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Encyclopedia > Steenbok
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Steenbok
Male steenbok in Etosha National Park
Male steenbok in Etosha National Park
Conservation status
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Mammalia
Order: Artiodactyla
Family: Bovidae
Genus: Raphicerus
Species: R. campestris
Binomial name
Raphicerus campestris
Thunberg, 1811

The Steenbok (Raphicerus campestris) is a common small antelope of southern and eastern Africa. It is also know as the "Steinbuck"; not to be confused with the Dutch-language "steenbok" (= ibex). Etosha National Park in Namibia was first established in 1907, when Namibia was a German colony known as South West Africa. ... The conservation status of a species is an indicator of the likelihood of that species continuing to survive either in the present day or the future. ... Image File history File links Status_iucn2. ... Least Concern (LC) is an IUCN category assigned to species or lower taxa which do not qualify for any other category. ... For other uses, see Scientific classification (disambiguation). ... Animalia redirects here. ... {{{subdivision_ranks}}} See below Chordates (phylum Chordata) are a group of animals that includes the vertebrates, together with several closely related invertebrates. ... I smoke weed im growing a blue penis dude#REDIRECT penises are cool ... Families Suidae Hippopotamidae Tayassuidae Camelidae Tragulidae Moschidae Cervidae Giraffidae Antilocapridae Bovidae The even-toed ungulates form the mammal order Artiodactyla. ... Subfamilies Bovinae Cephalophinae Hippotraginae Antilopinae Caprinae A bovid is any of almost 140 species of cloven-hoofed mammals belonging to the family Bovidae. ... In biology, binomial nomenclature is the formal method of naming species. ... Genera Aepyceros Alcelaphus Antidorcas Antilope Cephalophus Connochaetes Damaliscus Gazella Hippotragus Kobus Madoqua Neotragus Oreotragus Oryx Ourebia Pantholops Procapra Sylvicapra Taurotragus Tragelaphus and others Antelope are herbivorous mammals of the family Bovidae, (usually) distinguished by a pair of hollow horns on their heads. ... Species Capra ibex Capra nubiana Capra pyrenaica Capra sibiria Capra walie See also Ibex (vehicle) ifor the specialist off-road vehicle, and the Ibex Valley. ...

Contents

Description

Steenbok resemble small Oribi, standing 45–60 cm at the shoulder. Their pelage (coat) is any shade from fawn to rufous, typically rather orange. The underside, including chin and throat, is white, as is the ring around the eye. Ears are large with "finger-marks" on the inside. Males carry straight, smooth, parallel horns 7–19 cm long. There is a black crescent-shape between the ears, a long black bridge to the glossy black nose, and a black circular scent-gland in front of the eye. The tail is usually invisible, being only 4–6 cm long. Binomial name Ourebia ourebi Zimmermann, 1782 // Description Oribi are graceful slender-legged, long-necked small antelope found in central and Southern Africa. ... In mammals, pelage is the hair, fur, or wool that covers the animal. ... Highland cow, a very old long-horned breed from Scotland. ...


Distribution and Habitat

There are two distinct clusters in Steenbok distribution. In East Africa, it occurs in southern Kenya, Uganda (extinct?) and Tanzania. In southern Africa, it occurs in Angola, Namibia, South Africa, Lesotho (?), Swaziland, Botswana, Mozambique, Zambia and Zimbabwe.  Eastern Africa (UN subregion)  East African Community  Central African Federation (defunct)  geographic, including above East Africa or Eastern Africa is the easternmost region of the African continent, variably defined by geography or geopolitics. ... Categories: Africa geography stubs | Southern Africa ...


They can use a variety of habitats from (semi-)desert (e.g. in the Kalahari Desert, Etosha National Park) to open woodland and thickets, including open plains, stony savannah, and Acaciagrassland mosaics. They are said to favour unstable or transitional habitats (Kingdon, 1997). Erg Chebbi, Morocco In geography, a desert is a landscape form or region that receives very little precipitation. ... The Kalahari Desert is a large arid to semi-arid sandy area in southern Africa extending 900,000 km², covering much of Botswana and parts of Namibia and South Africa, as semi-desert, with huge tracts of excellent grazing after good rains. ... Etosha National Park in Namibia was first established in 1907, when Namibia was a German colony known as South West Africa. ... == Headline text == Plains is the name of several places in the [[United usyduisaydashdsdsjdn Plains, North Lanarkshire, Scotland There are also The Plains, Ohio; Plainsboro, New Jersey; and Plainville, Kansas You might also be looking for the geographical feature plain; or the Plains Indians. ... Savanna at Ngorongoro Conservation Area, Tanzania. ... Species About 1,300; see List of Acacia species Acacia tree in the Serengeti, Tanzania Acacia is a genus of shrubs and trees of Gondwanian origin belonging to the Subfamily Mimosoideae of the family Fabaceae, first described from Africa by Linnaeus in 1773. ... Grasslands are very generally open and continuous, fairly flat area of grass. ... Mosaic is the art of decoration with small pieces of colored glass, stone or other material. ...


Diet

Steenbok typically browse on low-level vegetation, but are also adept at scraping up roots and tubers. They will also take fruits and seasonally graze on grass. They are almost entirely independent of drinking water, gaining the moisture they need from their food. Browser can refer to: browser - a type of herbivore whose nutrition generally comes from high growing plants, like trees, rather than a grazer that eats from the ground. ... Grazing is the regular consumption of part of one organism without killing it by another organism. ... Natural vegetaton dominated by grasses Grass is a common word that generally describes a monocotyledonous green plant in the family Poaceae, True grasses include most plants grown as cereals, for pasture, and for lawns. ...


Behaviour

Anti-predator

At the first sign of trouble, Steenbok typically lie low in the vegetation. If a predator or perceived threat comes closer, a Steenbok will leap away and follow a zigzag route to try to shake off the pursuer. They are known to take refuge in the burrow of Aardvarks. Known predators include African Wild Cat, Caracal, Jackals, Leopard, Martial Eagle and Pythons. This article is about the mammal. ... Trinomial name Felis silvestris libyca Forster, 1770 The African wild cat or desert cat (Felis silvestris libyca) is a subspecies of the wild cat (). It was first domesticated by the Ancient Egyptians at least 4,000 years ago, and is generally believed to be the ancestor of the domestic cat. ... Binomial name Caracal caracal (Schreber, 1776) The Caracal, also called Persian lynx or African lynx (Caracal caracal, sometimes Felis caracal), is a fiercely territorial medium-sized cat. ... This article is about the animal. ... Binomial name Panthera pardus Linnaeus, 1758 Synonyms Felis pardus Linnaeus, 1758 The Leopard (Panthera pardus) is one of the four big cats of the genus Panthera. ... Binomial name Polemaetus bellicosus (Daudin, 1800) Range of Martial Eagle The Martial Eagle (Polemaetus bellicosus), is Africas largest eagle, growing to a length of 76-83 cm. ... For other meanings, see Python (disambiguation). ...


Breeding

Steenbok are typically solitary, except for when a pair come together to mate. However, it has been suggested (Kingdon, 1997) that pairs occupy consistent territories while living independently, staying in contact through scent markings, so that they know where their mate is most of the time. Scent marking is primarily through dung middens. Mate may refer to: Relationships: Mate (term), a term for a friend, especially in the United Kingdom and Australasia; also used to address strangers One of a pair of animals, sometimes also applied to a human partner; see mating Nautical: A deck officer on a merchant marine vessel, usually ranked... In ethology, sociobiology and behavioral ecology, the term territory refers to any geographical area that an animal of a particular species consistently defends against conspecifics (and, occasionally, animals of other species). ...


Breeding occurs throughout the year, although more fawns are born in southern spring–summer (November–December); some females may breed twice a year. The male is aggressive during the female's oestrus. Gestation period is 170 days, and the (almost always single) fawn is precocious, though it is kept hidden in vegetation for 2 weeks. Fawns suckle for 3 months, and become sexually mature at 6–8 months (females) or 9 months (males). Estrus (also spelled œstrus) or heat in female mammals is the period of greatest female sexual responsiveness usually coinciding with ovulation. ... The Gestation period in a viviparous animal refers to the length of its pregnancy. ...


Reference

Kingdon, Jonathan. 1997. The Kingdon Field Guide to African Mammals. Academic Press, San Diego & London. Pp. 387–388. (ISBN 0-12-408355-2)


External links


  Results from FactBites:
 
Comparative Placentation (1202 words)
Steenbok have a multicotyledonary placenta with four distinct rows of cotyledons that correspond to the caruncles.
Steenbok have a bicornuate uterus with four distinct rows of caruncles in the endometrium.
Steenboks have 30 chromosomes (Wallace and Fairall, 1967).
Steenbok - Raphicerus campestris of Southern Africa (378 words)
The Steenbok is a graceful little buck, with large ears, long, slender legs, a slim body and a tiny tuft of a tail.
Steenbok establish well-defined but overlapping territories, which both sexes will defend against trespassers, and mark their territory using glands between the hooves on the front and back feet, a gland between the two halves of the lower jaw, and with glands just in front of the eyes.
Steenbok are normally solitary, except when a mother is with her young or when a male and female are courting.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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