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Encyclopedia > Stem cell
Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker.
Mouse embryonic stem cells with fluorescent marker.

Stem cells are primal cells found in all multi-cellular organisms that retain the ability to renew themselves through mitotic cell division and can differentiate into a diverse range of specialized cell types. Research in the human stem cell field grew out of findings by Canadian scientists Ernest A. McCulloch and James E. Till in the 1960s.[1][2] Image File history File links Mouse_embryonic_stem_cells. ... Image File history File links Mouse_embryonic_stem_cells. ... Binomial name Mus musculus Linnaeus, 1758 Mus musculus is the common house mouse. ... Mammalian embryogenesis is the process of cell division and cellular differentiation which leads to the development of a mammalian embryo. ... Drawing of the structure of cork as it appeared under the microscope to Robert Hook from Micrographia which is the origin of the word cell. POOP Cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green). ... In biology and ecology, an organism (in Greek organon = instrument) is a living being. ... Mitosis is the process in which a cell duplicates its chromosomes to generate two, identical cells. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... Ernest Armstrong McCulloch is a Canadian cellular biologist, best known for demonstrating–with James Till–the existence of stem cells. ... James Edgar Till is a Canadian biophysicist, best known for demonstrating – with Ernest McCulloch – the existence of stem cells. ... 1960 (MCMLX) was a leap year starting on Friday (the link is to a full 1960 calendar). ...


The three broad categories of mammalian stem cells are: embryonic stem cells, derived from blastocysts, adult stem cells, which are found in adult tissues, and cord blood stem cells, which are found in the umbilical cord. In a developing embryo, stem cells can differentiate into all of the specialized embryonic tissues. In adult organisms, stem cells and progenitor cells act as a repair system for the body, replenishing specialized cells. Human embryonic stem cell colony. ... The blastocyst is the structure formed in early mammalian embryogenesis, after the formation of the blastocele, but before implantation. ... Stem cell division and differentiation. ... Umbilical cord blood is human blood from the placenta and umbilical cord that is rich in hematopoietic stem cells. ... The term progenitor cell is used in cell biology and developmental biology to refer to immature or undifferentiated cells, typically found in post-natal animals. ...


As stem cells can be readily grown and transformed into specialised cells with characteristics consistent with cells of various tissues such as muscles or nerves through cell culture, their use in medical therapies has been proposed. In particular, embryonic cell lines, autologous embryonic stem cells generated through therapeutic cloning, and highly plastic adult stem cells from the umbilical cord blood or bone marrow are touted as promising candidates.[3] Embryonic stem cells differentiate into cells in various body organs. ... Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the term applied when cells are grown in a synthetic environment. ... Cell therapy describes the process of introducing new cells into a tissue in order to treat a disease. ... Epithelial cells in culture, stained for keratin (red) and DNA (green) Cell culture is the term applied when growing cells in a synthetic environment. ... In biology, autologous refers to cells, tissues or even proteins that are reimplanted in the same individual as they come from. ... Blastocyst. ... In placental mammals, the umbilical cord is a tube that connects a developing embryo or fetus to its placenta. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ...

Contents

Stem cell properties

Defining properties

The rigorous definition of a stem cell requires that it possesses two properties:

These properties can be illustrated in vitro, using methods such as clonogenic assays, where the progeny of single cell is characterized.[4][5] However, in vitro culture conditions can alter the behavior of cells, making it unclear whether the cells will behave in a similar manner in vivo. Considerable debate exists whether some proposed adult cell populations are truly stem cells. The cell cycle, or cell-division cycle, is the series of events that take place in an eukaryotic cell between its formation and the moment it replicates itself. ... This does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Totipotency is the ability of a single cell, usually a stem cell, to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism, including extraembryonic tissues. ... Pluripotency in the broad sense refers to having more than one potential outcome. In biological systems, this can refer either to cells or to biological compounds. ... Multipotent stem cells can give rise to several other cell types, but those types are limited in number. ... Unipotent cell, in cell biology, is used to describe a cell (e. ... The term progenitor cell is used in cell biology and developmental biology to refer to immature or undifferentiated cells, typically found in post-natal animals. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... Mesenchymal stem cells or marrow stromal cells (MSC), are stem cells that can differentiate into osteoblasts, chondrocytes, myocytes, adipocytes, neuronal cells, and, as described lately, into beta-pancreatic islets cells. ... In vivo (Latin for (with)in the living). ...


Potency definitions

Pluripotent, embryonic stem cells originate as inner mass cells with in a blastocyst. The stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta. Only the morula's cells are totipotent, able to become all tissues and a placenta.
Pluripotent, embryonic stem cells originate as inner mass cells with in a blastocyst. The stem cells can become any tissue in the body, excluding a placenta. Only the morula's cells are totipotent, able to become all tissues and a placenta.

Potency specifies the differentiation potential (the potential to differentiate into different cell types) of the stem cell. Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1031x943, 169 KB) Other versions Image:StemCellsDia. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1031x943, 169 KB) Other versions Image:StemCellsDia. ...

  • Totipotent stem cells are produced from the fusion of an egg and sperm cell. Cells produced by the first few divisions of the fertilized egg are also totipotent. These cells can differentiate into embryonic and extraembryonic cell types.
  • Pluripotent stem cells are the descendants of totipotent cells and can differentiate into cells derived from the three germ layers.
  • Multipotent stem cells can produce only cells of a closely related family of cells (e.g. hematopoietic stem cells differentiate into red blood cells, white blood cells, platelets, etc.).
  • Unipotent cells can produce only one cell type, but have the property of self-renewal which distinguishes them from non-stem cells.

Totipotency is the ability of a single cell, usually a stem cell, to divide and produce all the differentiated cells in an organism, including extraembryonic tissues. ... In cell biology, a pluripotent cell is one able to differentiate into many cell types. ... Organs derived from each germ layer. ... Multipotent stem cells can give rise to several other cell types, but those types are limited in number. ... Sketch of bone marrow and its cells Pluripotential hemopoietic stem cells (PHSCs) are stem cells found in the bone marrow. ... In cell biology, a unipotent cell is one that has the capacity to develop/differentiate into only one type of tissue/cell type. ...

Embryonic stem cells

Main article: Embryonic stem cell

Embryonic stem cell lines (ES cell lines) are cultures of cells derived from the epiblast tissue of the inner cell mass (ICM) of a blastocyst. A blastocyst is an early stage embryo - approximately 4 to 5 days old in humans and consisting of 50-150 cells. ES cells are pluripotent, and give rise during development to all derivatives of the three primary germ layers: ectoderm, endoderm and mesoderm. In other words, they can develop into each of the more than 200 cell types of the adult body when given sufficient and necessary stimulation for a specific cell type. They do not contribute to the extra-embryonic membranes or the placenta. Human embryonic stem cell colony. ... The blastocyst is the structure formed in early mammalian embryogenesis, after the formation of the blastocele, but before implantation. ... It has been suggested that embryology be merged into this article or section. ... In cell biology, a pluripotent cell is one able to differentiate into many cell types. ... Organs derived from each germ layer. ... The human body is the entire physical structure of a human organism. ... The placenta is an ephemeral (temporary) organ present in female placental vertebrates during gestation (pregnancy), but a placenta has evolved independently also in other animals as well, for instance scorpions and velvet worms. ...


When given no stimuli for differentiation, ES cells will continue to divide in vitro and each daughter cell will remain pluripotent. The pluripotency of ES cells has been rigorously demonstrated in vitro and in vivo, thus they can be indeed classified as stem cells. In biology, a daughter cell is either one of the two cells that are formed when mitosis occurs in a cell. ...


Because of their unique combined abilities of unlimited expansion and pluripotency, embryonic stem cells are a potential source for regenerative medicine and tissue replacement after injury or disease. To date, no approved medical treatments have been derived from embryonic stem cell research. However, many nations currently have moratoria on either ES cell research or the production of new ES cell lines.


Adult stem cells

Main article: Adult stem cell
Stem cell division and differentiation. A - stem cell; B - progenitor cell; C - differentiated cell; 1 - symmetric stem cell division; 2 - asymmetric stem cell division; 3 - progenitor division; 4 - terminal differentiation
Stem cell division and differentiation. A - stem cell; B - progenitor cell; C - differentiated cell; 1 - symmetric stem cell division; 2 - asymmetric stem cell division; 3 - progenitor division; 4 - terminal differentiation

Adult stem cells are undifferentiated cells found throughout the body that divide to replenish dying cells and regenerate damaged tissues. Also known as somatic (from Greek Σωματικóς, of the body) stem cells, they can be found in children, as well as adults[6]. Stem cell division and differentiation. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Image File history File links This is a lossless scalable vector image. ... Biological tissue is a collection of interconnected cells that perform a similar function within an organism. ... The term somatic refers to the body, as distinct from some other entity, such as the mind. ...


A great deal of adult stem cell research has focused on clarifying their capacity to divide or self-renew indefinitely and their differentiation potential.[7] Many adult stem cells may be better classified as progenitor cells, due to their limited capacity for cellular differentiation.


Nevertheless, specific multipotent or even unipotent adult progenitors may have potential utility in regenerative medicine. In fact, many therapies have been discovered that use adult stem cells. The use of adult stem cells in research and therapy is not as controversial as embryonic stem cells, because the production of adult stem cells does not require the destruction of an embryo. In contrast with the embryonic stem cell research, more US government funding has been provided for adult stem cell research. Adult stem cells can be isolated from a tissue sample obtained from an adult. They have mainly been studied in humans and model organisms such as mice and rats. There is widespread controversy over stem cell research fue to techniques used in the creation and usage of embryonic stem cells. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... It has been suggested that embryology be merged into this article or section. ... Trinomial name Homo sapiens sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 Humans, or human beings, are bipedal primates belonging to the mammalian species Homo sapiens (Latin: wise man or knowing man) in the family Hominidae (the great apes). ... A model organism is a species that is extensively studied to understand particular biological phenomena, with the expectation that discoveries made in the organism model will provide insight into the workings of other organisms. ... Feral mouse A mouse (plural mice) is a rodent that belongs to one of numerous species of small mammals. ... Species 50 species; see text *Several subfamilies of Muroids include animals called rats. ...


Lineage

Main article: Stem cell line

To ensure self-renewal, stem cells undergo two types of cell division (see Stem cell division and differentiation diagram). Symmetric division gives rise to two identical daughter cells both endowed with stem cell properties. Asymmetric division, on the other hand, produces only one stem cell and a progenitor cell with limited self-renewal potential. Progenitors can go through several rounds of cell division before terminally differentiating into a mature cell. It is possible that the molecular distinction between symmetric and asymmetric divisions lies in differential segregation of cell membrane proteins (such as receptors) between the daughter cells, however, there is no evidence for this mechanism. A stem cell line is a family of constantly-dividing cells, the product of a single parent group of stem cells. ... The term progenitor cell is used in cell biology and developmental biology to refer to immature or undifferentiated cells, typically found in post-natal animals. ... Cellular differentiation is a concept from developmental biology describing the process by which cells acquire a type. The morphology of a cell may change dramatically during differentiation, but the genetic material remains the same, with few exceptions. ... In biochemistry, a receptor is a protein on the cell membrane or within the cytoplasm or cell nucleus that binds to a specific molecule (a ligand), such as a neurotransmitter, hormone, or other substance, and initiates the cellular response to the ligand. ...


An alternative theory is that stem cells remain undifferentiated from environmental cues in their particular niche. Stem cells differentiate when they leave that niche or no longer receive those signals. Studies in Drosophila germarium have identified the signals dpp and adherins junctions that prevent germarium stem cells from differentiating[8][9].


The signals that lead to reprogramming of cells to an embryonic-like state are also being investigated. These signal pathways include several transcription factors including the oncogene c-Myc. Initial studies indicate that transformation of mice cells with a combination of these anti-differentiation signals can reverse differentiation and may allow adult cells to become pluripotent.[10] However, the need to transform these cells with an oncogene may prevent the use of this approach in therapy. In molecular biology, a transcription factor is a protein that binds DNA at a specific promoter or enhancer region or site, where it regulates transcription. ... An oncogene is a modified gene that increases the malignancy of a tumor cell. ... Myc (cMyc) is a protooncogene, which is overexpressed in a wide range of human cancers. ...


Treatments

Main article: Stem cell treatments

Medical researchers believe that stem cell therapy has the potential to radically change the treatment of human disease. A number of adult stem cell therapies already exist, particularly bone marrow transplants that are used to treat leukemia.[11] In the future, medical researchers anticipate being able to use technologies derived from stem cell research to treat a wider variety of diseases including cancer, parkinson's disease, spinal cord injuries, and muscle damage, amongst a number of other impairments and conditions.[12][13] However, there still exists a great deal of social and scientific uncertainty surrounding stem cell research, which could possibly be overcome through public debate and future research. Medical researchers believe that stem cell treatments have the potential to change the face of human disease and alleviate suffering. ... Bone marrow transplantation or hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HSCT) is a medical procedure in the field of hematology and oncology that involves transplantation of hematopoietic stem cells (HSC). ... Leukemia or leukaemia (see spelling differences) is a cancer of the blood or bone marrow and is characterized by an abnormal proliferation (production by multiplication) of blood cells, usually white blood cells (leukocytes). ... Cancer is a class of diseases or disorders characterized by uncontrolled division of cells and the ability of these to spread, either by direct growth into adjacent tissue through invasion, or by implantation into distant sites by metastasis (where cancer cells are transported through the bloodstream or lymphatic system). ... The spinal cord is a part of the vertebrate nervous system that is enclosed in and protected by the vertebral column (it passes through the spinal canal). ... A top-down view of skeletal muscle Muscle (from Latin musculus little mouse [1]) is contractile tissue of the body and is derived from the mesodermal layer of embryonic germ cells. ...


Stem cells, however, are already used extensively in research, and some scientists do not see cell therapy as the first goal of the research, but see the investigation of stem cells as a goal worthy in itself. [14].


Controversy surrounding stem cell research

Main article: Stem cell controversy

There exists a widespread controversy over stem cell research that emanates from the techniques used in the creation and usage of stem cells. Human embryonic stem cell research is particularly controversial because, with the present state of technology, starting a stem cell line requires the destruction of a human embryo and/or therapeutic cloning. Opponents of the research argue that this practice is a slippery slope to reproductive cloning and tantamount to the instrumentalization of a human being. Contrarily, some medical researchers in the field argue that it is necessary to pursue embryonic stem cell research because the resultant technologies are expected to have significant medical potential, and that the embryos used for research are only those meant for destruction anyway (as a product of invitro fertilisation). This in turn, conflicts with opponents in the pro-life movement, who argue that an embryo is a human being and therefore entitled to dignity even if legally slated for destruction. The ensuing debate has prompted authorities around the world to seek regulatory frameworks and highlighted the fact that stem cell research represents a social and ethical challenge. There is widespread controversy over stem cell research fue to techniques used in the creation and usage of embryonic stem cells. ... Human embryonic stem cell colony. ... A stem cell line is a family of constantly-dividing cells, the product of a single parent group of stem cells. ... It has been suggested that embryology be merged into this article or section. ... Blastocyst. ... In debate or rhetoric, the slippery slope is an argument for the likelihood of one event given another. ... Reproductive cloning is a form of artificial reproduction technique based on cloning. ... Human beings are defined variously in biological, spiritual, and cultural terms, or in combinations thereof. ... In vitro fertilization[1] (IVF) is a technique in which egg cells are fertilised by sperm outside the womans womb. ... Pro-life is a term representing a variety of perspectives and activist movements in bioethics. ... Although the term social is a crucial category in social science and often used in public discourse, its meaning is often vague, suggesting that it is a fuzzy concept. ... Ethics is a general term for what is often described as the science (study) of morality. In philosophy, ethical behavior is that which is good or right. ...


Key events in stem cell research

  • 1960s - Joseph Altman and Gopal Das present evidence of adult neurogenesis, ongoing stem cell activity in the brain; their reports contradict Cajal's "no new neurons" dogma and are largely ignored
  • 1963 - McCulloch and Till illustrate the presence of self-renewing cells in mouse bone marrow
  • 1968 - Bone marrow transplant between two siblings successfully treats SCID
  • 1978 - Haematopoietic stem cells are discovered in human cord blood
  • 1981 - Mouse embryonic stem cells are derived from the inner cell mass
  • 1992 - Neural stem cells are cultured in vitro as neurospheres
  • 1995 - U.S. President Bill Clinton signs into law the Dickey Amendment which prohibited Federally appropriated funds to be used for research where human embryos would be either created or destroyed.
  • 1997 - Leukemia is shown to originate from a haematopoietic stem cell, the first direct evidence for cancer stem cells
  • 1998 - James Thomson and coworkers derive the first human embryonic stem cell line at the University of Wisconsin-Madison.
  • 2000s - Several reports of adult stem cell plasticity are published
  • 2003 - Dr. Songtao Shi of NIH discovers new source of adult stem cells in children's primary teeth[15]
  • 02 November, 2004 - California voters approve Proposition 71, which provides $3 billion in state funds over ten years to human embryonic stem cell research.
  • 2004-2005 - Korean researcher Hwang Woo-Suk claims to have created several human embryonic stem cell lines from unfertilised human oocytes. The lines are later shown to be fabricated.
  • 2005 - Researchers at Kingston University in England claim to have discovered a third category of stem cell, dubbed cord-blood-derived embryoniclike stem cells (CBEs), derived from umbilical cord blood. The group claims these cells are able to differentiate into more types of tissue than adult stem cells.
  • 2001-2006 - U.S. President George W. Bush endorses the Congress in providing federal funding for embryonic stem cell research of approximately $100 million as well as $250 million dollars for research on adult and animal stem cells. He also enacts laws that restrict federally-funded stem cell research on embryonic stem cells to the already derived cell lines.
  • 5 May, 2006 - Senator Rick Santorum introduces bill number S. 2754, or the Alternative Pluripotent Stem Cell Therapies Enhancement Act. into the U.S. Senate
  • 18 July, 2006 - The U.S. Senate passes the Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act H.R. 810, and votes down Senator Santorum's S.2754.
  • 19 July, 2006 - President George W. Bush vetoes H.R. 810 (Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act), a bill that would have reversed the Clinton-era law which made it illegal for Federal money to be used for research where stem cells are derived from the destruction of an embryo.
  • August 2006 - Cell Journal publishes Kazutoshi Takahashi and Shinya Yamanaka, Induction of Pluripotent Stem Cells from Mouse Embryonic and Adult Fibroblast Cultures by Defined Factors
  • 07 November, 2006 - The people of the U.S. state of Missouri passed Amendment 2, which allows usage of any stem cell research and therapy allowed under federal law, but prohibits human reproductive cloning.[16][17]
  • 07 January, 2007 - Scientists at Wake Forest University led by Dr. Anthony Atala and Harvard University report discovery of a new type of stem cell in amniotic fluid.[1] This may potentially provide an alternative to embryonic stem cells for use in research and therapy. [2]
  • 16 February, 2007 The California Institute for Regenerative Medicine became the biggest financial backer of human embryonic stem cell research in the United States when they awarded nearly $45 million in research grants. [18]

Joseph Altman discovered adult neurogenesis, the creation of new neurons in the adult brain, in the 1960s. ... Gopal Das is an Eck Master in the new-age religion of Eckankar. ... The references in this article would be clearer with a different and/or consistent style of citation, footnoting or external linking. ... Santiago Ramón y Cajal Santiago Ramón y Cajal (May 1, 1852 – October 17, 1934) was a famous Spanish histologist, physician, and Nobel laureate. ... Ernest Armstrong McCulloch is a Canadian cellular biologist, best known for demonstrating–with James Till–the existence of stem cells. ... James Edgar Till is a Canadian biophysicist, best known for demonstrating – with Ernest McCulloch – the existence of stem cells. ... Grays Anatomy illustration of cells in bone marrow. ... An organ transplant is the transplantation of an organ (or part of one) from one body to another, for the purpose of replacing the recipients damaged or failing organ with a working one from the donor. ... Severe combined immunodeficiency, or SCID, is a genetic disorder in which both arms (B cells and T cells) of the adaptive immune system are crippled, due to a defect in one of several possible genes. ... Mouse embryonic stem cells. ... Umbilical cord blood is human blood from the placenta and umbilical cord that is rich in hematopoietic stem cells. ... Human embryonic stem cell colony. ... The inner cell mass is surrounded by the single cell layer of cells called trophoblast. ... Wiktionary has a definition of: In vitro In vitro (Latin: within glass) means within a test tube, or, more generally, outside a living organism or cell. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... William Jefferson Bill Clinton (born William Jefferson Blythe III[1] on August 19, 1946) was the 42nd President of the United States, serving from 1993 to 2001. ... The Dickey Amendment is the name of a piece of federal legislation passed by United States Congress in 1995 which prohibits the Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) from using appropriated funds for the creation of human embryos for research purposes or for research in which human embryos are... Cancer stem cell theory is the theory that tumors arise from cells termed cancer stem cells that have properties of normal stem cells, particularly the abilities to self-renew and differentiate into multiple cell types, and that these cells persist in tumors as a distinct population that likely causes disease... James A. Thomson (born in Oak Park, Illinois) is an American developmental biologist who also serves as a professor of anatomy in the University of Wisconsin School of Medicine and Public Health and as the chief pathologist at the Wisconsin National Primate Research Center. ... A stem cell line is a family of constantly-dividing cells, the product of a single parent group of stem cells. ... Stem cell division and differentiation. ... Official language(s) English Capital Sacramento Largest city Los Angeles Area  Ranked 3rd  - Total 158,302 sq mi (410,000 km²)  - Width 250 miles (400 km)  - Length 770 miles (1,240 km)  - % water 4. ... This article is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Hwang Woo-suk (황우석) (born 29 January 1953) is a South Korean biomedical scientist. ... Human embryonic stem cell colony. ... An oocyte or ovocyte is a female gametocyte or germ cell involved in reproduction. ... Kingston University is a university in the Royal Borough of Kingston upon Thames, south-west London. ... Motto (French) God and my right Anthem God Save the King (Queen) England() – on the European continent() – in the United Kingdom() Capital (and largest city) London (de facto) Official languages English (de facto) Government Constitutional monarchy  -  Queen Queen Elizabeth II  -  Prime Minister Tony Blair MP Unification  -  by Athelstan 967  Area... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... “Santorum” redirects here. ... A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... President is a title held by many leaders of organizations, companies, trade unions, universities, and countries. ... George Walker Bush (born July 6, 1946) is the 43rd and current President of the United States, inaugurated on January 20, 2001. ... The Stem Cell Research Enhancement Act was the first bill ever vetoed by United States President George W. Bush, more than five years after his inauguration. ... Official language(s) English Capital Jefferson City Largest city Kansas City Largest metro area Greater St. ... Missouri Constitutional Amendment 2 is an initiative that concerns stem cell research and human cloning [1]. It appears on the ballot for the November 2006 general election. ... Wake Forest University is a private, coeducational university located in Winston-Salem, North Carolina. ... Anthony Atala, M.D., is the Director of the Wake Forest Institute for Regenerative Medicine, and Chair of the Department of Urology at the Wake Forest University School of Medicine in the state of North Carolina in the United States. ... Harvard University (incorporated as The President and Fellows of Harvard College) is a private university in Cambridge, Massachusetts, USA and a member of the Ivy League. ... The amniotic sac is a tough but thin transparent pair of membranes which holds a developing embryo (and later fetus) until shortly before birth. ...

See also

The American Society for Cell Biology (ASCB) is a non-profit organization whose purpose is to promote and develop the field of cell biology. ... Embryonic stem cells of a mouse. ... The Genetics Policy Institute (GPI) is a 501(c)(3) nonprofit organization that educates the public and promotes supportive public policy for stem cell research and other forms of cutting-edge medicine. ...

References

  1. ^ Becker AJ, McCulloch EA, Till JE (1963). "Cytological demonstration of the clonal nature of spleen colonies derived from transplanted mouse marrow cells". Nature 197: 452-4. PMID 13970094. 
  2. ^ Siminovitch L, McCulloch EA, Till JE (1963). "The distribution of colony-forming cells among spleen colonies". Journal of Cellular and Comparative Physiology 62: 327-36. PMID 14086156. 
  3. ^ Tuch B (2006). "Stem cells--a clinical update.". Aust Fam Physician 35 (9): 719-21. PMID 16969445. 
  4. ^ Friedenstein AJ, Deriglasova UF, Kulagina NN, Panasuk AF, Rudakowa SF, Luria EA, Ruadkow IA (1974). "Precursors for fibroblasts in different populations of hematopoietic cells as detected by the in vitro colony assay method". Exp Hematol 2 (2): 83-92. PMID 4455512. 
  5. ^ Friedenstein AJ, Gorskaja JF, Kulagina NN (1976). "Fibroblast precursors in normal and irradiated mouse hematopoietic organs". Exp Hematol 4 (5): 267-74. PMID 976387. 
  6. ^ Jiang Y, Jahagirdar BN, Reinhardt RL, Schwartz RE, Keene CD, Ortiz-Gonzalez XR, Reyes M, Lenvik T, Lund T, Blackstad M, Du J, Aldrich S, Lisberg A, Low WC, Largaespada DA, Verfaillie CM., Pluripotency of mesenchymal stem cells derived from adult marrow, Nature. 2002 Jul 4;418(6893):41-9
  7. ^ Gardner RL (2002). "Stem cells: potency, plasticity and public perception". Journal of Anatomy 200 (3): 277-82. PMID 12033732. 
  8. ^ Xie T, Spradling A (1998). "decapentaplegic is essential for the maintenance and division of germline stem cells in the Drosophila ovary.". Cell 94 (2): 251-60. PMID 9695953. 
  9. ^ Song X, Zhu C, Doan C, Xie T (2002). "Germline stem cells anchored by adherens junctions in the Drosophila ovary niches.". Science 296 (5574): 1855-7. PMID 12052957. 
  10. ^ Takahashi K, Yamanaka S (2006). "Induction of pluripotent stem cells from mouse embryonic and adult fibroblast cultures by defined factors". Cell 126 (4): 663-76. PMID 16904174. 
  11. ^ Gahrton G, Björkstrand B (2000). "Progress in haematopoietic stem cell transplantation for multiple myeloma". J Intern Med 248 (3): 185-201. PMID 10971785. 
  12. ^ Lindvall O (2003). "Stem cells for cell therapy in Parkinson's disease". Pharmacol Res 47 (4): 279-87. PMID 12644384. 
  13. ^ Goldman S, Windrem M (2006). "Cell replacement therapy in neurological disease". Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 361 (1473): 1463-75. PMID 16939969. 
  14. ^ Wade N (2006-08-14). Some Scientists See Shift in Stem Cell Hopes. New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-12-28.
  15. ^ Shostak S (2006). "(Re)defining stem cells". Bioessays 28 (3): 301-8. PMID 16479584. 
  16. ^ Full-text of Missouri Constitution Amendment 2
  17. ^ Final Results for Amendment 2 from MO SOS
  18. ^ Calif. Awards $45M in Stem Cell Grants Associated Press, Feb. 17, 2007.

For the Manfred Mann album, see 2006 (album). ... December 28 is the 362nd day of the year (363rd in leap years) in the Gregorian Calendar, with 3 days remaining. ... The Associated Press, or AP, is an American news agency, the worlds largest such organization. ... 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the CE era. ...

External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
ISSCR :: Stem Cell Science : Frequently Asked Questions (6067 words)
Adult stem cells are distinct from cells isolated from embryos or fetuses and are found in tissues that have already developed, as in animals or humans after birth.
Umbilical cord blood stem cells are used for stem cell transplantation to reconstitute blood cell formation (the hematopoietic system) in patients that have been irradiated or treated with specific drugs for cancer or leukemia.
Human mesenchymal stem cells, or bone marrow stromal stem cells, are isolated from the bone marrow and grown in culture media supplemented with serum from the blood.
A technology magazine article on Stem Cell Research (2852 words)
Adult stem cells, on the other hand, are found in all tissues of the growing human being and, according to latest reports, also have the potential to transform themselves into practically all other cell types, or revert to being stem cells with greater reproductive capacity.
Stem cells are of wide interest for medicine, because they have the potential, under suitable conditions, to develop into almost all of the different types of cells.
In recent years, however, pluripotent stem cells were discovered in various human tissues; in the spinal cord, in the brain, in the mesenchyme (connective tissue) of various organs, and in the blood of the umbilical cord.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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