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Encyclopedia > Steering

Steering is the term applied to the collection of components, linkages, etc. which will allow for a vessel (ship, boat) or vehicle (car) to follow the desired course. An exception is the case of rail transport by which rail tracks combined together with railroad switches provide the steering function. For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Boat (disambiguation). ... The Trikke is a Human Powered Vehicle (HPV) Automobiles are among the most commonly used engine powered vehicles. ... “Car” and “Cars” redirect here. ... railroads redirects here. ... Rail tracks. ... A railroad switch is a mechanical installation enabling trains to be guided from one set of rail tracks (or tramway tracks) to another. ...

Part of steering mechanism: tie rod, steering arm, king pin.
Part of steering mechanism: tie rod, steering arm, king pin.

Contents

Download high resolution version (550x700, 64 KB)Left front wheel suspension of a Saab Quantum IV with double wishbones, showing kingpin axis, wheel hub, disc brake, steering arm and tire. ... Download high resolution version (550x700, 64 KB)Left front wheel suspension of a Saab Quantum IV with double wishbones, showing kingpin axis, wheel hub, disc brake, steering arm and tire. ...

Introduction

The most conventional steering arrangement is to turn the front wheels using a hand–operated steering wheel which is positioned in front of the driver, via the steering column, which may contain universal joints to and we find out today that matt fuller has a little dick and tyler mavencamp is a tator tot For other uses, see Wheel (disambiguation). ... A modern road cars steering wheel Steering wheels from different periods A steering wheel is a type of steering control used in most modern land vehicles, including all mass-production automobiles. ... The Steering column is the column that steers. ... A universal joint A universal joint, U joint, Cardan joint or Hardy-Spicer joint is a joint in a rigid rod that allows the rod to bend in any direction. ...

 allow it to deviate somewhat from a straight line. Other arrangements are sometimes found on different types of vehicles, for example, a tiller or rear–wheel steering. Tracked vehicles such as tanks usually employ differential steering — that is, the tracks are made to move at different speeds or even in opposite directions to bring about a change of course. 

A tiller or till is a lever attached to a rudder post (American terminology) or rudder stock (English terminology) of a boat in order to provide the leverage for the helmsman to turn the rudder. ... A Tracked vehicle is a vehicle that runs on its own tracks rather than on wheels. ...

Rack and pinion, recirculating ball, worm and sector

Rack and pinion animation
Rack and pinion animation
Rack and pinion unit here mounted in the cockpit of an Ariel Atom sports car chassis. For most high volume production this is usually mounted on other side of this panel
Rack and pinion unit here mounted in the cockpit of an Ariel Atom sports car chassis. For most high volume production this is usually mounted on other side of this panel

Many modern cars use rack and pinion steering mechanisms, where the steering wheel turns the pinion gear; the pinion moves the rack, which is a sort of linear gear which meshes with the pinion, from side to side. This motion applies steering torque to the kingpins of the steered wheels via tie rods and a short lever arm called the steering arm. Rack and pinion animation. ... Rack and pinion animation. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 273 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (1024x768, 273 KB) Other versions Originally from en. ... The Ariel Atom is a high performance sports car made by the Ariel Motor Company based in Somerset, England and under license also by Brammo Motorsports in the US. It is unusual in the respect that it is exoskeletal (the chassis is the body), and therefore lacks a roof, windows... Rack and pinion animation A rack and pinion is a pair of gears which convert rotational motion into linear motion. ... Torque applied via an adjustable end wrench Relationship between force, torque, and momentum vectors in a rotating system In physics, torque (or often called a moment) can informally be thought of as rotational force or angular force which causes a change in rotational motion. ... Suspension, showing tie rod, steering arm, king pin (axis) ball joints The kingpin is the main pivot in the steering mechanism of a car or other vehicle. ... A tie rod is a slender structural rod used as a tie and capable of carrying tensile loads only. ... For the Portuguese town and parish, see Lever, Portugal. ...


Older designs often use the recirculating ball mechanism, which is still found on trucks and utility vehicles. This is a variation on the older worm and sector design; the steering column turns a large screw (the "worm gear") which meshes with a sector of a gear, causing it to rotate about its axis as the worm gear is turned; an arm attached to the axis of the sector moves the pitman arm, which is connected to the steering linkage and thus steers the wheels. The recirculating ball version of this apparatus reduces the considerable friction by placing large ball bearings between the teeth of the worm and those of the screw; at either end of the apparatus the balls exit from between the two pieces into a channel internal to the box which connects them with the other end of the apparatus, thus they are "recirculated". Recirculating Ball is an alternate steering mechanism, commonly found in older vehicles. ... Worm and worm gear A worm gear, or worm wheel, is a type of gear that engages with a worm to greatly reduce rotational speed, or to allow higher torque to be transmitted. ... The locking pliers is an example of a four-bar, one degree of freedom mechanical linkage; or a five-bar, two DOF linkage when the adjustment screw is considered. ...


The rack and pinion design has the advantages of a large degree of feedback and direct steering "feel"; it also does not normally have any backlash, or slack. A disadvantage is that it is not adjustable, so that when it does wear and develop lash, the only cure is replacement. In mechanical engineering, backlash is purposeful clearance between mating components, sometimes described as the amount of lost motion due to clearance or slackness when movement is reversed and contact is re-established. ...


The recirculating ball mechanism has the advantage of a much greater mechanical advantage, so that it was found on larger, heavier vehicles while the rack and pinion was originally limited to smaller and lighter ones; due to the almost universal adoption of power steering, however, this is no longer an important advantage, leading to the increasing use of rack and pinion on newer cars. The recirculating ball design also has a perceptible lash, or "dead spot" on center, where a minute turn of the steering wheel in either direction does not move the steering apparatus; this is easily adjustable via a screw on the end of the steering box to account for wear, but it cannot be entirely eliminated or the mechanism begins to wear very rapidly. This design is still in use in trucks and other large vehicles, where rapidity of steering and direct feel are less important than robustness, maintainability, and mechanical advantage. The much smaller degree of feedback with this design can also sometimes be an advantage; drivers of vehicles with rack and pinion steering can have their thumbs broken when a front wheel hits a bump, causing the steering wheel to kick to one side suddenly (leading to driving instructors telling students to keep their thumbs on the front of the steering wheel, rather than wrapping around the inside of the rim). This effect is even stronger with a heavy vehicle like a truck; recirculating ball steering prevents this degree of feedback, just as it prevents desirable feedback under normal circumstances. In physics and engineering, mechanical advantage (MA) is the factor by which a mechanism multiplies the force put into it. ... Power steering is a system for reducing the steering effort on cars by using an external power source to assist in turning the wheels. ...


The steering linkage connecting the steering box and the wheels usually conforms to a variation of Ackermann steering geometry, to account for the fact that in a turn, the inner wheel is actually traveling a path of smaller radius than the outer wheel, so that the degree of toe suitable for driving in a straight path is not suitable for turns. Ackermann steering geometry is a geometric arrangement of linkages in the steering of a car or other vehicle designed to solve the problem of wheels on the inside and outside of a turn needing to trace out circles of different radii. ... Toe is the symmetric angle that each wheel makes with the longitudinal axis of the vehicle, as a function of static geometry, and kinematic and compliant effects. ...


Power steering

As vehicles have become heavier and switched to front wheel drive, the effort to turn the steering wheel manually has increased - often to the point where major physical exertion is required. To alleviate this, auto makers have developed power steering systems. There are two types of power steering systems—hydraulic and electric/electronic. There is also a hydraulic-electric hybrid system possible. Front wheel drive is the most common form of engine/transmission layout used in modern passenger cars, where the engine drives the front wheels. ... Automakers, automobile manufacturers or car manufacturers are companies that design and manufacture automobiles. ... Power steering is a system for reducing the steering effort on cars by using an external power source to assist in turning the wheels. ...


A hydraulic power steering (HPS) uses hydraulic pressure supplied by an engine-driven pump to assist the motion of turning the steering wheel. Electric power steering (EPS) is more efficient than the hydraulic power steering, since the electric power steering motor only needs to provide assistance when the steering wheel is turned, whereas the hydraulic pump must run constantly. In EPS the assist level is easily tunable to the vehicle type, road speed, and even driver preference. An added benefit is the elimination of environmental hazard posed by leakage and disposal of hydraulic power steering fluid. Electric power steering (EPS) is designed to use an electric motor to provide directional control to the driver of a vehicle. ...


Speed Adjustable Steering

An outgrowth of power steering is speed adjustable steering, where the steering is heavily assisted at low speed and lightly assisted at high speed. The auto makers perceive that motorists might need to make large steering inputs while manoeuvering for parking, but not while traveling at high speed. The first vehicle with this feature was the Citroën SM with its Diravi layout, although rather than altering the amount of assistance as in modern power steering systems, it altered the pressure on a centring cam which made the steering wheel try to "spring" back to the straight-ahead position. Modern speed-adjustable power steering systems reduce the pressure fed to the ram as the speed increases, giving a more direct feel. This feature is gradually becoming commonplace across all new vehicles. Vestigal chrome fins betray American styling cues The Citroën SM was a high performance coupé produced by the French manufacturer Citroën between 1970 and 1975. ... DIRAVI is the name given by Citroën to its proprietary power steering system, first seen in 1970. ...


Four-wheel steering

Four-wheel steering (or all wheel steering) is a system employed by some vehicles to improve steering response, increase vehicle stability while maneuvering at high speed, or to decrease turning radius at low speed. Please wikify (format) this article or section as suggested in the Guide to layout and the Manual of Style. ...


In most active four-wheel steering systems, the rear wheels are steered by a computer and actuators. The rear wheels generally cannot turn as far as the front wheels. Some systems, including Delphi's Quadrasteer and the system in Honda's Prelude line, allow for the rear wheels to be steered in the opposite direction as the front wheels during low speeds. This allows the vehicle to turn in a significantly smaller radius — sometimes critical for large trucks or vehicles with trailers. Quadrasteer is the name of the 4-wheel steering system developed by General Motors for use in automobiles, namely full-size pick-up trucks. ... The best selling North American pickup truck, the Ford F-Series. ...


Many modern vehicles offer a form of passive rear steering to counteract normal vehicle tendencies. For example, Subaru used a passive steering system to correct for the rear wheel's tendency to toe-out. On many vehicles, when cornering, the rear wheels tend to steer slightly to the outside of a turn, which can reduce stability. The passive steering system uses the lateral forces generated in a turn (through suspension geometry) and the bushings to correct this tendency and steer the wheels ever-so-slightly to the inside of the corner. This improves the stability of the car, through the turn. This effect is called compliance understeer and it, or its opposite, is present on all suspensions. Typical methods of achieving compliance understeer are to use a Watt's Link on a live rear axle, or the use of toe control bushes on a twist beam suspension. On an IRS it is normally achieved by changing the rates of the rubber bushes in the suspension. Some suspensions will always have compliance oversteer due to geometry, such as Hotchkiss live axles or a semi trailing arm IRS. This article or section does not adequately cite its references or sources. ... Ideally, when the car reaches the turn, the driver will steer it along the line marked with green dots. ... IRS is short for U.S. Internal Revenue Service short for Indian Revenue Service short for Independent rear suspension, used in automobiles. ... Ideally, when the car reaches the turn, the driver will steer it along the line marked with green dots. ...


Recent application

In an active 4ws system all four wheels turn at the same time when you steer. There can be controls to switch off the rear steer and options to steer only the rear wheel independent of the front wheels. At slow speeds (e.g. parking) the rear wheels turn opposite of the front wheels, reducing the turning radius by up to twenty-five percent, while at higher speeds both front and rear wheels turn alike (electronically controlled), so that the vehicle may change position with less yaw, enhancing straight-line stability. The "Snaking effect" experienced during motorway drives while towing a caravan is thus largely nullified. Four-wheel steering found its most widespread use in monster trucks, where maneuverability in small arenas is critical, and it is also popular in large farm vehicles and trucks. The yaw angle is the angle between a vehicles heading and a reference heading (normally true or magnetic North). ... Motorway symbol in UK, France and Ireland. ... A travel trailer or caravan is a trailer towed behind a road vehicle (or even a horse) to provide a place to sleep which is more comfortable, sheltered and protected than a tent (although there are fold-down tent trailers [1]) . It provides the means for people to have their... 2005 Bigfoot monster truck racing in Arizona A monster truck is an automobile, typically a pickup truck, which has been modified or purpose built with extremely large wheels and suspension. ... For other uses, see Farm (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Truck (disambiguation). ...


General Motors offers Delphi's Quadrasteer in their consumer Silverado/Sierra and Suburban/Yukon. However, only 16,500 vehicles have been sold with this system since its introduction in 2002 through 2004. Due to this low demand, GM will not offer the technology on the 2007 update to these vehicles. General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... Delphi logo from 2005 Delphi (NASDAQ: DPHIQ) is an automotive parts company headquartered in Troy, Michigan. ... Quadrasteer is the name of the 4-wheel steering system developed by General Motors for use in automobiles, namely full-size pick-up trucks. ... The Chevrolet Silverado from Chevrolet (along with its GMC counterpart, the GMC Sierra), is the latest line of full-size pickup trucks from General Motors. ... This redirect page is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... This article is about a type of vehicle. ... The Chevrolet Tahoe (and similar GMC Yukon) is a full-size SUV from General Motors. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) is the current year, a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar and the AD/CE era in the 21st century. ...


Previously, Honda had four-wheel steering as an option in their 1987-2000 Prelude, and Mazda also offered four-wheel steering on the 626 and MX6 in 1988. Neither system was very popular, in that whatever improvement they brought to these already excellent-handling vehicles was offset by an unavoidable decrease in sensitivity caused by the increased weight and complexity. This article is about the Japanese motor corporation. ... Year 1987 (MCMLXXXVII) was a common year starting on Thursday (link displays 1987 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Honda Prelude was a sport compact manufactured by the Japanese automaker Honda from 1978 through 2001. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... The Mazda 626 is an automobile produced by Mazda for the export market. ... The Mazda MX-6 was a front-wheel drive sporty coupe produced by Mazda between 1987 and 1997 to compete with the likes of the Chevrolet Beretta, Toyota Celica, Nissan 240SX and Honda Prelude. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ...


A new "Active Drive" system is introduced on the 2008 version of the Renault Laguna line. It was designed as one of several measures to increase security and stability. The Active Drive should lower the effects of under steer and decrease the chances of spinning by diverting part of the G-forces generated in a turn from the front to the rear tires. At low speeds the turning circle can be tightened so parking and maneuvering is easier. The Renault Laguna is a large family car produced by the French manufacturer Renault. ...


Production cars with active four wheel steering

  • Efini MS-9 (high and low speed)
  • GMC Sierra (2002) (high and low speed)
  • Honda Prelude (high and low speed, fully mechanical from 1987 to 1991)
  • Honda Accord (1991) (high and low speed, mechanical)
  • Infiniti G35 Sedan (option on Sport models) (2007-Present) (high speed only?)
  • Infiniti G35 Coupe (option on Sport models) (2006-Present) (high speed only) [1]
  • Infiniti M35 (option on Sport models) (2006-Present) (high speed only?)
  • Infiniti M45 (option on Sport models) (2006-Present) (high speed only?)
  • Infiniti Q45t (1989-1994) (high speed only?)
  • Mazda 626 (1988) (high and low speed)
  • Mazda MX-6 (1989-1997) (high and low speed)
  • Mazda RX-7 (optional, computerized, high and low speed)

The Mazda 929 (also sold as the Efini MS-9) is a full-size luxury car. ... This redirect page is being considered for deletion in accordance with Wikipedias deletion policy. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... The Honda Prelude was a sport compact manufactured by the Japanese automaker Honda from 1978 through 2001. ... The Honda Accord is an automobile manufactured by Honda since 1976, debuting as a compact hatchback and evolving into a intermediate vehicle. ... Year 1991 (MCMXCI) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the 1991 Gregorian calendar). ... The M30, M45, and M35 are luxury cars from Nissans Infiniti marque. ... The M30, M45, and M35 are luxury cars from Nissans Infiniti marque. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 1994 (MCMXCIV) The year 1994 was designated as the International Year of the Family and the International Year of the Sport and the Olympic Ideal by the United Nations. ... The Mazda 626 is an automobile produced by Mazda for the export market. ... Year 1988 (MCMLXXXVIII) was a leap year starting on Friday (link displays 1988 Gregorian calendar). ... The Mazda MX-6 was a front-wheel drive sporty coupe produced by Mazda between 1987 and 1997 to compete with the likes of the Chevrolet Beretta, Toyota Celica, Nissan 240SX and Honda Prelude. ... Year 1989 (MCMLXXXIX) was a common year starting on Sunday (link displays 1989 Gregorian calendar). ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... The Mazda RX-7 (also called the Ẽfini RX-7) is a sports car produced by the Japanese automaker Mazda from 1978 to 2002. ... The Mitsubishi Galant is an automobile manufactured by Mitsubishi Motors since 1969. ... For the 1970–75 GTO, see Mitsubishi Galant GTO. The Mitsubishi GTO is the name of two different sports cars built by Mitsubishi Motors, both of which were rebadged for many export markets. ... The Nissan Cefiro is an intermediate-size automobile range sold in Japan and other countries. ... The Nissan 240SX was a car introduced to the North American market by Nissan in 1989 and sold there until 1998. ... The Nissan 300ZX, also known as the Nissan Fairlady Z, is a sports car that was produced by Nissan. ... The Nissan Laurel was introduced by Nissan in 1968 as the new model to slot between the 1968 Bluebird 510 & the Nissan Cedric. ... The Fuga will be a full-size luxury car from Nissan of Japan when it is introduced in 2005. ... The M30, M45, and M35 are luxury cars from Nissans Infiniti marque. ... The Nissan Silvia is the name given to the companys long-running line of sport coupes based on the Nissan S platform. ... The Nissan Skyline is a mid-size car originally produced by the Japanese automaker Prince Motor Company starting in 1957 and later by Nissan after the two companies merged in 1966. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... The Nissan Skyline GT-R is an iconic Japanese sports coupé in the Nissan Skyline range. ... The Renault Laguna is a large family car produced by the French manufacturer Renault. ... First-generation Aristo(JZS147) Second-generation Lexus GS(JZS160) Third-generation Lexus GS(GRS190) The Lexus GS is a car manufactured by the Toyota Motor Corp. ... For the band, see 1997 (band). ... For the high-performance versions of the Celica, see Toyota Celica GT-Four. ...

Articulated steering

A front loader with articulated steering.
A front loader with articulated steering.

Articulated steering is a system by which a four-wheel drive vehicle is split into front and rear halves which are connected by a vertical hinge. The front and rear halves are connected with one or more hydraulic cylinders that change the angle between the halves, including the front and rear axles and wheels, thus steering the vehicle. This system does not use steering arms, king pins, tie rods, etc. as does four-wheel steering. If the vertical hinge is placed equidistant between the two axles, it also eliminates the need for a central differential, as both front and rear axles will follow the same path, and thus rotate at the same speed. Download high resolution version (2240x1680, 1828 KB)front loader picture I took © 2004; -Jeff I give it to wikipedia and place it under the GDL. -Jeff Yes. ... Download high resolution version (2240x1680, 1828 KB)front loader picture I took © 2004; -Jeff I give it to wikipedia and place it under the GDL. -Jeff Yes. ... A Volvo L120E front loader. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... In an automobile and other four-wheeled vehicles, a differential is a device, usually consisting of gears, for allowing each of the driving wheels to rotate at different speeds, while supplying equal torque to each of them. ...


SuperSteer

Is used by NewHolland to make tractors turning radius smaller. The SuperSteer front axle articulates when the wheels turn. The inside wheel moves away from the frame, while the outside wheel moves in front of the bumper/nose of the tractor, providing more tire clearance and a greater turn angle. A picture of this turning action can be seen here.


Steer-By-Wire

The aim of steer-by-wire technology is to completely do away with as many mechanical components (steering shaft, column, gear reduction mechanism, etc.) as possible. Completely replacing conventional steering system with steer-by-wire holds several advantages, such as: Drive-by-wire technology in automotive industry replaces the traditional mechanical and hydraulic control systems with electronic control systems using electromechanical actuators and human-machine interfaces such as pedal and steering feel emulators. ...

  • The absence of steering column simplifies the car interior design.
  • The absence of steering shaft, column and gear reduction mechanism allows much better space utilization in the engine compartment.
  • The steering mechanism can be designed and installed as a modular unit.
  • Without mechanical connection between the steering wheel and the road wheel, it is less likely that the impact of a frontal crash will force the steering wheel to intrude into the driver's survival space.
  • Steering system characteristics can easily and infinitely be adjusted to optimize the steering response and feel.

Safety

For safety reasons all modern cars feature a collapsible steering column (energy absorbing steering column) which will collapse in the event of a heavy frontal impact to avoid excessive injuries to the driver. Non-collapsible steering columns very often impaled drivers in frontal crashes. Audi has a retractable wheel system called procon-ten. For other uses, see impale. ... Audi AG is a German automobile manufacturer with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria, and has been an almost wholly owned (99. ... Sticker on the rear window of a Procon-ten equipped Audi procon-ten (lower case initial p) stands for Programmed Contraction Tension and is a proprietary secondary restraint system used by car manufacturer Audi from 1986 until the mid-1990s. ...


Collapsible steering columns were invented by Bela Barenyi. Béla Barényi (1 March 1907–30 May 1997) is regarded as the father of passive safety in automobiles. ...


This safety feature first appeared on cars built by General Motors after an extensive and very public lobbying campaign enacted by Ralph Nader. General Motors Corporation (NYSE: GM), also known as GM, is an American automobile maker with worldwide operations and brands including Buick, Cadillac, Chevrolet, GMC, Holden, Hummer, Opel, Pontiac, Saturn, Saab and Vauxhall. ... This article is about the political effort. ... Ralph Nader (born February 27, 1934) is an American attorney and political activist in the areas of consumer rights, humanitarianism, environmentalism and democratic government. ...


Ford started to install collapsible steering columns in 1968 [1]. Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ...


Cycles

Steering is crucial to the stability of bicycles and motorcycles (see article on bicycle). For other uses, see Bicycle (disambiguation). ...


See also

External links

Look up Steering in
Wiktionary, the free dictionary.
  • How Car Steering Works (HowStuffWorks.com)
  • What is Camber & how to correct it

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 150 languages. ...

References

  • Encyclopedia of German Tanks of World War Two by Peter Chamberlain and Hilary Doyle, 1978, 1999
  1. ^ http://www.caranddriver.com/shortroadtests/13239/tested-2008-infiniti-g37-sport-coupe-suspension-handling-and-four-wheel-steering-page3.html

  Results from FactBites:
 
Torque steer - definition of Torque steer in Encyclopedia (821 words)
It is a result of the offset between the point about which the wheel steers (which falls at a point which is aligned with the points at which the wheel is connected to the steering mechanisms) and the centroid of its contact patch.
The tractive force acts through the centroid of the contact patch, and the offset of the steering point means that a turning moment about the axis of steering is generated.
Torque Steer is often incorrectly attributed to differing rates of twist along the lengths of unequal front drive shafts.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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