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Encyclopedia > Stendhal
Stendhal.
Stendhal.

Marie-Henri Beyle (January 23, 1783March 23, 1842), better known by his penname Stendhal, was a 19th century French writer. He is known for his acute analysis of his characters' psychology and for the dryness of his writing-style. He is considered one of the foremost and earliest practitioners of the realistic form, and his most famous novels are Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black, 1830) and La Chartreuse de Parme (The Charterhouse of Parma, 1839). Stendhal image from fr. ... Stendhal image from fr. ... January 23 is the 23rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1783 was a common year starting on Wednesday (see link for calendar). ... March 23 is the 82nd day of the year in the Gregorian Calendar (83rd in leap years). ... 1842 was a common year starting on Saturday (see link for calendar). ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... Alternative meaning: Nineteenth Century (periodical) (18th century — 19th century — 20th century — more centuries) As a means of recording the passage of time, the 19th century was that century which lasted from 1801-1900 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar. ... The term writer can apply to anyone who creates a written work, but the word more usually designates those who write creatively or professionally, or those who have written in many different forms. ... Realism in the visual arts and literature is the depiction of subjects as they appear in everyday life, without embellishment or interpretation. ... Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black) is a novel by Stendhal, published in 1830. ... The Charterhouse of Parma (French: La Chartreuse de Parme) is one of Stendhals two acknowledged masterpieces (and only complete novels) along with The Red and the Black. ...

Contents

Biography

Born in Grenoble, France, he had an unhappy childhood in stifling provincial France, hating his unimaginative father and mourning his mother who died when he was small. His closest friend was his younger sister, Pauline, with whom he maintained a steady correspondance throughout the first decade of the 19th Century. Grenoble (Arpitan: Grasanòbol) is a city and commune in south-east France, situated at the foot of the Alps, at the confluence of the Drac into the Isère River. ...

A chart in Vilnius' historical center on the house where Beyle settled in 1812.
A chart in Vilnius' historical center on the house where Beyle settled in 1812.

The military and theatrical worlds of the First French Empire were a revelation to Beyle. He was named an auditor with the Conseil d'État on August 3, 1810, and thereafter took part in the French administration and in the Napoleonic wars. He travelled extensively in Germany and was part of Napoleon's army in the 1812 invasion of Russia bragging an individual head count of over 20. After the 1814 Treaty of Fontainebleau, he left for Italy where he settled in Milan. He formed a particular attachment to Italy, where he spent much of the remainder of his career, serving as French consul at Trieste and Civitavecchia and writing. His novel The Charterhouse of Parma, among other works, is set in Italy, which he considered a more sincere and passionate country than Restoration France. An aside in that novel, referring to a character who contemplates suicide after being jilted, speaks volumes about his attitude towards his home country: "To make this course of action clear to my French readers, I must explain that in Italy, a country very far away from us, people are still driven to despair by love." Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 853 KB) By Attilio Funel, May 2005, Vilnius File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stendhal ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1712x2288, 853 KB) By Attilio Funel, May 2005, Vilnius File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Stendhal ... The First French Empire, commonly known as the French Empire or the Napoleonic Empire, covers the period of the domination of France and much of continental Europe by Napoleon I of France. ... In France, the Conseil dÉtat (English: Council of State and sometimes Counsel of State) is an organ of the French national government. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... Milano redirects here. ... A consulate (or consular office) is a form of diplomatic mission in charge of matters related to individual people and businesses, in other words issues outside inter-governmental diplomacy. ... The Charterhouse of Parma (French: La Chartreuse de Parme) is one of Stendhals two acknowledged masterpieces (and only complete novels) along with The Red and the Black. ...

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20th century - Contemporary French literature is, generally speaking, literature written in the French language, particularly by citizens of France; it may also refer to literature written by people living in France who speak other traditional non-French languages. ... Medieval French literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in Oïl languages (including Old French and early Middle French) during the period from the eleventh century to the end of the fifteenth century. ... French Renaissance literature is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French (Middle French) from the French invasion of Italy in 1494 to 1600, or roughly the period from the reign of Charles VIII of France to the ascension of Henri IV of France to the throne. ... Louis XIV King of France and Navarre By Hyacinthe Rigaud (1701) French literature of the 17th century spans the reigns of Henry IV of France, the Regency of Marie de Medici, Louis XIII of France, the Regency of Anne of Austria (and the civil war called the Fronde) and the... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ... French literature of the twentieth century is, for the purpose of this article, literature written in French from (roughly) 1895 to 1990. ... This article needs to be cleaned up to conform to a higher standard of quality. ...

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Beyle used the pseudonym "Stendhal" (amongst over 100 others) supposedly chosen as an anagram of "Shetland" (although Georges Perec may have invented this explanation - references to Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black) feature extensively in Perec's unfinished last novel 53 jours). Alternatively, most Stendhal scholars believe he borrowed his nom de plume from the German city of Stendal as a homage for Johann Joachim Winckelmann. An anagram (Greek ana- = back or again, and graphein = to write) is a type of word play, the result of rearranging the letters of a word or phrase to produce other words, using all the original letters exactly once. ... Image of artist Georges Perec (March 7, 1936 - March 3, 1982) was a 20th century French novelist, filmmaker and essayist, a member of the Oulipo group and considered by many to be one of the most important post-WWII authors. ... Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black) is a novel by Stendhal, published in 1830. ... A pen name or nom de plume is a pseudonym adopted by an author. ... Stendal is a town in Saxony-Anhalt, Germany. ... It has been suggested that Johann Joachim Winkelmann be merged into this article or section. ...


Stendhal was a dandy and wit about town in Paris, as well as an inveterate skirt-chaser. His genuine empathy towards women is evident in his books (Simone de Beauvoir spoke highly of him in The Second Sex), and contrasts with his obsession with sexual conquests. He seems to have preferred the desire to the consummation. One of his early works is On Love, a rational analysis of romantic passion that was based on his unrequited love for Mathilde, Countess Dembowska, whom he met while living at Milan. This fusion, or tension, of clearheaded analysis with romantic feeling is typical of Stendhal's great novels; he could be considered a Romantic realist. Beauvoir redirects here. ... The Second Sex (French: Le Deuxième Sexe, 1949) is the best known work of Simone de Beauvoir and a seminal text in twentieth-century feminism. ... This article may contain original research or unverified claims. ... Milano redirects here. ...


Contemporary readers did not fully appreciate Stendhal's realistic style during the Romantic period in which he lived; he was not fully appreciated until the beginning of the 20th century. He dedicated his writing to "the Happy Few", referring to those who lived without fear or hatred. Today, Stendhal's works attract attention for their irony and psychological and historical aspects. Romanticism was an artistic and intellectual movement that originated in late 18th century Western Europe. ... (19th century - 20th century - 21st century - more centuries) Decades: 1900s 1910s 1920s 1930s 1940s 1950s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s As a means of recording the passage of time, the 20th century was that century which lasted from 1901–2000 in the sense of the Gregorian calendar (1900–1999... Irony, from the Greek ειρων (self-deprecator), is a literary or rhetorical device in which there is a gap or incongruity between what a speaker or a writer says, and what is generally understood (either at the time, or in the later context of history). ... Psychology is an academic and applied field involving the scientific study of mental processes and behavior. ...


Stendhal was an avid fan of music, particularly the composers Cimarosa, Mozart, and Rossini, the latter of whom he wrote an extensive biography, Vie de Rossini (1824), now more valued for its wide-ranging musical criticism than for its historical accuracy. Domenico Cimarosa (December 17, 1749-January 11, 1801), Italian opera composer, was born at Aversa, in the kingdom of Naples. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. ... Portrait Gioacchino Antonio Rossini (February 29, 1792 – November 13, 1868)[1] was an Italian musical composer who wrote more than 30 operas as well as sacred music and chamber music. ... 1824 was a leap year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ...


He died in Paris in 1842 and is interred in the Cimetière de Montmartre. City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Cimetière de Montmartre is a famous cemetery located at 37 Avenue Samson, in the 18th arrondissement of Paris, France. ...


Stendhal's brief memoir, Souvenirs d'Egotisme (Memoirs of an Egotist) was published posthumously in 1892. Also published was a more extended autobiographical work, thinly disguised as the Life of Henry Brulard. 1892 (MDCCCXCII) was a leap year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ...


Stendhal Syndrome

Main article: Stendhal syndrome

In 1817 Stendhal reportedly was overcome by the cultural richness of Florence he encountered when he first visited the Tuscan city. As he described in his book Naples and Florence: A Journey from Milan to Reggio: Stendhal syndrome or Stendhals syndrome is a psychosomatic illness that causes rapid heartbeat, dizziness, confusion and even hallucinations when an individual is exposed to art, usually when the art is particularly beautiful or a large amount of art is in a single place. ... Florences skyline Florences skyline at night from Piazza Michaelangelo Florence (Italian: ) is the capital city of the region of Tuscany, Italy. ...


I was in a sort of ecstasy, from the idea of being in Florence, close to the great men whose tombs I had seen. Absorbed in the contemplation of sublime beauty ... I reached the point where one encounters celestial sensations ... Everything spoke so vividly to my soul. Ah, if I could only forget. I had palpitations of the heart, what in Berlin they call 'nerves.' Life was drained from me. I walked with the fear of falling.


The condition was diagnosed and named in 1979 by Italian psychiatrist Dr. Graziella Magherini, who had noticed similar psychosomatic conditions (racing heart beat, nausea and dizziness) amongst first-time Western tourists to the city. For the Smashing Pumpkins song, see 1979 (song). ... Psychiatry is a branch of medicine that studies and treats mental and emotional disorders (see mental illness). ... Graziella Magherini is an Italian psychologist, most known for her 1989 book La sindrome di Stendhal (The Stendhal syndrome), which introduced this term to indicate a psychosomatic illness affecting individuals when exposed to art. ... A psychosomatic illness is one with physical manifestations and supposed psychological cause, often diagnosed when any known or identifiable physical cause was excluded by medical examination. ... For other uses, see Nausea (disambiguation). ... Dizziness (Latin: Vertigo) is the sensation of instability. ...


In homage to Stendhal, Trenitalia named their overnight train service from Paris to Venice the Stendhal Express. Trenitalia logo. ... City flag City coat of arms Motto: Fluctuat nec mergitur (Latin: Tossed by the waves, she does not sink) Paris Eiffel tower as seen from the esplanade du Trocadéro. ... Venice (Italian: Venezia, Venetian: Venexia) is the capital of the Italian regions and has a population of 271,663 (census estimate January 1, 2004). ...


Crystallization

In Stendhal's 1822 classic On Love he describes or compares the “birth of love”, in which the love object is crystallized in the mind, as being a process similar or analogous to a trip to Rome. In the analogy, the city of Bologna represents indifference and Rome represents perfect love: Crystallization is a concept, developed in 1822 by the French writer Stendhal, which describes the process, or mental metamorphosis, in which unattractive characteristics of a new love are transformed into perceptual diamonds of shimmering beauty. ... Bologna (IPA , from Latin Bononia, BulÃ¥ggna in the local dialect) is the capital city of Emilia-Romagna in northern Italy, in the Pianura Padana, between the Po River and the Apennines, exactly between the Reno River and the Sàvena River. ... Nickname: The Eternal City Motto: SPQR: Senatus PopulusQue Romanus Location of the city of Rome (yellow) within the Province of Rome (red) and region of Lazio (grey) Coordinates: Region Lazio Province Province of Rome Founded 21 April 753 BC Mayor Walter Veltroni Area    - City 1,285 km²  (580 sq mi...

Stendhal's depiction of "crystallization" in the process of falling in love.
Stendhal's depiction of "crystallization" in the process of falling in love.

When we are in Bologna, we are entirely indifferent; we are not concerned to admire in any particular way the person with whom we shall perhaps one day be madly in love with; even less is our imagination inclined to overrate their worth. In a word, in Bologna “crystallization” has not yet begun. When the journey begins, love departs. One leaves Bologna, climbs the Apennines, and takes the road to Rome. The departure, according to Stendhal, has nothing to do with one’s will; it is an instinctive moment. This transformative process actuates in terms of four steps along a journey: Image File history File links Crystallization. ... Image File history File links Crystallization. ... This is about the terrestrial mountain range. ...

  1. Admiration – one marvels at the qualities of the loved one.
  2. Acknowledgement – one notices the return affection of the charming person.
  3. Hope – one envisions gaining the love of the loved one.
  4. Delight – one exults in overrating the beauty and merit of the person he or she loves.

First of all, one admires the other person. Second, one acknowledges the pleasantness in having acquired the interest of a charming person. Third, hope emerges. In the fourth stage, one delights in overrating the beauty and the merit of the person whose love one hopes to win. This journey or crystallization process (shown above) was detailed by Stendhal on the back of a playing card, while speaking to Madame Gherardi, during his trip to Salzburg salt mine.


Works

Novels

Armance may refer to: Armance, a commune of the Meurthe-et-Moselle département in France. ... Naval Battle of Navarino by Carneray 1827 was a common year starting on Monday (see link for calendar). ... Le Rouge et le Noir (The Red and the Black) is a novel by Stendhal, published in 1830. ... See also: 1829 in literature, other events of 1830, 1831 in literature, list of years in literature. ... 1839 (MDCCCXXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The Charterhouse of Parma (French: La Chartreuse de Parme) is one of Stendhals two acknowledged masterpieces (and only complete novels) along with The Red and the Black. ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... | Come and take it, slogan of the Texas Revolution 1835 was a common year starting on Thursday (see link for calendar). ... October 2, Charles Darwin returns from his voyage around the world. ...

Novellas

Queen Victoria, Queen of the United Kingdom (1837 - 1901) 1837 (MDCCCXXXVII) was a common year starting on Sunday (see link for calendar). ... Liberty Leading the People by Eugène Delacroix commemorates the July Revolution 1830 (MDCCCXXX) was a common year starting on Friday (see link for calendar). ... The Revue des Deux Mondes is a monthly French language magazine. ... Vanina Vanini is the title of a story by Stendhal (1783-1842), the nom de plume of Marie-Henri Beyle. ...

Nonfiction

  • De L'Amour (1822) (On Love)
  • Souvenirs d'Égotisme (Memoirs of an Egotist, published in 1892)

His other works include short stories, journalism, travel books (among them Rome, Naples et Florence and Promenades dans Rome), a famous collection of essays on Italian painting, critical essays on Racine and Shakespeare, and biographies of several prominent figures of his time, including Napoleon, Haydn, Mozart, and Metastasio. Jean Racine. ... Shakespeare redirects here. ... For other uses, see Napoleon (disambiguation). ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart (baptized as Johannes Chrysostomus Wolfgangus Theophilus Mozart; January 27, 1756 – December 5, 1791) was a prolific and highly influential composer of Classical music. ... Pietro Trapassi (January 13, 1698 - April 12, 1782), Italian poet, is better known by his pseudonym of Metastasio. ...


See also

Stendhal syndrome or Stendhals syndrome is a psychosomatic illness that causes rapid heartbeat, dizziness, confusion and even hallucinations when an individual is exposed to art, usually when the art is particularly beautiful or a large amount of art is in a single place. ...

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations related to:
Stendhal
Wikisource
Wikisource has original text related to this article:
Stendhal
  • French Audio Book (mp3) of the red and the black incipit
  • French site on Stendhal
  • Le Rouge et le Noir
  • Works by Stendhal at Project Gutenberg
  • The Red and the Black English translation
  • Stendhal's works: text, concordances and frequency list

  Results from FactBites:
 
Stendhal - MSN Encarta (1074 words)
Stendhal derived his pseudonym from the German town Stendal, and it is the best-known of many pseudonyms that the author used.
Stendhal dedicated his works to “the happy few,” whom he conceived of as an elite of extreme individualists who shared his belief in the necessity of skepticism and the value of energy and passion.
Stendhal predicted he would not be understood until the 20th century, and it is true that his reputation has increased with each succeeding generation.
Stendhal (1424 words)
Stendhal's subjects are often melodramatic, but they form a fascinating frame for his psychologically deep stories of selfishness and different paths towards self-discovery.
Stendhal's mother died when he was seven, and his pious aunt took care of his education with a Jesuit priest; he hated them both.
Stendhal's political views were full of contradictions: his lack of success fueled his hostility towards the prevailing order but later, after achieving fame, he became a moderate conservative.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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