day. Two other candidates split the remainder. CBC Newsworld is a Canadian 24-hour cable news television channel operated by the CBC. It broadcasts into over 10 million homes nation-wide, as well as into some northern states in the U.S. It is the worlds third-oldest television service of this nature, after CNN in... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... For album titles with the same name, see 2002 (album). ...


After winning the party leadership, Harper announced his intention to run for parliament in a by-election in Calgary Southwest, recently vacated by Preston Manning. Ezra Levant had already been chosen as the riding's Alliance candidate and initially declared that he would not stand aside for Harper; he subsequently reconsidered.[53] The Liberals did not field a candidate, following a parliamentary tradition of allowing opposition leaders to enter the House of Commons unopposed. The Progressive Conservative candidate, Jim Prentice, also chose to withdraw.[54] Harper was elected without difficulty over New Democrat Bill Phipps, a former United Church moderator. Harper told a reporter during the campaign that he "despise[d]" Phipps, and declined to debate him.[55] A by-election or bye-election is a special election held to fill a political office when the incumbent has died or resigned. ... Calgary Southwest is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1988. ... Ezra Levant (born 1972) is a Jewish Canadian publisher, columnist, lawyer and political activist, widely seen as being on the right-wing of Canadas conservative movement. ... P. E. James Jim Prentice, PC, MP (born July 20, 1956, in South Porcupine, Timmins, Ontario) is a Canadian lawyer and politician. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... The Very Rev. ... The United Church of Canada (French: lÉglise Unie du Canada) is Canadas second largest church (after the Roman Catholic Church), and its largest Protestant denomination. ...


Harper officially became Leader of the Opposition in May 2002. Later in the same month, he said that the Atlantic Provinces were trapped in "a culture of defeat" which had to be overcome, the result of policies designed by Liberal and Progressive Conservative governments. Many Atlantic politicians condemned the remark as patronizing and insensitive. The Legislature of Nova Scotia unanimously approved a motion condemning Harper's comments,[56] which were also criticized by New Brunswick Premier Bernard Lord, federal Progressive Conservative leader Joe Clark and others. Harper refused to apologize, and said that much of Canada was trapped by the same "can't-do" attitude.[57] The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... Atlantic Canada consists of the four Canadian provinces on the Atlantic Ocean: Newfoundland and Labrador, New Brunswick, Nova Scotia, and Prince Edward Island. ... The Nova Scotia House of Assembly is the legislative branch of the provincial government of Nova Scotia, Canada. ... Motto: Spem reduxit (Hope restored) Official languages English, French (the only officially bilingual province in the country) Capital Fredericton Largest city Saint John Lieutenant-Governor Herménégilde Chiasson Premier Shawn Graham (Liberal) Parliamentary representation  - House seats  - Senate seats 10 10 Area Total  - Land  - Water  (% of total)  Ranked 11th 72... The Premier of New Brunswick (fr: Premier ministre du Nouveau-Brunswick) is the first minister for the Canadian province of New Brunswick. ... Bernard Lord, LL.B. , BA (born September 27, 1965 in Roberval, Quebec) is a Canadian politician. ... Motto: (Latin for From Sea to Sea) Anthem: O Canada Royal anthem: God Save the Queen Capital Ottawa Largest city Toronto Official languages English, French Government Parliamentary democracy and federal constitutional monarchy  - Monarch Queen Elizabeth II  - Governor General Michaëlle Jean  - Prime Minister Stephen Harper Establishment    - British North America Act... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ...


His first 18 months as opposition leader were largely devoted towards consolidating the fractured elements of the Canadian Alliance and encouraging a union of the Canadian Alliance and the federal Progressive Conservatives. The aim of this union was to present only one right-of-centre national party in the next federal election, thus preventing the vote-splitting of the past. In undertaking the merger talks, PC leader Peter MacKay reversed his previous agreement with leadership opponent David Orchard not to merge with the Alliance. After reaching an agreement with MacKay in October 2003, the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada officially merged in December, with the new party being named the "Conservative Party of Canada".[citation needed] David Orchard (born June 28, 1950, in Borden, Saskatchewan) is a Canadian political figure and a member of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...


Harper is reported to have attended the 2003 meeting of the Bilderberg Group.[58] The Bilderberg Group met in [[Paris, France] over the course of three days; May 15 - 18, 2003. ... The front cover of the privately circulated report of the 1980 Bilderberg conferene in Bad Aachen, Germany. ...


Conservative Party of Canada leadership

On January 12, 2004, Harper announced his resignation as Leader of the Opposition, in order to run for the leadership of the Conservative Party of Canada. Harper won the Conservative leadership election easily, with a first ballot majority against Belinda Stronach and Tony Clement on March 20, 2004. Harper's victory included strong showings in Ontario, Quebec, and Atlantic Canada. January 12 is the 12th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The 2004 Conservative Party of Canada leadership election took place on March 20, 2004 in Toronto, Ontario, and resulted in the election of Stephen Harper as the first leader of the new Canadian Conservative Party. ... Belinda Caroline Stronach, PC, MP (born May 2, 1966 in Newmarket, Ontario) is a Canadian businesswoman, politician, and a Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) in the Canadian House of Commons. ... Hon. ... March 20 is the 79th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (80th in leap years). ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...

See also: Stephen Harper Leadership Team

On January 12, 2004, Stephen Harper announced his resignation as Leader of the Opposition, in order to run for the leadership of the Conservative Party of Canada. ...

2004 federal election

Main article: 2004 Canadian federal election

Harper led the Conservatives during the 2004 federal election, where it was widely believed that due to scandals surrounding the incumbent Liberals under Paul Martin, the party had a chance of victory. However, comments by Conservative MPs, leaked press releases slandering the then Prime Minister, as well as controversial TV attack ads suggesting that the Conservatives would make Canada more like the United States, caused Harper's party to lose some momentum. The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Paul Edgar Philippe Martin (born August 28, 1938), sometimes referred to as Paul Martin Jr, was the 21st Prime Minister of Canada and a former leader of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... An attack ad in election terms is an advertisement whose message is meant as an attack against another candidate or political party. ...


During the campaign, Harper made an effort to reach out to Quebec voters. He spoke credible French, unlike his predecessors. Preston Manning could not speak French at all, while Stockwell Day's French was marginal at best.


The Liberals were re-elected to power with a minority government, with the Conservatives coming in second place. The Conservatives managed to take several ridings away from the Liberals in Ontario, primarily in the province's socially conservative central region. However, they were shut out of Quebec, marking the first time that a centre-right party had not won any seats in that province. Harper, after some personal deliberation, decided to stay on as the party leader. Many credited him with bringing the Progressive Conservative Party and Canadian Alliance together in a short time to fight a close election.

See also: Conservative Party of Canada Campaign Chairs

First ever Conservative Party of Canada national campaign team - 2004 election - Appointed by Stephen Harper National Campaign Co-Chairs: Michael Fortier John Reynolds Provincial Campaign Co-Chairs: British Columbia - Ed Odishaw, Bob Ransford Alberta - Deb Grey, Rod Love Saskatchewan - Rich Gabruch, Ian Shields Manitoba - Ed Agnew, Eric Stefenson Ontario - John...

Harper as Conservative leader and Leader of the Opposition

The Conservative Party's first policy convention was held from March 17-19, 2005, in Montreal. A more moderate party stance was demonstrated, in accordance with what many viewed as Harper's goal. Any opposition to abortion or bilingualism was dropped from the Conservative platform, though the party was still opposed to same-sex marriage. Harper received an 84% endorsement from delegates in the leadership review. March 17 is the 76th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (77th in leap years). ... Nickname: City of Mary Motto: Concordia Salus Coordinates: Country Canada Province Québec Founded 1642 Established 1832  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1] [2]    - City 185. ...


The party soon began a fight against same-sex marriage. Harper was criticized by a group of law professors for arguing that the government could override the provincial court rulings without using the "notwithstanding clause", a provision of Canada's Charter of Rights and Freedoms. Harper and constitutional lawyer/Conservative Justice Critic Vic Toews suggest that this clause does not have to be used to enshrine the traditional definition of marriage. Same-sex marriage is a term for a governmentally, socially, or religiously recognized marriage in which two people of the same sex live together as a family. ... Section Thirty-three of the Canadian Charter of Rights and Freedoms is part of the Constitution of Canada. ... The Charter, signed by Prime Minister Pierre Trudeau in 1981. ... Victor Vic Toews, PC, MP [teıvz] (born September 10, 1952) is a Canadian politician. ...


Following the April 2005 release of Jean Brault's damaging testimony at the Gomery Inquiry, implicating the Liberals in the scandal, opinion polls placed the Conservatives ahead of Liberals. The Conservatives had earlier abstained from the vote on the 2005 budget to avoid forcing an election. With the collapse in Liberal support and a controversial NDP amendment to the budget, the party exerted significant pressure on Harper to bring down the government. In May, Harper announced that the government had lost the "moral authority to govern". Shortly thereafter, the Conservatives and Bloc Québécois united to defeat the government on a vote that some considered to be either be a confidence motion or else a motion requiring an immediate test of the confidence of the House. The Martin government did not accept this interpretation and argued that vote had been on a procedural motion, although they also indicated that they would bring forward their revised budget for a confidence vote the following week. Ultimately, the effort to bring down the Government failed following the decision of Conservative MP Belinda Stronach to cross the floor to the Liberal Party. The vote on the NDP amendment to the budget tied, and with the Speaker of the House voting to continue debate, the Liberals stayed in power. At the time, some considered the matter to be a constitutional crisis.[59][60] Jean Brault was the president of Groupaction, a Montreal advertising firm. ... The Gomery Commission, formally the Commission of Inquiry into the Sponsorship Program and Advertising Activities, is a federal Canadian commission headed by the retired Justice John Gomery for the purpose of investigating the sponsorship scandal, which involves allegations of corruption within the Canadian government. ... canada is the best but those fucking americans can die fuck sakes they should leave my country and stop bombing my people by a minority government in Canada since the budget presented by the minority government led by Joe Clark in 1979. ... A Motion of Confidence is a motion of support proposed by a government in a parliament or other assembly of elected representatives to give members of parliament (or other such assembly) a chance to register their confidence in a government. ... Belinda Caroline Stronach, PC, MP (born May 2, 1966 in Newmarket, Ontario) is a Canadian businesswoman, politician, and a Liberal Member of Parliament (MP) in the Canadian House of Commons. ... In politics, crossing the floor is to vote against party lines, especially where this is considered unusual or controversial. ... Current house speaker Peter Milliken In Canada the Speaker of the House of Commons (French: Président de la Chambre des communes) is the presiding officer of the lower house and is elected by fellow MPs. ... A constitutional crisis is a severe breakdown in the smooth operation of government. ...


Harper was also criticized for supporting his caucus colleague MP Gurmant Grewal. Grewal had produced tapes of conversations with Tim Murphy, Paul Martin's chief of staff, in which Grewal claimed he had been offered a cabinet position in exchange for his defection. Some experts analyzed the tapes and concluded that a digital copy of the tapes had been edited. Gurmant Singh Grewal, BSc, MBA (born December 21, 1957 in Barundi, India) is a Canadian politician and former Conservative Party of Canada Member of Parliament. ... Timothy John Murphy (born August 7, 1959 in Barrie, Ontario) is a former politician and the current chief of staff of the Canadian Prime Ministers Office. ...

Stephen Harper gives a victory speech to party faithful in Calgary after his Conservatives won the 2006 federal election.

The Liberals' support dropped after the first report from the Gomery Inquiry was issued. On November 24, 2005, Harper introduced a motion of no confidence on the Liberal government, telling the House of Commons "that this government has lost the confidence of the House of Commons and needs to be removed." As the Liberals had lost New Democratic Party support in the house by refusing to accept an NDP plan to prevent health care privatization, the no confidence motion was passed by a vote of 171-133. As a result, Parliament was dissolved and a general election was scheduled for January 23, 2006. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2132x2132, 221 KB) Summary Stephen Harper gives his victory speech to party faithful in the Telus Convention Centre, Calgary, Alberta. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2132x2132, 221 KB) Summary Stephen Harper gives his victory speech to party faithful in the Telus Convention Centre, Calgary, Alberta. ... // Political scientists have developed concepts of different ideal types of political parties in order to better compare them with each other. ... Calgary is the largest city in the province of Alberta, Canada. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ... The Gomery Commission, formally the Commission of Inquiry into the Sponsorship Program and Advertising Activities, is a federal Canadian commission headed by the retired Justice John Gomery for the purpose of investigating the sponsorship scandal, which involves allegations of corruption within the Canadian government. ... November 24 is the 328th day (329th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A motion of no confidence, also called a motion of non-confidence, a censure motion, a no-confidence motion, or simply a confidence motion, is a parliamentary motion traditionally put before a parliament by the opposition in the hope of defeating or embarrassing a government. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


2006 federal election

The Conservatives began the campaign period with a policy-per-day strategy, contrary to the Liberal plan of holding off major announcements until after the Christmas holidays, so Harper dominated media coverage for the first weeks of the election. Though his party showed only modest movement in the polls, Harper's personal numbers, which had always significantly trailed those of his party, began to rise. Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ...


On December 27, 2005, the Royal Canadian Mounted Police announced it was investigating allegations that Liberal Finance Minister Ralph Goodale's office had engaged in insider trading before making an important announcement on the taxation of income trusts. The RCMP emphasized that they had no evidence of wrongdoing or criminal activity from any party associated with the investigation, including Goodale (who was later exonerated). However, the story dominated news coverage for the following week and prevented the Liberals from making their key policy announcements, allowing Harper to refocus his previous attacks against the Liberals. The Conservatives were soon leading in the polls, including in Quebec. December 27 is the 361st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (362nd in leap years). ... 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Royal Canadian Mounted Police heraldic badge. ... The Minister of Finance is one of the most important positions in the Cabinet of Canada. ... Ralph Edward Goodale, PC , MP, BA , LL.B (born October 5, 1949, in Regina, Saskatchewan) was Canadas Minister of Finance from 2003 to 2006 and continues to be a Liberal Member of Parliament. ... Insider trading is a term often used to refer to a practice, which is illegal in many jurisdictions, in which an investor trades securities of a company (, stocks, bonds or stock options) based on material non-public information which was obtained by an officer, manager, or other corporate insider, during... An income trust is an investment trust that holds income-producing assets. ...


In response, the Liberals launched negative ads targeting Harper, similar to their attacks in the 2004 election. However, their tactics had little effect this time since the Conservatives had much more momentum and had opened up a ten point advantage. Harper's personal numbers had risen considerably and polls found he was now considered not only more trustworthy, but he would also make a better Prime Minister than Martin.[61] In the 2006 federal election in Canada, the Liberal Party of Canada used attack ads against Conservative Party of Canada leader Stephen Harper. ...


Shortly after midnight on January 24, Martin conceded defeat to Harper. Later that day, he informed Governor General Michaëlle Jean that he would resign as Prime Minister. At 6:45 p.m., Jean asked Harper to form a government. He was sworn in as Canada's 22nd Prime Minister on February 6, 2006. January 24 is the 24th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... The Governor General of Canada (French: Gouverneure générale du Canada or Gouverneur général du Canada) is the representative of the Canadian Monarch. ... Michaëlle Jean, CC, CMM, COM, CD, DUniv (honoris causa), D.Litt (honoris causa) , (born September 6, 1957, in Port-au-Prince, Haïti) is the current Governor General of Canada. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Prime Minister of Canada

// Although the majority of Conservative seats were from the Western provinces, the majority of names which Harper put forward to the Governor General for appointment as Cabinet Ministers were from Ontario and Quebec, in the interests of regional balance. ...

Domestic

Unlike his recent predecessors, Harper did not name one of his colleagues to the largely honorific post of Deputy Prime Minister. Various observers had expected him to name MacKay, the former leader of the Progressive Conservative Party and his deputy party leader, or Lawrence Cannon, as a Quebec lieutenant, to the post. Harper did, however, name an order of succession to act on his behalf in certain circumstances, starting with Cannon, then Jim Prentice, then the balance of his cabinet in order of precedence. Prime Minister Stephen Harper and his Conservative Party Government of Canada planned and adopted, since its election on January 23, 2006, several policies regarding to various interior and domestic issues in Canada such as social and environmental policies. ... The Deputy Prime Minister of Canada (French: Vice-premier ministre du Canada) is an honorary position in the Canadian government, conferred at the discretion of the Prime Minister on a member of the cabinet. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Hon. ... In Canadian politics, a Quebec lieutenant is a politician, usually from Quebec or at least French-Canadian, and usually a Member of Parliament or at least a current or former candidate for Parliament, who is selected by a senior politician such as the Prime Minister or the leader of a... P. E. James Jim Prentice, PC, MP (born July 20, 1956, in South Porcupine, Timmins, Ontario) is a Canadian lawyer and politician. ... The Canadian order of precedence is a nominal and symbolic hierarchy of important positions within the Government of Canada. ...


Harper indicated a desire to turn the Canadian Senate into an elected rather than an appointed body, an objective previously proposed by the former Reform Party of Canada. His desire includes fixed election dates with earlier elections possible in the case of minority governments. On September 7, 2006, Harper became the first Canadian Prime Minister to appear before a Senate committee and was present to make his government's case for Senate reform. The Senate of Canada (French: Le Sénat du Canada) is a component of the Parliament of Canada, along with the Sovereign (represented by the Governor General) and the House of Commons. ... September 7 is the 250th day of the year (251st in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

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After sidestepping the political landmine for most of the first year of his time as prime minister, much as all the post-Charlottetown Accord prime ministers had done, Harper's hand was forced to reopen the Quebec sovereignty debate after the opposition Bloc Quebecois were to introduce a motion in the House that called for recognition of Quebec as a "nation." On November 22, 2006, Harper introduced his own motion to recognize Quebec as a "nation within a united Canada."[62] Five days later, Harper's motion passed, with a margin of 266-16; all federalist parties, as well as the Bloc Quebecois, were formally behind it.[63] Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ... Headline on October 27, 1992 Globe and Mail. ... The Quebec sovereignty movement is a political movement aimed at attaining independent statehood (sovereignty) for the Canadian province of Quebec. ... The Bloc Qu cois is a federal political party in Canada that is primarily devoted to promoting sovereignty for the province of Quebec. ...


Harper has insisted on his right to choose who asks questions at press conferences, [64] which has caused the national media to lodge complaints.[65] Some have alleged that the Prime Minister's Office also "often informs the media about Harper's trips at such short notice that it's impossible for Ottawa journalists to attend the events".[66] Harper's director of communications has denied this, saying that "this prime minister has been more accessible, gives greater media scrums and provides deeper content than any prime minister has in the last 10 to 12 years".[1]


Foreign

On March 11 and March 12, 2006, Harper made a surprise trip to Afghanistan, where Canadian Forces personnel were deployed since late 2001, to visit troops in theatre as a show of support for their efforts, and as a demonstration of the government's commitment to reconstruction and stability in the region. Harper's choice of a first foreign visit was closely guarded from the press until his arrival in Afghanistan (citing security concerns), and is seen as marking a significant change in relationship between the government and the military. While other foreign leaders have visited Afghanistan, Harper's trip was touted as unprecedented in its length and scope.[citation needed] The Conservative Party Government of Canada led by Prime Minister Stephen Harper has been involved in several ways overseas, particularly due to its role alongside the United States in the War against terror originated from the September 11, 2001 attacks in the U.S. // Stephen Harper and George W. Bush... March 11 is the 70th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (71st in leap years). ... March 12 is the 71st day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (72nd in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

Harper at the 32nd G8 summit, held July 15-17, 2006, which focused much of its attention on the Israel-Lebanon conflict.

At the outset of the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict, Harper defended Israel's "right to defend itself" and described its military campaign in Lebanon as a "measured" response, arguing that Hezbollah's release of kidnapped IDF soldiers would be the key to ending the conflict.[67] Some Canadians, including many Arabs, criticized Harper's description of the Israeli response as "measured". On July 17, 2006, Harper noted that the situation had deteriorated since his initial comments, but that it was difficult for Israel to fight "non-governmental forces" embedded in the civilian population. Harper reiterated his earlier support for Israel and called on both sides to show restraint and minimize civilian casualties. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2535, 1329 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prime Minister of Canada Stephen Harper User:GeeJo/Gallery ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (3000x2535, 1329 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Prime Minister of Canada Stephen Harper User:GeeJo/Gallery ... 32nd G8 summit The 32nd summit of the G8 group of industrialised nations took place from July 15 to July 17, 2006 outside Saint Petersburg, Russia. ... July 15 is the 196th day (197th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 169 days remaining. ... Combatants Hezbollah Amal LCP  Israel Commanders Hassan Nasrallah (Secretary General of Hezbollah) Imad Mughniyeh (Commander of Hezbollahs armed wing)[5] Dan Halutz (CoS) Moshe Kaplinsky[12] Udi Adam (Regional) Strength 600-1,000 active fighters 3,000-10,000 reservists[6] 30,000 ground troops (plus IAF & ISC)[13... For other uses, see Hezbollah (disambiguation). ... July 17 is the 198th day (199th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 167 days remaining. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...

See also: International reactions to the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict

Speaking of the situation in both Lebanon and Gaza on July 18, Harper told reporters, "We all want to encourage not just a ceasefire, but a resolution. And a resolution will only be achieved when everyone gets to the table and everyone admits...recognition of each other," referring to the refusal of Hezbollah and Hamas to recognize Israel's right to exist. Harper laid the blame for the civilian deaths on both sides at the feet of Hezbollah. "Hezbollah's objective is violence," Harper asserted, "Hezbollah believes that through violence it can create, it can bring about the destruction of Israel. Violence will not bring about the destruction of Israel... and inevitably the result of the violence will be the deaths primarily of innocent people.".[68] The international reactions to the 2006 Israel-Lebanon conflict have been mixed, with most leaders condemning both Hezbollah and Israel. ... Map of the Gaza Strip from The World Factbook. ... July 18 is the 199th day (200th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian Calendar, with 166 days remaining. ...


Relations with the United States' leaders

Main article: Canada-United States relations
U.S. President George W. Bush, Former Mexican President Vicente Fox and Stephen Harper, right at the Chichen-Itza archaeological ruins in 2006.
U.S. President George W. Bush, Former Mexican President Vicente Fox and Stephen Harper, right at the Chichen-Itza archaeological ruins in 2006.

Shortly after being congratulated by George W. Bush for his victory, Harper rebuked U.S. Ambassador to Canada David Wilkins for criticizing the Conservatives' plans to assert Canada's sovereignty over the Arctic Ocean waters with armed forces. Harper's first meeting with the U.S. President occurred at the end of March, 2006; and while little was achieved in the way of solid agreements, the trip was described in the media as signalling a trend of closer relations between the two nations. Canada-United States relations span more than two centuries, marked by a shared British colonial heritage, conflict during the early years of the U.S., and the eventual development of one of the most successful international relationships in the modern world. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_Fox_Harper. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Bush_Fox_Harper. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... Vicente Fox Quesada[1] (born July 2, 1942) served as President of Mexico from December 1, 2000 to December 1, 2006. ... Chichen Itza (from Yucatec Maya chichen itza, At the mouth of the well of the Itza) is a large pre-Columbian archaeological site built by the Maya civilization, located in the northern center of the Yucatán Peninsula, present-day Mexico. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... David H. Wilkins David Horton Wilkins (born October 12, 1946) is a former South Carolina politician and an American diplomat. ...


Supreme Court

Aside from his legislative agenda, Harper put forward Marshall Rothstein to Governor General Michaëlle Jean for appointment as the new Puisne Justice to the Supreme Court of Canada, on February 23, 2006. Rothstein had been 'short listed' with two other potential judges by a committee convened by the previous Liberal government. In keeping with election promises of a new appointment process, Harper announced Rothstein had to appear before an 'ad hoc' non-partisan committee of 12 Members of Parliament. However, the committee did not have the power to veto the appointment, which was what some members of his own party had called for.[69] Marshall E. Rothstein, QC , LL.B , B.Comm (born December 25, 1940) is a Puisne Justice of the Supreme Court of Canada. ... A Puisne Justice or Puisne Judge (pronounced puny) is the title for a regular member of a Court. ... The Supreme Court of Canada (French: Cour suprême du Canada) is the highest court of Canada and is the final court of appeal in the Canadian justice system. ... February 23 is the 54th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Ad hoc is a Latin phrase which means for this [purpose]. It generally signifies a solution that has been tailored to a specific purpose, such as a tailor-made suit, a handcrafted network protocol, and specific-purpose equation and things like that. ... A Member of Parliament, or MP, is a representative elected by the voters of an electoral district to a parliament; in the Westminster system, specifically to the lower house. ... Appointment may refer to a number of things, including the following: Look up appointment in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


Honours

Harper also received the Woodrow Wilson Award on October 6, 2006 for his public service in Calgary. It was held at the Telus Convention Centre in Calgary, the same place where he made his victory speech. The Woodrow Wilson Award for Distinguished Government Service honors alumni who have brought credit to their University by their current or recently concluded distinguished public service as elected or appointed officials. ... October 6 is the 279th day of the year (280th in leap years). ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ...


Time Magazine named him as Canada's Newsmaker of the Year in 2006. Stephen Handelman wrote "that the prime minister who was once dismissed as a doctrinaire backroom tactician with no experience in government has emerged as a warrior in power." [70] (Clockwise from upper left) Time magazine covers from May 7, 1945; July 25, 1969; December 31, 1999; September 14, 2001; and April 21, 2003. ... Prime Minister Stephen Harper was Times Canadian Newsmaker of the Year in 2006. ...

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Image File history File links Commons-logo. ... Image File history File links Wikiquote-logo-en. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Image File history File links Wikinews-logo. ... Wikinews is a free-content news source and a project of the Wikimedia Foundation. ...

Electoral record

2006 federal election : Calgary Southwest edit
Party Candidate Votes % Expenditures
     Conservative (x)Stephen Harper 41,549 72.36
     Liberal Mike Swanson 6,553 11.41
     New Democratic Party Holly Heffernan 4,628 8.06
     Green Kim Warnke 4,407 7.68
     Christian Heritage Larry R. Heather 279 0.49
Total valid votes 57,416 100.00
Total rejected ballots 120
Turnout 57,536
2004 federal election : Calgary Southwest edit
Party Candidate Votes % Expenditures
     Conservative (x)Stephen Harper 35,297 68.36 $62,952.76
     Liberal Avalon Roberts 9,501 18.40 $43,846.23
     Green Darcy Kraus 3,210 6.22 534.96
     New Democratic Party Daria Fox 2,884 5.59 3,648.70
     Marijuana Mark de Pelham 516 1.00 $0.00
     Christian Heritage Larry R. Heather 229 0.44 $985.59
Total valid votes 51,637 100.00
Total rejected ballots 149
Turnout 51,786 64.49
Electors on the lists 80,296
Canadian federal by-election, May 13, 2002 : Calgary Southwest edit
Party Candidate Votes % Expenditures
     Canadian Alliance Stephen Harper 13,200 71.66 $58,959.16
     New Democratic Party Bill Phipps 3,813 20.70 $34,789.77
     Green James S. Kohut 660 3.58 $2,750.80
     Independent Gordon Barrett 428 2.32 $3,329.34
     Christian Heritage Ron Gray 320 1.74 $27,772.78
Total valid votes 18,421 100.00
Total rejected ballots 98
Turnout 18,519 23.05
Electors on the lists 80,360
1993 federal election : Calgary West edit
Party Candidate Votes %
     Reform Stephen Harper 30,209 52.25
     Liberal Karen Gainer 15,314 26.49
     Progressive Conservative (x)James Hawkes 9,090 15.72
     New Democratic Party Rudy Rogers 1,194 2.06
     National Kathleen McNeil 1,068 1.85
     Natural Law Frank Haika 483 0.84
     Green Don Francis 347 0.60
     Christian Heritage Larry R. Heather 116 0.20
Total valid votes 57,821 100.00
Total rejected ballots 133
Turnout 57,954 66.29
Electors on the lists 87,421
1988 federal election : Calgary West edit
Party Candidate Votes %
     Progressive Conservative (x)James Hawkes 32,025 58.52
     Reform Stephen Harper 9,074 16.58
     Liberal John Phillips 6,880 12.57
     New Democratic Party Richard D. Vanderberg 6,355 11.61
     Libertarian David Faren 225 0.41
     Confederation of Regions Brent Morin 170 0.31
Total valid votes 54,729 100.00
Total rejected ballots 117
Turnout 54,846 78.75
Electors on the lists 69,650

All electoral information is taken from Elections Canada. Italicized expenditures refer to submitted totals, and are presented when the final reviewed totals are not available. Rendition of party representation in the 39th Canadian parliament decided by this election. ... Calgary Southwest is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1988. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Liberal Party of Canada ran a full slate of 308 candidates in the 2006 federal election, and won 103 seats to form the Official Opposition against a Conservative minority government. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... The New Democratic Party won fielded a full slate of 208 candidates in the 2006 federal election, and won 29 seats to become the fourth-largest party in parliament. ... The Green Party of Canada is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1983. ... The Green Party of Canada is intending to run a full slate of 308 candidates in the 2006 Canadian federal election. ... The Christian Heritage Party of Canada is a federal political party that advocates the governance of Canada according to the inspired, inerrant written Word of God. [1] This socially and fiscally conservative party held its founding convention in Hamilton, Ontario in November 1987, where Ed Vanwoudenberg was elected its first... Larry R. Heather (born in Vulcan, Alberta) is a politician and activist in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... The Canadian federal election, 2004 (more formally, the 38th general election), was held on June 28, 2004 to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... Calgary Southwest is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1988. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Alberta Liberal Party fielded 82 candidates in the 2001 provincial election, and won 16 seats to emerge as the Official Opposition. ... The Green Party of Canada is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1983. ... The Green Party of Canada ran a full slate of 308 candidates in the 2004 federal election. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... The New Democratic Party ran a full slate of candidates in the 2004 federal election, and elected nineteen members to become the fourth largest party in the legislature. ... The Marijuana Party is a Canadian federal political party that aims to end prohibition of cannabis. ... The New Democratic Party won fielded a full slate of 208 candidates in the 2006 federal election, and won 29 seats to become the fourth-largest party in parliament. ... The Christian Heritage Party of Canada is a federal political party that advocates the governance of Canada according to the inspired, inerrant written Word of God. [1] This socially and fiscally conservative party held its founding convention in Hamilton, Ontario in November 1987, where Ed Vanwoudenberg was elected its first... Larry R. Heather (born in Vulcan, Alberta) is a politician and activist in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Calgary Southwest is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1988. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... The Very Rev. ... The Green Party of Canada is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1983. ... The Canadian Action Party fielded a number of candidates in the 2006 federal election, none of whom were elected. ... The Social Credit Party of Alberta fielded several candidates in the 2004 provincial election, but did not win any seats. ... The Christian Heritage Party of Canada is a federal political party that advocates the governance of Canada according to the inspired, inerrant written Word of God. [1] This socially and fiscally conservative party held its founding convention in Hamilton, Ontario in November 1987, where Ed Vanwoudenberg was elected its first... Ronald O. Gray is the current leader of the minor federal level Christian Heritage Party of Canada. ... Popular vote map with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories. ... For the provincial electoral district, see Calgary West (provincial electoral district) Calgary West is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Liberal Party of Canada fielded a full slate of 295 candidates in the 1993 Canadian federal election, and won 177 seats to form a majority government. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Fredrick James (Jim) Hawkes (b. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... The New Democratic Party of Alberta won two seats in the 1997 provincial election under the leadership of Pam Barrett, and emerged as the third-largest party in the Legislative Assembly. ... The National Party was a short-lived Canadian political party that contested the 1993 Canadian election. ... The National Party of Canada ran a number of candidates in the 1993 federal election, none of whom were elected. ... The Natural Law Party of Canada was the Canadian branch of the international Natural Law Party, the political arm of Maharishi Mahesh Yogis Transcendental Meditation movement. ... The Natural Law Party of Canada ran several candidates in the 1997 federal election, none of whom were elected. ... The Green Party of Canada is a Canadian federal political party founded in 1983. ... Don Francis is a Canadian politician and political activist. ... The Christian Heritage Party of Canada is a federal political party that advocates the governance of Canada according to the inspired, inerrant written Word of God. [1] This socially and fiscally conservative party held its founding convention in Hamilton, Ontario in November 1987, where Ed Vanwoudenberg was elected its first... Larry R. Heather (born in Vulcan, Alberta) is a politician and activist in Calgary, Alberta, Canada. ... Map of the Popular Vote with bar graphs showing seat totals in the provinces and territories The Canadian Parliament after the 1988 election The Canadian federal election of 1988 was held November 21, 1988, to elect members of the Canadian House of Commons. ... For the provincial electoral district, see Calgary West (provincial electoral district) Calgary West is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Fredrick James (Jim) Hawkes (b. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... The Liberal Party of Canada (French: ), colloquially known as the Grits (originally Clear Grits), is a Canadian federal political party. ... The Alberta Liberal Party ran a full slate of candidates in the 2001 provincial election, and won seven seats to form the Official Opposition in the Legislative Assembly. ... The New Democratic Party (NDP; Nouveau Parti démocratique in French) is a political party in Canada with a progressive social democratic philosophy that contests elections at both the federal and provincial levels. ... The New Democratic Party elected thirteen candidates in the 2000 federal election, emerging as the fourth-largest party in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Libertarian Party of Canada is a minor political party in Canada that adheres to the philosophy of libertarianism. ... The Libertarian Party of Canada fielded a number of candidates in the 1988 federal election, none of whom were elected. ... The Confederation of Regions Party (CoR) was a right-wing Canadian political party founded in 1984 by Elmer Knutson. ... The Confederation of Regions Party fielded several candidates in the 1988 federal election, none of whom were elected. ... Elections Canada is the non-partisan agency of the Government of Canada responsible for the conduct of federal elections and referendums. ...


See also

This is a List of national leaders, showing heads of state and heads of government where different, mainly in parliamentary systems; it should be noted that often a leader is both in presidential systems or dictatorships. ... The federal Canadian Cabinet of Prime Minister Stephen Harper was sworn in on February 6, 2006, exactly two weeks after the 2006 election, and nine weeks and six days after the fall of the 38th Canadian Parliament. ... On January 12, 2004, Stephen Harper announced his resignation as Leader of the Opposition, in order to run for the leadership of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... The United States-Canada softwood lumber dispute is one of the most significant and enduring trade disputes in modern history. ... Prime Minister Stephen Harper and his Conservative Party Government of Canada planned and adopted, since its election on January 23, 2006, several policies regarding to various interior and domestic issues in Canada such as social and environmental policies. ... The Conservative Party Government of Canada led by Prime Minister Stephen Harper has been involved in several ways overseas, particularly due to its role alongside the United States in the War against terror originated from the September 11, 2001 attacks in the U.S. // Stephen Harper and George W. Bush...

News

  • Harper sworn in as 22nd prime minister, from the CBC

References

  1. ^ O'Connor, Naoibh, "'Nerds' tops in Canada", The Vancouver Courier, August 5, 2004, accessed on October 9, 2006
  2. ^ Marci McDonald, "Stephen Harper and the Theo-cons", The Walrus, October 2006.
  3. ^ Campbell, Colin. "The church of Stephen Harper", Macleans. Retrieved on 2006-08-02.'
  4. ^ CTV News. "PM's hockey loyalties questioned after Leafs goal", CTV, October 5, 2006.
  5. ^ Tuck, Simon. "Harper prefers 'team' approach to shootouts", Globe and Mail, January 6, 2007.
  6. ^ Press release, "Prime Minister congratulates Team Canada on gold medal victory at World Junior Hockey championships", Conservative Party of Canada, January 5, 2007
  7. ^ CBC Hockey Night In Canada interview, June 17, 2006.
  8. ^ Joseph Harper was an avid collector of Canadian Expeditionary Force cap badges and wrote a book on the subject (published by Service Publications).
  9. ^ Brownlee, Karen. "Don't quit your day job", The Regina Leader Post, August 30, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  10. ^ Dunfield, A.. "Lighter side: C'est what?", Globe and Mail, 25 June 2004. Retrieved on 2006-04-04.'
  11. ^ Geoff White, "Ottawa will be hearing from Reform MP", Calgary Herald, 21 April 1989, A5.
  12. ^ Paul Gessell, "The "other' parties are picking up big followings", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, 26 October 1990, A9.
  13. ^ George Oake, "Reform Party tries to avoid appearance of extremism", Toronto Star, 6 April 1991, A12.
  14. ^ William Johnson, Stephen Harper and the Future of Canada, (Toronto: McClelland and Stewart, 2005), pp. 179-183.
  15. ^ Kenneth Whyte, "The right-wingers duke it out in the Calgary West corral", Globe and Mail, 2 October 1993, D2.
  16. ^ Mordecai Richler, "We're in trouble: There isn't even an illusion of choice in the upcoming federal election", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, 22 April 1997, A11.
  17. ^ Neville Nankivell, "Reform's voice will grow louder", Financial Post, 31 October 1995, p. 23.
  18. ^ "Harris joins other leaders in calling for change", Hamilton Spectator, 31 October 1995, A1.
  19. ^ Marta Gold, "Same-sex fight going to Ottawa", Hamilton Spectator, 10 June 1994, A3.
  20. ^ Joan Crockett, "Robinson lays equality complaint", Hamilton Spectator, 22 June 1994, A12.
  21. ^ Edward Greenspon, "Stephen Harper: a neo-con in a land of liberals", Globe and Mail, 23 March 2002, A17.
  22. ^ Johnson, Stephen Harper, p. 222.
  23. ^ Dan Lett, "Outlaw Grits say no to party's gun bill", Winnipeg Free Press, 6 April 1995 and "Gun bill advances despite three rebels", Hamilton Spectator, 6 April 1995, A6; David Vienneau, "Torn MPs face high noon on gun law", Toronto Star, 13 June 1995, A21.
  24. ^ Susan Delacourt, "Charest, Manning dismiss reports of parties' merging", Globe and Mail, 4 April 1995, A5.
  25. ^ Geoffrey York, "Reform MPs snarl at party rebuke", Globe and Mail, 8 April 1994, A4.
  26. ^ Edward Greenspon, "Reform's renewal off to slow start", Globe and Mail, 1 August 1996, A4; Edward Greenspon, "Manning seeks to repeat party's surge", Globe and Mail, 2 August 1996, A4.
  27. ^ Kenneth Whyte, "That Manning and Harper would clash has always been a safe bet", Globe and Mail, 9 April 1994, D2; John Ibbitson, "Who is Stephen Harper?", Globe and Mail, 14 January 2006, online edition.
  28. ^ "Stephen Harper named A NCC Vice-President", Canada NewsWire, 14 January 1997, 10:51 report.
  29. ^ Thomas Walkom, No title [Second of Five Parts], Toronto Star, 6 April 1997, A1.
  30. ^ Flanagan, Tom; Stephen Harper (Winter 1997). "Our Benign Dictatorship". Next City. 
  31. ^ Harper, Stephen. "On second thought" (newspaper editorial), National Post, October 5, 2000, p. A18.
  32. ^ Harper, Stephen. "Get the state out of the economy" (newspaper editorial), National Post, February 8, 2002, p. A14.
  33. ^ Harper, Stephen. "Why Chrétien mustn't flag" (newspaper editorial), Globe and Mail, December 2, 1999, p. A17.
  34. ^ Hebert, Chantal. "Harper takes pragmatic approach to Quebec" (newspaper article), Toronto Star, April 26, 2002, p. A25.
  35. ^ Harper, Tim. "Bible belts" (newspaper article), Toronto Star, June 17, 2000, p. 1.
  36. ^ "That sound you hear is the shifting of conservative ground" (newspaper article), Globe and Mail, April 21, 2000, p. A12.
  37. ^ Adams, Paul. "Front-runner rides tide of religious conservatism", Globe and Mail, June 26, 2000, p. A1.
  38. ^ Alberts, Sheldon. "Harper mounts campaign to lead the right: Behind the scenes" (newspaper article), National Post, June 30, 2001, p. A06.
  39. ^ National Citizen's Coalition (August 13, 2001). Stephen Harper to Step Down as NCC President. Press release.
  40. ^ CBC News. "Harper's letter dismisses Kyoto as 'socialist scheme'", CBC, January 30, 2007.
  41. ^ "Number 28 for Harper", Canada NewsWire, March 6, 2002, 13:11 report.
  42. ^ "Six Alliance MPs declare or reaffirm support for Harper's leadership bid", Canadian Press, December 7, 2001, 17:55 report.
  43. ^ "Five More MPs endorse Harper", Canada NewsWire, February 20, 2002, 14:25 report.
  44. ^ Harper, Stephen. "A vision of federalism for all Canadians" (newspaper article), National Post, January 19, 2002, p. A18.
  45. ^ Basu, Arpon. "Alliance candidate Stephen Harper says French not threatened in Quebec", Canadian Press, January 19, 2002, 17:34 report.
  46. ^ Laghi, Brian. "Harper launches campaign" (newspaper article), Globe and Mail date=December 4, 2001, p. A8.
  47. ^ Laghi, Brian. "Harper campaigns on social issues" (newspaper article), Globe and Mail, February 21, 2002, p. A4.
  48. ^ Hunter, Ian. "The cult of policy" (newspaper article), Globe and Mail, March 7, 2002, p. A19.
  49. ^ "No more Mr. Nice Guy in Alliance leadership race", Kitchener-Waterloo Record, 4 February 2002, A3.
  50. ^ Robert Fife, "Day accused of courting evangelicals", National Post, 9 February 2002, A06.
  51. ^ Campbell Clark, "Harper attacking minorities, Day leadership camp charges", Globe and Mail, 12 February 2002, A12.
  52. ^ Brian Laghi, "Harper, Day swap insults in debate", Globe and Mail, 8 March 2002, A4.
  53. ^ Dawn Walton, "Rookie Levant ready to run", Globe and Mail, 28 March 2002, A8; Sheldon Alberts, "'Troubled' Levant lets Harper run", National Post, 29 March 2002, A01.
  54. ^ "Alliance leader won't face Tories in byelection bid", Winnipeg Free Press, 31 March 2002, A8.
  55. ^ Jeffrey Simpson, "He makes Harper think uncharitable thoughts", Globe and Mail, 7 May 2002, A19. Phipps later said that he was "shocked" by Harper's language. See Louise Elliott, "NDP candidate slams Alliance leader for personal comment, refusal to debate", Canadian Press, 9 May 2002, 17:23 report.
  56. ^ Brian Laghi, "Motion by MLAs condemns Harper", Globe and Mail, 31 May 2002, A5. The motion was brought forward by Nova Scotia NDP leader Darrell Dexter.
  57. ^ Louise Elliott, "Harper calls Canada a nation of defeatists, defends remark about easterners", Canadian Press, 29 May 2002, 17:23 report; Brian Laghi, "Premiers tell Harper his attack was wrong", Globe and Mail, 30 May 2002, A8.
  58. ^ CTV news report, 9 June 2006. See also List of Bilderberg attendees.
  59. ^ The Confidence Convention and the May 2005 Vote on the Public Accounts Committee Report.
  60. ^ National Post, May 14, 2005.
  61. ^ CTV.ca News Staff. "Harper seen as most trusted leader, poll finds", CTV.ca, 2005-01-11. Retrieved on 2006-09-21.
  62. ^ CBC News. "Quebecers form a nation within Canada: PM", CBC.ca, November 22, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  63. ^ Canadian Press. "Quebecois motion passes, 266-16", Toronto Star, November 27, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  64. ^ CBC News. "Harper says he's finished with Ottawa press corps", CBC.ca, May 24, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  65. ^ globalnational.com. "Stephen Harper vs. The Press", canada.com, May 23, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  66. ^ Delacourt, Susan. "PM 'critic' sent packing", Toronto Star, October 23, 2006.
  67. ^ Canadian Press. "Harper sides firmly with Israel" (fee required), Globe and Mail, July 13, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  68. ^ Blanchfield, Mike. "Neutral stance rejected", National Post, July 19, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  69. ^ Globe and Mail Update. "Committee to judge next Supreme Court appointee" (fee required), Globe and Mail, February 20, 2006. Retrieved on 2006-12-06.
  70. ^ CTV News. "Time Magazine dubs Harper Cdn. newsmaker of 2006", CTV, December 17, 2006.

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External links

28th Ministry - Government of Stephen Harper
Cabinet Post
Predecessor Office Successor
Paul Martin Prime Minister of Canada
(February 6, 2006- Present)
Incumbent
Preceded by
Jim Hawkes, Progressive Conservative
Member for Calgary West
1993–1997
Succeeded by
Rob Anders, Reform
Preceded by
John Reynolds (interim)
Leader of the Canadian Alliance
2002–2003
Succeeded by
(Party merged with the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada to create the Conservative Party of Canada)
Preceded by
Preston Manning, Canadian Alliance
Member for Calgary Southwest
2002 – present
Incumbent
Preceded by
John Reynolds (first time), Grant Hill, (2nd time)
Leader of the Opposition
2002-2004, 2004–2006
Succeeded by
Grant Hill (first time), Bill Graham (2nd time)
Preceded by
John Lynch-Staunton (interim)
Leader of the Conservative Party
2004 – present
Incumbent


The federal Canadian Cabinet of Prime Minister Stephen Harper was sworn in on February 6, 2006, exactly two weeks after the 2006 election, and nine weeks and six days after the fall of the 38th Canadian Parliament. ... Paul Edgar Philippe Martin (born August 28, 1938), sometimes referred to as Paul Martin Jr, was the 21st Prime Minister of Canada and a former leader of the Liberal Party of Canada. ... The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... February 6 is the 37th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar. ... For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... Frederick James Jim Hawkes, M.Sc. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... For the provincial electoral district, see Calgary West (provincial electoral district) Calgary West is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada. ... Robert Rob Anders (born April 1, 1972, in Winnipeg, Manitoba) is a Canadian politician. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... John Douglas Reynolds (born January 19, 1942) is a Conservative Member of Parliament for West Vancouver—Sunshine Coast—Sea to Sky Country in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ... Preston Manning Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a Canadian politician. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... Calgary Southwest is a federal electoral district in Alberta, Canada, that has been represented in the Canadian House of Commons since 1988. ... John Douglas Reynolds (born January 19, 1942) is a Conservative Member of Parliament for West Vancouver—Sunshine Coast—Sea to Sky Country in the Canadian House of Commons. ... The Honourable Dr. Grant Hill, PC , MD (born September 20, 1943) was a Canadian Member of Parliament for the Conservative Party of Canada (2004), and a former member of the Canadian Alliance (2000-2004) and the Reform Party of Canada (1993-2000). ... The Leader of the Opposition (French: Chef de lOpposition) in Canada is the Member of Parliament in the Canadian House of Commons who leads Her Majestys Loyal Opposition (the body in Parliament recognized as the Official Opposition). ... The Honourable Dr. Grant Hill, PC , MD (born September 20, 1943) was a Canadian Member of Parliament for the Conservative Party of Canada (2004), and a former member of the Canadian Alliance (2000-2004) and the Reform Party of Canada (1993-2000). ... Hon. ... The Honourable John Lynch-Staunton (born June 19, 1930 in Montreal) is a former Canadian senator and was the first leader of the Conservative Party of Canada. ... The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...

Prime Ministers of Canada Flag of Canada
Macdonald | Mackenzie | Abbott | Thompson | Bowell | Tupper | Laurier | Borden | Meighen | King | Bennett | St. Laurent | Diefenbaker | Pearson | Trudeau | Clark | Turner | Mulroney | Campbell | Chrétien | Martin | Harper



The Prime Minister of Canada (French: Premier ministre du Canada), is the head of the Government of Canada. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Canada. ... Sir John Alexander Macdonald was born on January 11, 1815 in Glasgow, Scotland. ... Alexander MacKenzie painted by Thomas Lawrence (c. ... The Hon. ... Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC, (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer and judge who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894 as well as Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... Sir Wilfrid Laurier, PC, GCMG, KC, BCL, DCL, LLD, DLitt, baptized Henri-Charles-Wilfrid Laurier (November 20, 1841 – February 17, 1919) was the seventh Prime Minister of Canada from July 11, 1896, to October 5, 1911. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC , KC , GCMG , DCL , LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Arthur Meighen, PC , QC , BA , LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920, to December 29, 1921, and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... William Lyon Mackenzie King, OM, PC, LL.B, Ph. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Louis Stephen St. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Lester Bowles Mike Pearson, PC, OM, CC, OBE, MA, LL.D. (April 23, 1897 – December 27, 1972) was a Canadian statesman, diplomat and politician who was made a Nobel Laureate in 1957. ... For other uses, see Pierre Elliott Trudeau (disambiguation). ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... John Turner, PC, CC, QC, MA, BCL, LLD (born June 7, 1929) was the seventeenth Prime Minister of Canada from June 30, 1984 to September 17, 1984. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ... Joseph Jacques Jean Chrétien, usually known as Jean Chrétien, PC, QC, BA, LLL, LLD (born January 11, 1934), served as the twentieth Prime Minister of Canada from November 4, 1993 to December 12, 2003. ... Paul Edgar Philippe Martin (born August 28, 1938), sometimes referred to as Paul Martin Jr, was the 21st Prime Minister of Canada and a former leader of the Liberal Party of Canada. ...

Members of the current Canadian Cabinet Flag of Canada
Ambrose | Baird | Bernier | Blackburn | Cannon | Clement | Day | Emerson | Finley | Flaherty | Fortier | Harper | Hearn | LeBreton | Lunn | MacKay | Nicholson | O'Connor | Oda | Prentice | Skelton | Solberg | Strahl | Thompson | Toews | Van Loan | Verner
Secretaries of State
Guergis | Hill | Kenney | Paradis | Ritz

Leaders of the Conservative Party of Canada and its antecedents Image File history File links Conservative_maple_leaf,_blue. ... Sir John A. Macdonald, Canadas first prime minister, is considered the father of the Canadian conservative movement. ...

Liberal-Conservative/Conservative/Unionist/N.L.C./National Government/Progressive Conservative (1867-2003): Macdonald | Abbott | Thompson | Bowell | Tupper | Borden | Meighen | Bennett | Manion | Meighen | Bracken | Drew | Diefenbaker | Stanfield | Clark | Mulroney | Campbell | Charest | Clark | MacKay

Reform (1987-2000)/Canadian Alliance (2000-2003): Manning | Day | Harper
The Liberal-Conservative Party was the formal name of the Conservative Party of Canada until 1873, although some Conservative candidates continued to run under the label as late as the 1911 election and others ran as simple Conservatives prior to 1873. ... The Conservative Party of Canada has gone by a variety of names over the years since Canadian Confederation. ... The Unionist Party was formed in 1917 by Members of Parliament (MPs) in Canada who supported the Union government formed by Sir Robert Borden during World War I. In May 1917, Conservative Prime Minister Borden proposed the formation of a national unity government or coalition government to Liberal leader Sir... The National Liberal and Conservative Party was the name adopted by the Canadian Conservatives in 1920 after the end of the Unionist government of Robert Borden. ... National Government was the name used by the Conservative Party of Canada for the 1940 federal election under leader Robert Manion. ... The Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (PC) (In French: Parti progressiste-conservateur du Canada) was a Canadian centre-right conservative political party that existed from 1867 to 2003. ... Sir John Alexander Macdonald was born on January 11, 1815 in Glasgow, Scotland. ... The Hon. ... Sir John Sparrow David Thompson, KCMG, PC, QC, (November 10, 1845 – December 12, 1894) was a Canadian lawyer and judge who served as the fourth Prime Minister of Canada from December 5, 1892 to December 12, 1894 as well as Premier of Nova Scotia in 1882. ... Sir Mackenzie Bowell, PC , KCMG (December 27, 1823 – December 10, 1917) was the fifth Prime Minister of Canada from December 21, 1894 to April 27, 1896. ... Not to be confused with Sir Charles Hibbert Tupper who was Sir Charles Tuppers son. ... Sir Robert Laird Borden, PC , KC , GCMG , DCL , LL.D (June 26, 1854 – June 10, 1937) was the eighth Prime Minister of Canada from October 10, 1911, to July 10, 1920, and the third Nova Scotian to hold this office. ... Arthur Meighen, PC , QC , BA , LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920, to December 29, 1921, and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... Richard Bedford Bennett, 1st Viscount Bennett, PC, KC (July 3, 1870 – June 26, 1947) was the eleventh Prime Minister of Canada from August 7, 1930 to October 23, 1935. ... Robert James Manion (November 19, 1881 Pembroke, Ontario - July 2, 1943 Ottawa, Ontario) was a physician and Canadian politician. ... Arthur Meighen, PC , QC , BA , LL.D (June 16, 1874 – August 5, 1960) was the ninth Prime Minister of Canada from July 10, 1920, to December 29, 1921, and June 29 to September 25, 1926. ... The Honourable Professor John Bracken, PC (June 22, 1883-March 18, 1969) was an agronomist, Premier of Manitoba (1922-1943) and leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada (1942-1948). ... Colonel The Honourable George Alexander Drew, PC , CC , QC (May 7, 1894 - January 4, 1973) was a Canadian conservative politician who founded a Progressive Conservative dynasty in Ontario that lasted 42 years. ... John George Diefenbaker, CH, PC, QC, BA, MA, LL.B, LL.D, DCL, FRSC, FRSA, D.Litt, DSL, (18 September 1895 – 16 August 1979) was the 13th Prime Minister of Canada (1957 – 1963). ... Robert Lorne Stanfield, PC, QC (April 11, 1914–December 16, 2003) was Premier of Nova Scotia and leader of the federal Progressive Conservative Party of Canada. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Martin Brian Mulroney, PC, CC, GOQ, LLD (born March 20, 1939), was the eighteenth Prime Minister of Canada from September 17, 1984, to June 25, 1993 and was leader of the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada from 1983 to 1993. ... Avril Phaedra Douglas Campbell, PC, QC, LL.B, LL.D (h. ... This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Charles Joseph Joe Clark, PC, CC, AOE, MA, LLD (born June 5, 1939) was the sixteenth prime minister of Canada, from June 4, 1979, to March 3, 1980. ... Peter Gordon MacKay, PC, BA, LL.B, MP (born September 27, 1965) serves as the member of Parliament (MP) for Central Nova, Nova Scotia, Canadas Minister of Foreign Affairs and Minister for the Atlantic Canada Opportunities Agency. ... The Reform Party of Canada was a Canadian federal political party founded in 1987. ... The Canadian Alliance, formally the Canadian Reform Conservative Alliance, was a Canadian conservative political party that existed from 2000 to 2003. ... Preston Manning Ernest Preston Manning (born June 10, 1942, in Edmonton, Alberta), is a Canadian politician. ... Stockwell Burt Day Jr. ...


Conservative (new) (2003-present): Harper The Conservative Party of Canada (French: Parti conservateur du Canada), colloquially known as the Tories, is a right-leaning conservative political party in Canada, formed by the merger of the Canadian Alliance and the Progressive Conservative Party of Canada in December 2003. ...


Alberta Caucus serving in the 39th Canadian Parliament.
Senators Tommy Banks (Lib), Joyce Fairbairn (Lib), Daniel Hays (Lib), Elaine McCoy (PC), Grant Mitchell (Lib), Claudette Tardif (Lib)
Members of Parliament Diane Ablonczy (Con), Rona Ambrose (Con), Rob Anders (Con), Leon Benoit (Con), Blaine Calkins (Con), Rick Casson (Con), Ken Epp (Con), Peter Goldring (Con), Art Hanger (Con), Stephen Harper (Con), Laurie Hawn (Con), Rahim Jaffer (Con), Brian Jean (Con), Jason Kenney (Con), Mike Lake (Con), Ted Menzies (Con), Rob Merrifield (Con), Bob Mills (Con), Deepak Obhrai (Con), Jim Prentice (Con), James Rajotte (Con), Lee Richardson (Con), Monte Solberg (Con), Kevin Sorenson (Con), Brian Storseth (Con), Myron Thompson (Con), Chris Warkentin (Con), John Williams (Con)
Persondata
NAME Harper, Stephen
ALTERNATIVE NAMES
SHORT DESCRIPTION 22nd Prime Minister of Canada
DATE OF BIRTH April 30, 1959
PLACE OF BIRTH Toronto
DATE OF DEATH
PLACE OF DEATH

  Results from FactBites:
 
CBC News Indepth: Stephen Harper (2795 words)
Harper was elected leader of the newly merged party in March 2004, and was almost immediately plunged into an election campaign called by Paul Martin, the new Liberal prime minister.
Harper is a voracious reader, and the books he tackled in the next year would change the course of his life.
Harper took the helm of the National Citizens Coalition, where he spoke out in defence of taxpayers' rights; penned articles that called official bilingualism "the god that failed" and criticized federal politicians over the "appeasement" of Quebec separatists; and fought limits on third-party election campaign spending.
Stephen Harper - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (8552 words)
Stephen Joseph Harper (born April 30, 1959, in Toronto, Ontario) is the 22nd and current Prime Minister of Canada and leader of the Conservative Party of Canada.
Harper was especially critical of the government's fiscal policy and inability to fully revoke the NEP until 1986.
Harper was named executive assistant to newly-elected Reform MP Deborah Grey in 1989, and served as her chief advisor and speech writer until 1993.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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