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The Stephansdom (Cathedral of Saint Stephen), in Vienna, Austria, is the seat of a Roman Catholic Archbishop, a beloved symbol of Vienna, and the site of many important events in Austria's national life. Vienna (German: Wien [viːn]; Slovenian: Dunaj, Croatian and Serbian: Beč Romanian: Viena, Hungarian: Bécs, Czech: Vídeň, Slovak: Viedeň, Romany Vidnya, Russian: Вена) is the capital of Austria, and also one of the nine States of Austria. ... The Roman Catholic Church, most often spoken of simply as the Catholic Church, is the largest Christian church, with over one billion members. ... In Christianity, an archbishop is an elevated bishop. ...

St. Stephen's Cathedral in 1912. At the right is the south tower, symbol of Vienna for centuries. At the left are the two Roman towers of the main front of the cathedral.
St. Stephen's Cathedral in 1912. At the right is the south tower, symbol of Vienna for centuries. At the left are the two Roman towers of the main front of the cathedral.

Download high resolution version (385x626, 126 KB)Picture of the Cathedral of Saint Stephan in Vienna taken in 1912 (German Wikipedia) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Download high resolution version (385x626, 126 KB)Picture of the Cathedral of Saint Stephan in Vienna taken in 1912 (German Wikipedia) File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

History

The cathedral was first built as a parish church, in 1147, and rebuilt and enlarged over the centuries, with major new work concluding in 1511, although repair and restoration have continued from the beginning to the present day. Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ... 1511 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


It was previously thought that the church had been built in an open field outside the city walls; but excavations for a long-awaited heating system during 2000 revealed graves that were carbon-dated to the fourth century, 8 feet (2.5 meters) below the surface. The 430 skeletons were then moved to the catacombs. Thousands of others must have been buried in the ancient cemetery of this neighborhood, starting in Roman times; and this, instead of St. Ruprecht's Church, may be the oldest church site in Vienna. This article is about the year 2000. ... Radiocarbon dating is a radiometric dating method that uses the naturally occurring isotope carbon-14 to determine the age of carbonaceous materials up to ca 60,000 years. ... This article is about a foot as a unit of length. ... The metre, or meter (symbol: m) is the SI base unit of length. ... St. ...

Growth of the Stephansdom: The Roman towers and Giant door from the burned-out first church were used as part of the Romanesque second church built to replace it. Forty years later, construction began on the Gothic Albertine Choir; 55 years after that, Duke Rudolf IV's additions enlarging the structure began, around and above the second church. The second church was then dismantled and removed from inside the completed building, leaving the third church as the Stephansdom seen today.
Growth of the Stephansdom: The Roman towers and Giant door from the burned-out first church were used as part of the Romanesque second church built to replace it. Forty years later, construction began on the Gothic Albertine Choir; 55 years after that, Duke Rudolf IV's additions enlarging the structure began, around and above the second church. The second church was then dismantled and removed from inside the completed building, leaving the third church as the Stephansdom seen today.

The first recorded church here was founded in 1137, by Duke Leopold IV in a contract with Reginmar, Bishop of Passau. The church was dedicated to St. Stephen, the patron of the bishop's cathedral in Passau. The first church building was built in the Romanesque style and consecrated ten years later. The present west wall and Roman towers date from 1237. After a great fire in the city in 1258, a larger replacement structure, also Romanesque and reusing the Roman towers, was consecrated, on 23 April 1263, an anniversary highlighted each year by a rare ringing of the Pummerin bell for three minutes in the evening. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (456x657, 113 KB) Growth of the Stephansdom: The Roman towers and Giant door remain from the first church and were used as part of the second church. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (456x657, 113 KB) Growth of the Stephansdom: The Roman towers and Giant door remain from the first church and were used as part of the second church. ... Events Louis VII is crowned King of France. ... Leopold IV, the Generous (c. ... The Bishop of Passau is the Ordinary of the Roman Catholic Diocese of Passau in the Archdiocese of München und Freising . ... St. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... Romanesque St. ... To consecrate an inanimate object is to dedicate it in a ritual to a special purpose, usually religious. ... // Events Thomas II of Savoy becomes count of Flanders. ... For broader historical context, see 1250s and 13th century. ... Romanesque St. ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... Events Detmold, Germany was founded. ... Pummerin (Boomer) is the name of the two largest bells in the history of the Stephansdom in Vienna. ...


In 1304, Emperor Albert I ordered construction of a Gothic three-naved choir, further east of the church and wide enough to meet the tips of the old transepts. Work continued under his son Duke Albert II; this latest work was consecrated in 1340, on the 77th anniversary of the previous consecration. The motif of the north nave furnishings was St. Mary; the middle nave was for St. Stephen and All the Saints; and the Apostles were honored in the south nave. This part of the present cathedral, east of the present transepts, is called the Albertine Choir. Events 20 July - Fall of Stirling Castle: Edward I of England takes the last rebel stronghold in the Wars of Scottish Independence. ... Albert I (July 1255 – May 1, 1308) was a German king, duke of Austria, and eldest son of King Rudolph I of Habsburg and Gertrud of Hohenberg. ... See also Gothic art. ... Full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... Albert II of Austria (born December 12, 1298 on the Habsburg (Aargau); died August 16, 1358 in Vienna; known as the Wise or the Lame) was Duke of Austria. ... Events Europe has about 74 million inhabitants. ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... General definition of saint In general, the term Saint refers to someone who is exceptionally virtuous and holy. ... The Twelve Apostles (in Koine Greek απόστολος apostolos [1], someone sent forth/sent out, an emissary) were probably Galilean Jewish men (10 names are Aramaic, 4 names are Greek) chosen from among the disciples, who were sent forth by Jesus of Nazareth to preach the Gospel to both Jews and Gentiles... Full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ...


In 1359, his son Duke Rudolf IV, who is called "the founder", laid, in the vicinity of the present south tower, the cornerstone for a Gothic extention of Albert's choir westward, to encapsulate the existing second church. That old church was then removed from inside the new one. Events Change of emperor of the Ottoman Empire from Orhan I (1326-1359) to Murad I (1359-1389) Berlin joins the Hanseatic League. ... Rudolf IV of Austria Rudolf IV der Stifter (the Founder) (born November 1, 1339 in Vienna, died July 27, 1365 in Milan) was a member of the House of Habsburg and Duke and self-proclaimed Archduke of Austria from 1358 to 1365. ...


(A bunch of other stuff happened in between, which will be added here.)


The Stephansdom was saved from intentional destruction at the hands of retreating German forces during World War II, when Captain Gerhard Klinkicht disregarded orders from the city commandant, Sepp Dietrich, to "fire a hundred shells and leave it in just debris and ashes". German cavalry and motorized units entering Poland from East Prussia during the Polish Defensive War of 1939 Wehrmacht (help· info) (Defence force) was the name of the armed forces of Germany from 1935 to 1945. ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... SS-Obergruppenführer Sepp Dietrich Josef Sepp Dietrich also known as Ujac (May 28, 1892–April 21/22, 1966) was a German Waffen-SS general, an SS-Oberstgruppenführer, and one of the closest men to Hitler. ...


One of the fires set by plunderers when Russian troops entered the city was carried by the wind to the cathedral, severely damaging it on 12 April 1945. Fortunately, protective brick shells had been built around the Pulpit, Frederick III's tomb, and other treasures, so that damage to the most valuable artworks was minimzed. Unfortunately, the beautifully carved choir stalls from 1487 were burned. Rebuilding began immediately, with a limited reopening on 12 December 1948 and a full reopening on 23 April 1952. April 12 is the 102nd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar (103rd in leap years). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Events Richard Fox becomes Bishop of Exeter. ... December 12 is the 346th day (347th in leap years) of the year in the Gregorian calendar, with 19 days remaining. ... 1948 (MCMXLVIII) was a leap year starting on Thursday (the link is to a full 1948 calendar). ... April 23 is the 113th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (114th in leap years). ... 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ...


Exterior

View from the northwest, showing the tall south tower (with some temporary scaffolding visible behind it) and the shorter north tower, along with one of the mosaics formed of the roof tiles. In the lower left is some of the decoration above the St. John of Capistrano outdoor pulpit.
View from the northwest, showing the tall south tower (with some temporary scaffolding visible behind it) and the shorter north tower, along with one of the mosaics formed of the roof tiles. In the lower left is some of the decoration above the St. John of Capistrano outdoor pulpit.

The Romanesque and gothic cathedral is 107 meters (351 feet) long and 34 meters (111.5 feet) wide. The soot accumulated over centuries has been removed in recent years, changing it from a black-colored structure to a white one. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2234 KB) de: Stephansdom, Wien en: Stephansdom (St Stephen Cathedral), Vienna es: Stephansdom (Catedral San Esteban), Viena fr: Stephansdom (Cathédrale St Étienne), Vienna Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Stephansdom ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1944x2592, 2234 KB) de: Stephansdom, Wien en: Stephansdom (St Stephen Cathedral), Vienna es: Stephansdom (Catedral San Esteban), Viena fr: Stephansdom (Cathédrale St Étienne), Vienna Copyright © 2005 David Monniaux File links The following pages link to this file: Stephansdom ... Romanesque St. ... See also Gothic art. ...


Towers

The massive south tower (at location ST on the Plan below) is the dominant feature of the Vienna skyline at 136 meters (445 feet) and is affectionatly called Steffl ("Steve") by the Viennese. It served as the main observation and command post for the defense of the walled city during the Siege of Vienna in 1523 and again during the second siege in 1683. It is as much the most recognized symbol of Vienna as the Eiffel Tower is of Paris. Its construction took 65 years to complete, from 1368 to 1433, and it contains an apartment for the watchmen who, for centuries (ending in 1955), manned the tower during the night to ring its bells if they spotted a fire. The tip of the tower has the double eagle imperial emblem with the Habsburg-Lorraine coat of arms on its chest, surmounted by the double-armed apostolic cross symbolic of the emperors' style Apostolic Majesty as kings of Hungary. The Siege of Vienna of 1529, as distinct from the Battle of Vienna in 1683, represented the farthest Westward advance into Central Europe of the Ottoman Empire, and of all the clashes between the armies of Christianity and Islam might be signaled as the battle that finally stemmed the previously... Events April - Battle of Villalar - Forces loyal to Emperor Charles V defeat the Comuneros, a league of urban bourgeois rebelling against Charles in Spain. ... Combatants Habsburgs, Polish-Lithuanian Commonwealth Ottoman Empire and its allies Khanate of Crimea, Central Hungary, Transylvania, Wallachia, Moldavia Commanders Jan III Sobieski, Charles V, Duke of Lorraine Merzifonlu Kara Mustafa Pasha Strength 70,000 138,000 Casualties 4,000 dead 15,000 dead The Battle of Vienna (Turkish: İkinci Viyana... Events June 6 - The Ashmolean Museum opens as the worlds first university museum. ... The Tower at sunrise The Eiffel Tower (French: La Tour Eiffel; IPA pronunciation: , eye-fell English; , e-fell French) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the River Seine in Paris. ... The Eiffel Tower, the international symbol of the city, with the skyscrapers of La Défense business district 3 miles behind. ... Events Timur ascends throne of Samarkand. ... Events Births June 23 - Francis II, Duke of Brittany Kettil Karlsson Vasa, later Regent of Sweden. ... Habsburg - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ...


The north tower (at location NT), planned as a twin to the south tower, has not been completed and is only half as tall, at 68 meters (223 feet). It was given a temporary cap that the Viennese call the "water tower top" when its construction paused in 1511. Construction has not yet resumed. 1511 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On the left and on the right from the main entrance are the two Roman towers (at locations RT on the Plan below) which are about 65 meters (215 feet) tall. They are called "Roman" (heidnischen in old Viennese dialect) because they were built from rubble of structures built by the Romans during their occupation of the city site. Square at their bases, and octagonal when the rise above the roof, they housed bells, and although the south Roman tower lost its bells during World War II, the north one is still a working bell tower. Along with the Giant Door, they are the oldest parts of the church.


Roof

A glory of the Stephansdom is its ornately patterned, richly colored roof, 110 meters (361 feet) long, and covered by 230,000 glazed tiles. Above the choir, on one side of the building the tiles form a mosaic of the double-headed eagle that is symbolic of the empire ruled from Vienna by the Habsburg dynasty, and on the other the coats of arms of the City of Vienna and of the Republic of Austria are depicted. In 1945, fire caused by World War II damage to nearby buildings lept to the north tower of the Stephansdom and went on to destroy the roof. Replicating the original bracing for so large a roof (it rises 38 meters above the top of the walls) would have required an entire square kilometer of forest, so over 600 metric tons of steel bracing were used instead. The roof is so steep (an 80-degree pitch in some areas) that it is sufficiently cleaned by the rain alone and is never covered by snow. A roof tiled in imitation of thatch at Croyde, north Devon, England Rooftops in Vietnam Snow on the roof A roof is the top covering of a building that sheds rain or snow, keeping the building interior dry. ... Mission, or barrel, roof tiles For the towns named Tile, see Tile, Somalia and Tile, Lebanon. ... A choir or chorus is a musical ensemble of singers. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Heraldry is the science and art of describing of coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... Combatants Allies: Poland, British Commonwealth, France/Free France, Soviet Union, United States, China, and others Axis Powers: Germany, Italy, Japan, and others Casualties Military dead: 17 million Civilian dead: 33 million Total dead: 50 million Military dead: 8 million Civilian dead: 4 million Total dead: 12 million World War II... Square kilometre (US spelling: Square kilometer), symbol km², is an SI unit of surface area. ... A forest is an area with a high density of trees (or, historically, a wooded function as carbon dioxide sinks, animal habitats, hydrologic flow modulators, and soil conservers, constituting one of the most important aspects of the Earths biosphere. ... A tonne (also called metric ton) is a non-SI unit of mass, accepted for use with SI, defined as: 1 tonne = 103 kg (= 106 g). ... Snow is precipitation in the form of crystalline water ice, consisting of a multitude of snowflakes. ...


Bells

The cathedral has 23 bells. A bell is a simple sound-making device. ...


The largest is officially named for St. Mary, but usually called Pummerin ("Boomer") and hangs in the north tower. At 20,130 kilograms (44,380 pounds), it is the largest in Austria and the second largest swinging bell in Europe (after the 23,500-kilogram (51,800-pound) Peter in Cologne Cathedral). Originally cast in 1711 from cannons captured from the Muslim invaders, it was recast (partly from its original metal) in 1951 after crashing onto the floor when its wooden cradle burned during the 1945 fire. The new bell has a diameter of 3.14 meters (9.6 feet) and was a gift from the province of Upper Austria. It sounds on only a few special occasions each year, including the arrival of the new year. There are three other bells hanging in this tower, but they are older and no longer used. Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... Pummerin (Boomer) is the name of the two largest bells in the history of the Stephansdom in Vienna. ... The international prototype, made of platinum-iridium, which is kept at the BIPM under conditions specified by the 1st CGPM in 1889. ... The pound is the name of a number of units of mass, all in the range of 300 to 600 grams. ... Ornamented arch above one of the cathedrals entrances The main entrance The Cologne Cathedral (German: Kölner Dom, official name ) is one of the best-known architectural monuments in Germany and has been Colognes most famous landmark since its completion in the late 19th century. ... // Events February 24 - The London premiere of Rinaldo by George Friderich Handel, the first Italian opera written for the London stage. ... A Muslim (Arabic: مسلم) is an adherent of Islam. ... 1951 (MCMLI) was a common year starting on Monday; see its calendar. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The metre, or meter, is a measure of length. ... A foot (plural: feet) is a non-SI unit of distance or length, measuring around a third of a meter. ... Upper Austria (Ober sterreich) is one of the nine federal states or Bundesl nder of Austria. ...


A peal of eleven electrically operated bells, cast in 1960, hangs in the soaring south tower. Replacements for other ancient bells also lost in the 1945 fire, they are used during Masses at the cathedral: four are used for an ordinary Mass; the quantity increases to as many as ten for a major holiday Mass; and the eleventh and largest is added when the Cardinal Archbishop of Vienna himself is present. From the largest to the smallest, they are named the St. Stephen (5,700 kg); St. Leopold (2,300 kg); St. Christopher (1,350 kg); St. Leonhard (950 kg); St. Josef (700 kg); St. Peter Canisius (400 kg); St. Pius X (280 kg); All Saints (200 kg); St. Clement Maria Hofbauer (120 kg); St. Michael (60 kg); and St. Tarsicius (35 kg). Also in this tallest tower are the Primglocke (recast in 1772) and the Uhrschälle (cast in 1449), which mark the passing of the hours. 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... A cardinal is a senior ecclesiastical official in the Roman Catholic Church, ranking just below the Pope and appointed by him as a member of the College of Cardinals during a consistory. ... The Archbishop of Vienna is the metropolitan of the ecclesiastical province of Vienna, which includes the dioceses of Eisenstadt, Linz and St. ... Saint Stephen, Protomartyr, depicted by Carlo Crivelli in 1476 with three stones and the martyrs palm. ... Leopold III (1073 – November 15, 1136), Margrave of Austria 1095-1136, also known as Saint Leopold (his feast day being November 15), patron saint of Austria in general and of Vienna, Lower Austria and jointly with Saint Florian of Upper Austria in particular. ... This article is about the Christian saint known as Christopher. ... Joseph led his family to safety in Egypt to escape from Herod, as depicted by Lorenzo Monaco An iconic image of St. ... Saint Petrus Canisius (May 8, 1521 – December 21, 1597) was an important Jesuit who fought against the spread of Protestantism in Germany, Austria, Bohemia, and Switzerland. ... Pope Saint Pius X (Latin: ), born Giuseppe Melchiorre Sarto (June 2, 1835 – August 20, 1914), was Pope from 1903 to 1914, succeeding Pope Leo XIII (1878–1903). ... All Saints in Poland The festival of All Saints, also sometimes known as All Hallows, or Hallowmas, is a feast celebrated in their honour. ... St. ... Guido Renis archangel Michael (in the Capuchin church of Sta. ... 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... Events January 6 - Constantine XI is crowned Byzantine Emperor. ...


The north Roman tower contains six bells, five of which were cast in 1772, that ring for evening prayers and toll for funerals. They are working bells of the cathedral and their names usually recall their original uses: Feuerin ("fire alarm" but now used as a call to evening prayers) cast in 1859; Kantnerin (calling the cantors (musicians) to Mass); Feringerin (used for High Mass on Sundays); Bieringerin ("beer ringer" for last call at taverns); Poor Souls (the funeral bell); and Churpötsch (donated by the local curia in honor of the Maria Pötsch icon in the cathedral). 1772 was a leap year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... 1859 is a common year starting on Saturday. ... A Curia in early Roman times was a subdivision of the people, i. ...


The 1945 fire destroyed the bells that hung in the south Roman tower. 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ...


It is said that the composer Ludwig van Beethoven discovered the totality of his deafness when he saw birds flying out of the bell tower as a result of the bells' tolling but couldn't hear the bells. Ludwig van Beethoven by Carl Jäger (Date unknown). ... The word deaf can have very different meanings depending on the background of the person speaking or the context in which the word is used. ...


Fixtures

Along the outside walls of the cathedral can be seen

  • the spot (near location SJC on the Plan below) where the body of Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was blessed after his funeral inside.
  • the outdoor pulpit (at location SJC) where St. John Capistrano preached a crusade in 1454 to hold back Muslim invasions of Christian Europe.
  • a figure (at location CT) affectionately known to the Viennese as "Christ with a toothache," from the agonized expression of his face.
  • various other memorials, from the time the area outside the cathedral was a cemetery.
  • a recently-restored 15th century sundial, on a flying buttress at the southwest corner (location S).

Mozart drawing by Doris Stock, 1789 Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptised as Joannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) is among the most significant and enduringly popular composers of European classical music. ... Saint Giovanni da Capistrano (English:John Capistrano, June 24, 1386 – October 23, 1456), Italian friar, theologian and inquisitor, was born in the village of Capistrano, in the diocese of Sulmona in the Abruzzi. ... Events February 4 - In the Thirteen Years War, the Secret Council of the Prussian Confederacy sends a formal act of disobedience to the Grand Master. ... A Christian is a follower of Jesus Christ. ... Europe is conventionally considered one of the seven continents of Earth which, in this case, is more a cultural and political distinction than a physiographic one, leading to various perspectives about Europes borders. ... Wall sundial Wall sundial in Warsaws Old Town Pocket size sundial A sundial measures time by the position of the sun. ... Flying buttresses at Bath Abbey, Bath, England. ...

Interior

Plan of the cathedral, with features mentioned in this article marked with red letters. CT "Christ with a Toothache" sculpture; Fr3 Tomb of Emperor Frederick III; G Giant Door HA High Altar; MP Maria Pötsch icon; NT North Tower; P Pulpit; PES Prince Eugene of Savoy burial chapel; RT Roman Towers; S Sundial; SJC Saint John of Capistrano pulpit; ST South Tower; WNA Wiener Neustädter Altar;
Plan of the cathedral, with features mentioned in this article marked with red letters. CT "Christ with a Toothache" sculpture; Fr3 Tomb of Emperor Frederick III; G Giant Door HA High Altar; MP Maria Pötsch icon; NT North Tower; P Pulpit; PES Prince Eugene of Savoy burial chapel; RT Roman Towers; S Sundial; SJC Saint John of Capistrano pulpit; ST South Tower; WNA Wiener Neustädter Altar;

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2398x3279, 1008 KB) Summary Floor plan of St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (2398x3279, 1008 KB) Summary Floor plan of St. ... Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... Eugene of Savoy (part of a statue in front of the Hofburg in Vienna) François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen in German (October 16, 1663-April 24, 1736) was a noted general. ...

Altars

There are 18 altars in the main part of the church, and more in the various chapels. The High Altar and the Wiener Neustädt Altar are the most famous. Look up Altar in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A chapel is a private church, usually small and often attached to a larger institution such as a college, a hospital, a palace, or a prison. ...


High Altar [HA]

The first focal point of any visitor is the distant High Altar, built over seven years from 1641 to 1647 as part of the first refurbishment of the cathedral in the baroque style. The altar was built by the Tobias Pock at the direction of Vienna's Bishop Philipp Friedrich Graf Breuner with marble from Poland, Styria and Tyrol. Events The Long Parliament passes a series of legislation designed to contain Charles Is absolutist tendencies. ... // Events March 14 - Thirty Years War: Bavaria, Cologne, France and Sweden sign the Truce of Ulm. ... Adoration, by Peter Paul Rubens: dynamic figures spiral down around a void: draperies blow: a whirl of movement lit in a shaft of light, rendered in a free bravura handling of paint. ... Styria (Steiermark in German, Štajerska in Slovenian) can refer to: Styria - a federal state of Austria Styria - an informal province in Slovenia Styria - a duchy of the Holy Roman Empire and crownland of Austria-Hungary This is a disambiguation page — a navigational aid which lists other pages that might otherwise... The Tyrol is a historical region in Western Central Europe, which includes the Austrian state of Tyrol (consisting of North Tyrol and East Tyrol) and the Italian regions known as the South Tyrol and Trentino. ...


The altarpiece shows the stoning of St. Stephen, this church's patron. It is framed by figures of the patron saints of the surrounding areas — Saints Leopold, Florian, Sebastian and Rochus — and surmounted with a statute of St. Mary which draws the beholder's eye to a glimpse of heaven where Christ waits for Stephen (the first martyr) to ascend from below. Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... Historically, a martyr is a person who dies for their convictions or religious faith, such as during the persecution of early Christians in the Roman Empire. ...


Wiener Neustädter Altar [WNA]

The Wiener Neustädter Altar seen down the north aisle.
Enlarge
The Wiener Neustädter Altar seen down the north aisle.

This altar at the head of the north nave was made in 1447 on the orders of Emperor Frederick III, whose tomb is opposite it, at the head of the south nave. On the predella is his famous A.E.I.O.U. device. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 3114 KB) Summary Taken September 1, 2005. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x3456, 3114 KB) Summary Taken September 1, 2005. ... Events March 6 - Nicholas V becomes Pope. ... Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... A predella is the platform or step on which an altar stands. ... See AEIOU (disambiguation) for other meanings of AEIOU AEIOU, or A.E.I.O.U. was a device utilised by the Habsburgs emperors. ...


Frederick ordered it for the Cistercian monastery in Viktring (near Klagenfurt) where it remained until the monastery was closed in 1786 as part of Emperor Joseph II's anti-clerical reforms. It was then sent to the Cistercian monastery of St. Bernard (founded by Emperor Frederick III) in the city of Wiener Neustadt, and finally sold in 1885 to the Stephansdom when the Wiener Neustadt monastery was closed after merging with Heiligenkreuz Abbey. The Order of Cistercians (OCist) (Latin Cistercenses), otherwise Gimey or White Monks (from the colour of the habit, over which is worn a black scapular or apron) are a Catholic order of monks. ... Klagenfurt (Slovenian Celovec) is the capital of the federal state of Carinthia (German Kärnten), in Austria, on the Glan river. ... The Tikse monastery in Ladakh, India A monastery is the habitation of monks, derived from the Greek word for a hermits cell. ... 1786 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Holy Roman Emperor Joseph II Joseph II (March 13, 1741 – February 20, 1790) was Holy Roman Emperor from 1765 to 1790. ... Anti-clericalism is a movement that opposes religious interference into public and political life and more generally the encroachment of religion in the citizens lives. ... St. ... Wiener Neustadt is located south of Vienna in the state of Lower Austria. ... 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) is a common year starting on Thursday. ... Heiligenkreuz Abbey Heiligenkreuz Abbey (Stift Heiligenkreuz, Closter Heiligen Creyz or Santa Crux) is a Cistercian monastery in the Wienerwald, eight miles north-west of Baden bei Wien in Lower Austria. ...


A project to restore the altar was begun on the 100th anniversary, in 1985, and, primarily because of the large surface area (100 square meters) involved, took 20 years, 10 art restorers, 40,000 man-hours, and €1.3 million to complete. This article is about the year. ...


The altarpiece is composed of two triptychs, the upper being four times taller than the lower one. When the lower panels are opened, the gothic grate of the former reliquary depot above the altar is revealed. An altarpiece is a picture or relief representing a religious subject and suspended in a frame behind the altar of a church. ... The Raising of the Cross, Onze-Lieve-Vrouwekathedraal, Antwerp A triptych (from the Greek tri- three + ptychē fold) is a work of art (usually a panel painting) which is divided into three sections, or three carved panels which are hinged together. ... A reliquary is a container for holy relics. ...


On weekdays, the four panels are closed and display a drab painted scene involving 72 saints. On Sundays, the panels are opened showing gilded wooden figures depicting events in the life of the Virgin Mary. Gilding is the art of spreading gold, either by mechanical or by chemical means, over the surface of a body for the purpose of ornament. ... The term Virgin Mary has several different meanings: Mary, the mother of Jesus, the historical and multi-denominational concept of Mary Blessed Virgin Mary, the Roman Catholic theological and doctrinal concept of Mary Marian apparitions shrines to the Virgin Mary Virgin Mary in Islam, the Islamic theological and doctrinal concept...


Maria Pócs (Maria Pötsch) Icon [MP]

This Byzantine style icon of St. Mary with the child Jesus was originally in the Uniate church in the Hungarian town of Pócs (pronounced Poach), from which this Marian icon takes its name. After two miraculous incidents in 1696 of the mother in the picture shedding real tears, Emperor Leopold I, king of Hungary, ordered it brought to the Stephansdom, where it would safe from the French-supported Muslim armies that still controlled much of Hungary. Upon its arrival after a triumphal 5-month journey in 1697, Empress Eleonora Magdalena commissioned the splendid Rosa Mystica oklad and framework (now one of several) for it, and the Emperor personally ordered the icon placed near the High Altar in the front of the church, where it stood prominently from 1697 until 1945. Since then, it has been in a different framework, above an altar under a medieval stone baldachin near the southwest corner of the nave — where the many burning candles indicate the extent of its veneration, especially by Hungarians. The most famous of the surviving Byzantine mosaics of the Hagia Sophia in Constantinople - the image of Christ on the walls of the upper southern gallery. ... The Savior (1410s, by Andrei Rublev) For other senses of this word, see icon (disambiguation). ... Gabriel delivering the Annunciation to Mary. ... Jesus (8-2 BC/BCE– 29-36 AD/CE),[1] also known as Jesus of Nazareth, is the central figure of Christianity. ... The term Eastern Rites may refer to the liturgical rites used by many ancient Christian Churches of Eastern Europe and the Middle East that, while being part of the Roman Catholic Church, are distinct from the Latin Rite or Western Church. ... According to many religions, a miracle, derived from the old Latin word miraculum meaning something wonderful, is a striking interposition of divine intervention by God in the universe by which the operations of the ordinary course of Nature are overruled, suspended, or modified. ... The year 1696 had the earliest equinoxes and solstices for 400 years in the Gregorian calendar, because this year is a leap year and the Gregorian calendar would have behaved like the Julian calendar since March 1500 had it have been in use that long. ... Leopold I, Holy Roman Emperor Leopold I Habsburg (June 9, 1640 – May 5, 1705), Holy Roman emperor, was the second son of the emperor Ferdinand III and his first wife Maria Anna, daughter of Philip III of Spain. ... Events September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher Polhem starts Swedens first technical school. ... Events September 20 - The Treaty of Ryswick December 2 – St Pauls Cathedral opened in London Peter the Great travels in Europe officially incognito as artilleryman Pjotr Mikhailov Use of palanquins increases in Europe Christopher Polhem starts Swedens first technical school. ... 1945 (MCMXLV) was a common year starting on Monday (the link is to a full 1945 calendar). ... The Grand Master of the Knights Hospitaller at Rhodes under a canopy of estate, on a dais: there is a cushion under his feet A baldachin, baldachino or baldacchino is a canopy of state over an altar or throne, It had its beginnings as a cloth canopy, but in other... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... (Latin veneratio, Greek δουλια dulia) In traditional Christian churches (for example, Catholicism and Eastern Orthodoxy), veneration, or veneration of saints, is a special act of honoring a dead person who has been identified as singular in the traditions of the religion, and through them honoring God who made them and...


The 20 by 28-inch icon was commissioned in 1676 from painter Istvan Papp by Laszlo Csigri upon his release as a prisoner of war from the Turks who were invading Hungary at the time. Perhaps Csigri was unable to pay the 6-ducat fee, because the icon was bought by Laszlo Hurta who donated it to the church in Pócs. Events January 29 - Feodor III becomes Tsar of Russia First measurement of the speed of light, by Ole Rømer Bacons Rebellion Russo-Turkish Wars commence. ... Geneva Convention definition A prisoner of war (POW) is a soldier, sailor, airman, or marine who is imprisoned by an enemy power during or immediately after an armed conflict. ... The ducat (IPA /ˈdʌ·kÊ°É™tÊ°/) is a gold coin that was used as a trade currency throughout Europe before WW1. ...


The picture shows the mother pointing to the child (signifying he is the way), and the child holds a three-stemmed rose (symbolizing the holy trinity) and wears a prescient cross from his neck. This article concerns the holy Trinity of Christianity. ...


Since its arrival the picture has not been seen to weep again (perhaps because it enjoys the Gemütlichkeit of Vienna) but other miracles and answered prayers have been attributed to it, including Prince Eugene of Savoy's victory over the Turks at Zenta a few weeks after the icon's installation in the Stephandom. Eugene of Savoy (part of a statue in front of the Hofburg in Vienna) François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen in German (October 16, 1663-April 24, 1736) was a noted general. ... Senta (Hungarian: Zenta) is a town on the bank of the Tisza river in the North Banat District district of Vojvodina, Serbia. ...


The residents of Pócs wanted their holy miracle-working painting returned, but the emperor sent them a copy instead. Since then, the copy has been reported to weep real tears and work miracles, so the village changed its name from merely Pócs to Máriapócs and has become an important pilgrimage site. Máriapócs is a small town in eastern Hungary, near Nyíregyháza. ...


Pulpit [P]

The Fenstergucker. Note the chisel in the subject's hand, and the stonemason's signature mark on the shield above the window, leading to speculation that this a self-portrait of the sculptor.
The Fenstergucker. Note the chisel in the subject's hand, and the stonemason's signature mark on the shield above the window, leading to speculation that this a self-portrait of the sculptor.
The pulpit
Enlarge
The pulpit

A masterwork of late gothic sculpture is the stone pulpit. Long attributed to Anton Pilgram, today Niclaes Gerhaert van Leyden is thought more likely to be the carver. So that the local language sermon could be better heard by the worshipers in the days before microphones and loud speakers, the pulpit stands against a pillar out in the nave, instead of in the chancel at the front of the church. Image File history File links Download high resolution version (975x1521, 805 KB) Motive-description: Self monument of an unknown sculptor, beneath the pulpit inside of St. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (975x1521, 805 KB) Motive-description: Self monument of an unknown sculptor, beneath the pulpit inside of St. ... Steel woodworking chisel. ... A stonemason is a craftsman who works in stone. ... A masons mark is a symbol often found on dressed stone in buildings and other public structures. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1005 KB) Summary Pulpit of Stephansdom. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1920x2560, 1005 KB) Summary Pulpit of Stephansdom. ... The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... An Italian Futurist sculpture by Umberto Boccioni at the Museum of Modern Art in New York City (MoMA). ... For other uses of Ambo, see Ambo, Ethiopia and ambulance. ... A sermon is an oration by a prophet or member of the clergy. ... Deconstructing a Roman pillar. ... Links to full descriptions of the elements of a Gothic floorplan are also found at the entry Cathedral diagram. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ...


The sides of the pulpit erupt like stylized petals from the stem supporting it. On those gothic petals are relief portraits of the four original Doctors of the Church (St. Augustine of Hippo, St. Ambrose, St. Gregory the Great and St. Jerome), each of them in one of four different temperments and in one of four different stages of life. The Western (Royal) Portal at Chartres Cathedral ( 1145). ... In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... In Roman Catholicism, a Doctor of the Church is a theologian from whose teachings the whole Christian church is held to have derived great advantage and to whom eminent learning and great sanctity have been attributed by a proclamation of the Pope or of an ecumenical council. ... St. ... Saint Ambrose, mosaic in church St. ... Pope Saint Gregory I or Gregory the Great (ca. ... , by Albrecht Dürer Jerome (ca. ...


The handrail of the stairway curving its way around the pillar from ground level to the pulpit has decorations of toads and lizards biting each other, symbolizing the fight of good against evil. At the top of the stairs, a stone puppy protects the preacher from intruders. The true toads are amphibians in the Bufonidae family. ... Families Many, see text. ... Trinomial name Canis lupus familiaris (Linnaeus, 1758) This article is about the domestic dog. ...


Beneath the stairs is one of the most beloved symbols of the cathedral: a stone self-portrait of the unknown sculptor gawking (Ger. "gooken") out of a window (Ger. "fenster") and thus famously known as the Fenstergucker.


Chapels

There are several formal chapels in the Stephansdom:

  • St. Katherine's Chapel, in the base of the south tower, is the baptismal chapel. The 14-sided baptismal font was completed in 1481, and its cover was formerly the sound board above the famed pulpit in the main church.
  • St. Barbara's Chapel, in the base of the north tower, is used for meditation and prayer.
  • St. Eligius's Chapel, in the southeast corner, is open for prayer.
  • St. Bartholomew's Chapel, above St. Eligius' Chapel, has recently been restored.
  • The Chapel of the Cross, in the northeast corner, contains the burial place of Prince Eugene of Savoy. It is not open to the public.
  • St. Valentine's Chapel, above the Chapel of the Cross, is the current depository of the hundreds of relics belonging to the Stephansdom, including a piece of the tablecloth from the Last Supper. A large chest holds the bones of St. Valentine. They were moved here about a century ago, from what is now the Chapter House to the south of the High Altar.

Saint Catherine of Alexandria, known as Saint Catherine of the Wheel and The Great Martyr Saint Catherine (Greek ) is a figure claimed to have been a noted scholar in the early 4th Century who, at the age of only 18, is said to have visited the Emperor Maxentius and to... Events May 3 - Mehmed II, Sultan of the Ottoman Empire dies and is succeeded by his son Beyazid II. May 21 - Christian I, King of Denmark and Norway dies and is succeeded by his son John (1481-1513) With the death of Duke Charles IV of Anjou, Anjou was reverted... St. ... Signature of St. ... Michelangelos The Last Judgement shows Saint Bartholomew holding the knife of his martyrdom and his flayed skin. ... A depiction of St. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... The Last Supper, represented by polychrome sculptures in the Pilgrimage Church of Madonna dell Sasso (Locarno) In the Christian faith, the Last Supper was the last meal Jesus shared with his apostles before his death. ...

Tombs

It has always been an honor to be allowed to be buried inside a church, thus close to the physical presence of the saints whose relics are preserved there. Those less honoured were buried near (but outside) the church. Since its earliest days, the Stephansdom has been surrounded by cemeteries dating back to Roman times, and has sheltered the bodies of notables and commoners. In Roman Catholic doctrine, a Saint (rel. ... A relic is an object, especially a piece of the body or a personal item of someone of religious significance, carefully preserved with an air of veneration as a tangible memorial, Relics are an important aspect of Buddhism, some denominations of Christianity, Hinduism, shamanism, and many other personal belief systems. ... Graves at Green-Wood Cemetery, Brooklyn, New York A cemetery is a place (usually an enclosed area of land) in which dead bodies are buried. ...


Ground Floor

In the cathedral may be seen the tombs of

  • Frederick III, Holy Roman Emperor, (21 September 1415 - 19 August 1493) [Fr3] under whose reign Vienna obtained its own bishop. His motto "A.E.I.O.U." became synonymous with Austria. Constructed over a span of 45 years, starting 25 years before the emperor's death, this impressive sarcophagus is made of the unusually dense red marble found at the Adnet quarry. Carved by Niclaes Gerhaert van Leyden, the tomb lid shows Emperor Frederick in his coronation regalia surrounded by the coats of arms of all of his dominions. The body of the tomb has 240 statues and is a glory of medieval sculptural art. It is prominent in the southeast corner of the cathedral.
  • Prince Eugene of Savoy, (16 October 166324 April 1736) [PES] commander of the Imperial forces during the War of the Spanish Succession, and others to repel Muslim invasions. His vault is in the large chapel named for him, in the northwest corner of the cathedral. That chapel has several other names, among them Chapel of The Cross and the beard on the crucifed Christ above the altar is of real hair.

Detail of Aeneas Piccolomini Introduces Eleonora of Portugal to Frederick III by Pinturicchio (1454-1513) Frederick III of Habsburg (Innsbruck, September 21, 1415 – August 19, 1493 in Linz) was elected as German King as the successor of Albert II in 1440. ... September 21 is the 264th day of the year (265th in leap years). ... Events Friedrich I Hohenzollern (b. ... August 19 is the 231st day of the year (232nd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar. ... 1493 was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ... A bishop is an ordained member of the Christian clergy who, in certain Christian churches, holds a position of authority. ... See AEIOU (disambiguation) for other meanings of AEIOU AEIOU, or A.E.I.O.U. was a device utilised by the Habsburgs emperors. ... Stone sarcophagus of Pharaoh Merenptah Detail of a stone sarcophagus in the Istanbul Archeological Museum showing a hunting scene Anthropoid sarcophagus discovered at Cádiz A sarcophagus is a stone container for a coffin or body. ... Venus de Milo, front. ... Adnet, Austria Adnet is a lovely community of 3. ... The coronation of Empress Farah, of Iran in 1967. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... Heraldry is the science and art of describing of coats-of-arms, also referred to as achievements or armorial bearings. ... Eugene of Savoy (part of a statue in front of the Hofburg in Vienna) François-Eugène, Prince of Savoy-Carignan, known as Prinz Eugen in German (October 16, 1663-April 24, 1736) was a noted general. ... October 16 is the 289th day of the year (290th in Leap years). ... // Events Prix de Rome scholarship established for students of the arts. ... April 24 is the 114th day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (115th in leap years). ... Events January 26 - Stanislaus I of Poland abdicates his throne. ... Charles II was the last Habsburg King of Spain. ...

Catacombs

When the charnel house and eight cemeteries against the Stephansdom's side and back walls were closed due to an outbreak of bubonic plague in 1735), the bones within them were moved to the catacombs below the church. Burials directly in the catacombs occurred until 1783, when a new law forbade most burials within the city. The remains of over 11,000 persons are in the catacombs (which may be toured). A charnel house (Med. ... Yersinia pestis seen at 2000x magnification. ... Events April 16 - The London premiere of Alcina by George Frideric Handel, his first the first Italian opera for the Royal Opera House at Covent Garden. ... The word catacomb comes from Greek kata kumbas (L. ad catacumbas), near the low place and originally it meant a certain burial district in Rome. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ...

Bishops Crypt

The most recent interrment in this crypt (completed in 1952) under the south choir was that of Cardinal Franz König in 2004. 1952 (MCMLII) was a Leap year starting on Tuesday (link will take you to calendar). ... The choir stalls in the quire of Bristol Cathedral, Bristol, England A quire is the area of a church where the choir sits, also known as the choir. ... Franz Cardinal König (center) His Eminence Franz Cardinal König (August 3, 1905 – March 13, 2004) was Archbishop of Vienna (1956 - 1985), and a Cardinal in the Roman Catholic Church. ... 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Pastoral Crypt

Ducal Crypt

For more details on this topic, see Ducal Crypt (Vienna).

A crypt under the chancel holds 78 containers with the bodies, hearts, or viscera of 72 members of the Habsburg dynasty. Before his death in 1365, Duke Rudolf IV had ordered such a crypt to be built for his remains in the new cathedral he commissioned. By 1754 the small rectangular chamber was overcrowded with 12 sarcophagi and 39 urns, so the area was expanded with an oval chamber being added adjacent to the east end of the rectangular one. In 1956 the two chambers were renovated and their contents were rearranged. The sarcophagi of Duke Rudolf IV and his wife were placed upon a pedestal and the 62 urns containing organs were moved from the two rows of shelves around the new chamber to cabinets in the original one. The Ducal Crypt (red letters) is but one of several burial locations beneath the Stephansdom. ... Crypt is also a commonly used name of water trumpets, aquatic plants. ... This article is about an architectural feature; for the astronomical term see apsis. ... In anatomy, the viscera are the internal organs of an animal, in particular the internal organs of the head, thorax and abdomen. ... Flag of the Habsburg Monarchy; also used as the flag of the Austrian Empire until the Ausgleich of 1867. ... Events Foundation of the University of Vienna Births John de Ros, 6th Baron de Ros (died 1394) Thomas de Mowbray, 1st Duke of Norfolk (died 1399) Deaths May 17 - Louis VI the Roman, elector of Brandenburg (born 1328) July 27 - Duke Rudolf IV of Austria (born 1339) Categories: 1365 ... Rudolf IV of Austria Rudolf IV der Stifter (the Founder) (born November 1, 1339 in Vienna, died July 27, 1365 in Milan) was a member of the House of Habsburg and Duke and self-proclaimed Archduke of Austria from 1358 to 1365. ... 1754 was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... A sarcophagus is a stone container for a coffin or body. ...


Conservation and Restoration

Preservation and repair of the fabric of the medieval cathedral has been a continuous process at the Stephansdom since its original contruction in 1147. Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ...


The porous limestone is subject to weathering, but coating it with a sealer like silicone would simply trap moisture inside the stone and cause it to crack faster when the water freezes. The permanent Dombauhütte (Construction Department) uses the latest scientific techniques (including laser cleaning of delicate features on stonework), and is investigating a process that would impregnate the cavaties within the stone with something that would keep water from having a place to infiltrate. Limey shale overlaid by limestone. ... Lasers range in size from microscopic diode lasers (top) with numerous applications, to football field sized neodymium glass lasers (bottom) used for inertial confinement fusion, nuclear weapons research and other physics experiments. ...


The most visible current repair project is a multi-year renovation of the tall south tower, for which scaffolding has been installed. Fees from advertising on the netting around the scaffolding were defraying some of the costs of the work, but the concept of such advertising was controversial and has been discontinued.


Systematic cleaning of the interior is gradually proceeding around the walls, and an outdoor relief of Christ in Gethsemane is being restored. In the art of sculpture, a relief is an artwork where a modelled form projects out of a flat background. ... The Garden of Gethsemane. ...


Recently completed is a giant project for which visitors and worshipers in the Stephansdom had been waiting since 1147: better heating of the church during the winter. Previous systems, including fireplaces, just deposited soot and grease on the artwork, but the new system uses apparatus in many different locations so that there is little moving airflow to carry damaging particles. The church is now heated to around 10° C. (50° F.). Events King Afonso I of Portugal and the Crusaders capture Lisbon from Muslims First written mention of Moscow. ...


Some of the architectual drawings date from the middle ages and are on paper 15 feet long and too fragile to handle. Laser measurements of the ancient cathedral have now been made so that a digital 3-dimensional virtual model of the cathedral now exists in its computers, and detailed modern plans can be output at will. When weathered stonework needs to be repaired or replaced, the computerized system can create life-sized models to guide the nine full-time stonemasons on staff in the on-site workshops against the north wall of the cathedral.


Other Facts

The Stephansdom is depicted in a small oval on the packaging of the Manner-Schnitten wafer treat. Manner is a line of confectionery from the Austrian conglomerate, Josef Manner & Comp AG. The corporation, founded in 1890, produces a wide assortment of confectionery products. ...


References

Official Website of the Stephansdom (in German)

of the Museum (in German)
of the Permanent Construction Office (in German)
of the Archdiocese of Vienna (in German)

About the Bells (in German)


Digital European Cathedral Archives


See also


  Results from FactBites:
 
Stephansdom - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (3588 words)
The Stephansdom was saved from intentional destruction at the hands of retreating German forces during World War II, when Captain Gerhard Klinkicht disregarded orders from the city commandant, Sepp Dietrich, to "fire a hundred shells and leave it in just debris and ashes".
Above the choir, on one side of the building the tiles form a mosaic of the double-headed eagle that is symbolic of the empire ruled from Vienna by the Habsburg dynasty, and on the other the coats of arms of the City of Vienna and of the Republic of Austria are depicted.
The sarcophagi of Duke Rudolf IV and his wife were placed upon a pedestal and the 62 urns containing organs were moved from the two rows of shelves around the new chamber to cabinets in the original one.
Rudolf IV of Austria - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (901 words)
With the Bishops of Passau having excellent connections to the Pope, the project to establish a bishopric in Vienna was bound to fail.
The decipherment of the epitaph accompanying the cenotaph, or symbolic tomb, of Duke Rudolph IV in the Stephansdom in Vienna.
The extension of the Stephansdom itself was no bluff, with the construction of its gothic nave being started under Rudolf's rule.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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