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Encyclopedia > Steel
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Iron alloy phases

Austenite (γ-iron; hard)
Bainite
Martensite
Cementite (iron carbide; Fe3C)
Ledeburite (ferrite - cementite eutectic, 4.3% carbon)
Ferrite (α-iron, δ-iron; soft)
Pearlite (88% ferrite, 12% cementite)
Spheroidite General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which austenite (γ) is stable in carbon steel. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the eutectoid temperature and composition, at which bainite can form. ... Martensite in AISI 4140 steel 0. ... Cementite or iron carbide is a chemical compound with the formula Fe3C, and an orthorhombic crystal structure. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the iron-carbon phase diagram (near the lower left). ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which ferrite (α) is stable. ... Pearlite occurs at the eutectoid of the iron-carbon phase diagram (near the lower left). ... Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ...

Types of steel

Carbon steel (≤2.1% carbon; low alloy)
Stainless steel (steel with chromium)
HSLA steel (high strength low alloy)
Tool steel (very hard)
Carbon steel,is very fun 2 play with also called plain carbon steel, is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... HSLA steel (high strength low alloy steel) is a type of steel alloy that provides many benefits over regular steel alloys. ... Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools. ...

Other iron-based materials

Cast iron (>2.1% carbon)
Wrought iron (contains slag)
Ductile iron
Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... -1...

Steel is an alloy consisting mostly of iron, with a carbon content between 0.2 and 2.04% by weight (C:1000–10,8.67Fe), depending on grade. Carbon is the most cost-effective alloying material for iron, but various other alloying elements are used such as manganese, chromium, vanadium, and tungsten.[1] Carbon and other elements act as a hardening agent, preventing dislocations in the iron atom crystal lattice from sliding past one another. Varying the amount of alloying elements and form of their presence in the steel (solute elements, precipitated phase) controls qualities such as the hardness, ductility and tensile strength of the resulting steel. Steel with increased carbon content can be made harder and stronger than iron, but is also more brittle. The maximum solubility of carbon in iron (in austenite region) is 2.14% by weight, occurring at 1149 °C; higher concentrations of carbon or lower temperatures will produce cementite. Alloys with higher carbon content than this are known as cast iron because of their lower melting point.[1] Steel is also to be distinguished from wrought iron containing only a very small amount of other elements, but containing 1–3% by weight of slag in the form of particles elongated in one direction, giving the iron a characteristic grain. It is more rust-resistant than steel and welds more easily. It is common today to talk about 'the iron and steel industry' as if it were a single entity, but historically they were separate products. Steel may refer to several things: Metal alloys: Steel, a metal alloy that is usually comprised of iron and carbon Stainless steel, a variety of steel containing at least 10. ... An alloy is a homogeneous hybrid of two or more elements, at least one of which is a metal, and where the resulting material has metallic properties. ... General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Carbon (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Iron (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... In materials science, a dislocation is a crystallographic defect, or irregularity, within a crystal structure. ... In mineralogy and crystallography, a crystal structure is a unique arrangement of atoms in a crystal. ... In materials science, hardness is the characteristic of a solid material expressing its resistance to permanent deformation. ... Gold is a highly ductile metal Ductility is a mechanical property which describes how much plastic deformation a material can sustain before fracture occurs. ... Tensile strength isthe measures the force required to pull something such as rope, wire, or a structural beam to the point where it breaks. ... A material is brittle if it is subject to fracture when subjected to stress i. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which austenite (γ) is stable in carbon steel. ... For other uses, see Celsius (disambiguation). ... Cementite or iron carbide is a chemical compound with the formula Fe3C, and an orthorhombic crystal structure. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Slag is also an early play by David Hare. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ...


Though steel had been produced by various inefficient methods long before the Renaissance, its use became more common after more efficient production methods were devised in the 17th century. With the invention of the Bessemer process in the mid-19th century, steel became a relatively inexpensive mass-produced good. Further refinements in the process, such as basic oxygen steelmaking, further lowered the cost of production while increasing the quality of the metal. Today, steel is one of the most common materials in the world and is a major component in buildings, tools, automobiles, and appliances. Modern steel is generally identified by various grades of steel defined by various standards organizations. This article is about the European Renaissance of the 14th-17th centuries. ... The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from a molten pig iron. ... Mass production is the production of large amounts of standardised products on production lines. ... Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, Linz-Donawitz-Verfahren, LD-converter) is a method of converting molten iron to steel. ... Car redirects here. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... Standards Organizations are bodies, organizations and institutions that produce, and in some cases measure, standards. ...

The steel cable of a colliery winding tower.
The steel cable of a colliery winding tower.

Contents

Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1366x1708, 2319 KB) Description: Steel Wire rope of the the German colliery Zeche Zollern headgear Source: Taken with an OLYMPUS C2500L Date: 16. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1366x1708, 2319 KB) Description: Steel Wire rope of the the German colliery Zeche Zollern headgear Source: Taken with an OLYMPUS C2500L Date: 16. ... Surface coal mining in Wyoming in the United States of America. ...

Material properties

Iron, like most metals, is not usually found in the Earth's crust in an elemental state.[2] Iron can be found in the crust only in combination with oxygen or sulfur. Typical iron-containing minerals include Fe2O3—the form of iron oxide found as the mineral hematite, and FeS2pyrite (fool's gold).[3] Iron is extracted from ore by removing the oxygen by combining it with a preferred chemical partner such as carbon. This process, known as smelting, was first applied to metals with lower melting points. Copper melts at just over 1000 °C, while tin melts around 250 °C. Cast iron—iron alloyed with greater than 1.7% carbon—melts at around 1370 °C. All of these temperatures could be reached with ancient methods that have been used for at least 6000 years (since the Bronze Age). Since the oxidation rate itself increases rapidly beyond 800 °C, it is important that smelting take place in a low-oxygen environment. Unlike copper and tin, liquid iron dissolves carbon quite readily, so that smelting results in an alloy containing too much carbon to be called steel.[4] General Name, symbol, number iron, Fe, 26 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 8, 4, d Appearance lustrous metallic with a grayish tinge Standard atomic weight 55. ... This article is about Earth as a planet. ... Geologic provinces of the world (USGS) In geology, a crust is the outermost solid shell of a planet or moon. ... This article is about the chemical element and its most stable form, or dioxygen. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... Iron oxide pigment There are a number of iron oxides: Iron oxides Iron(II) oxide or ferrous oxide (FeO) The black-coloured powder in particular can cause explosions as it readily ignites. ... For other uses, see Mineral (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Hematite (disambiguation). ... The mineral pyrite, or iron pyrite, is iron sulfide, FeS2. ... For other uses, see Ore (disambiguation). ... Electric phosphate smelting furnace in a TVA chemical plant (1942) Chemical reduction, or smelting, is a form of extractive metallurgy. ... In physics, melting is the process of heating a solid substance to a point (called the melting point) where it turns into a liquid. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the metallic chemical element. ... The Bronze Age is a period in a civilizations development when the most advanced metalworking has developed the techniques of smelting copper from natural outcroppings and alloys it to cast bronze. ...


Even in the narrow range of concentrations that make up steel, mixtures of carbon and iron can form into a number of different structures, with very different properties; understanding these is essential to making quality steel. At room temperature, the most stable form of iron is the body-centered cubic (BCC) structure ferrite or α-iron, a fairly soft metallic material that can dissolve only a small concentration of carbon (no more than 0.021 wt% at 910 °C). Above 910 °C ferrite undergoes a phase transition from body-centered cubic to a face-centered cubic (FCC) structure, called austenite or γ-iron, which is similarly soft and metallic but can dissolve considerably more carbon (as much as 2.03 wt% carbon at 1154 °C).[5] As carbon-rich austenite cools, the mixture attempts to revert to the ferrite phase, resulting in an excess of carbon. One way for carbon to leave the austenite is for cementite to precipitate out of the mix, leaving behind iron that is pure enough to take the form of ferrite, resulting in a cementite-ferrite mixture. Cementite is a stoichiometric phase with the chemical formula of Fe3C. Cementite forms in regions of higher carbon content while other areas revert to ferrite around it. Self-reinforcing patterns often emerge during this process, leading to a patterned layering known as pearlite (Fe3C:6.33Fe) due to its pearl-like appearance, or the similar but less beautiful bainite. In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which ferrite (α) is stable. ... This diagram shows the nomenclature for the different phase transitions. ... In crystallography, the cubic crystal system is the most symmetric of the 7 crystal systems. ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions under which austenite (γ) is stable in carbon steel. ... Cementite or iron carbide is a chemical compound with the formula Fe3C, and an orthorhombic crystal structure. ... Precipitation is the condensation of a solid from a solution during a chemical reaction. ... Stoichiometry (sometimes called reaction stoichiometry to distinguish it from composition stoichiometry) is the calculation of quantitative (measurable) relationships of the reactants and products in chemical reactions (chemical equations). ... Pearlite occurs at the eutectoid of the iron-carbon phase diagram (near the lower left). ... For other uses, see Pearl (disambiguation). ... Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the eutectoid temperature and composition, at which bainite can form. ...

Iron-carbon phase diagram, showing the conditions necessary to form different phases.

Perhaps the most important polymorphic form is martensite, a chemically metastable substance with about four to five times the strength of ferrite. A minimum of 0.4 wt% of carbon (C:50Fe) is needed to form martensite. When austenite is quenched to form martensite, the carbon is "frozen" in place when the cell structure changes from FCC to BCC. The carbon atoms are much too large to fit in the interstitial vacancies and thus distort the cell structure into a body-centered tetragonal (BCT) structure. Martensite and austenite have an identical chemical composition. As such, it requires extremely little thermal activation energy to form. In physical chemistry, mineralogy, and materials science, a phase diagram is a type of graph used to show the equilibrium conditions between the thermodynamically-distinct phases. ... Polymorphism in materials science is the ability of a solid material to exist in more than one form or crystal structure. ... Martensite in AISI 4140 steel 0. ... The sparks generated by striking steel against a flint provide the activation energy to initiate combustion in this Bunsen burner. ...


The heat treatment process for most steels involves heating the alloy until austenite forms, then quenching the hot metal in water or oil, cooling it so rapidly that the transformation to ferrite or pearlite does not have time to take place. The transformation into martensite, by contrast, occurs almost immediately, due to a lower activation energy. Quenching is a general term for non-radiative de-excitation. ... Impact from a water drop causes an upward rebound jet surrounded by circular capillary waves. ... Synthetic motor oil being poured. ...


Martensite has a lower density than austenite, so that transformation between them results in a change of volume. In this case, expansion occurs. Internal stresses from this expansion generally take the form of compression on the crystals of martensite and tension on the remaining ferrite, with a fair amount of shear on both constituents. If quenching is done improperly, these internal stresses can cause a part to shatter as it cools; at the very least, they cause internal work hardening and other microscopic imperfections. It is common for quench cracks to form when water quenched, although they may not always be visible.[6] Physical compression is the result of the subjection of a material to compressive stress, resulting in reduction of volume. ... Tension is a reaction force applied by a stretched string (rope or a similar object) on the objects which stretch it. ... Work hardening, or strain hardening, is an increase in mechanical strength due to plastic deformation. ...

Iron ore pellets for the production of steel.
Iron ore pellets for the production of steel.

At this point, if the carbon content is high enough to produce a significant concentration of martensite, the result is an extremely hard but very brittle material. Often, steel undergoes further heat treatment at a lower temperature to destroy some of the martensite (by allowing enough time for cementite etc. to form) and help settle the internal stresses and defects. This softens the steel, producing a more ductile and fracture-resistant metal. Because time is so critical to the end result, this process is known as tempering, which forms tempered steel.[7] Image:LightningVolt Iron Ore Pellets. ... Image:LightningVolt Iron Ore Pellets. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Tempering is a heat treatment technique for metals and alloys. ...


Other materials are often added to the iron/carbon mixture to tailor the resulting properties. Nickel and manganese in steel add to its tensile strength and make austenite more chemically stable, chromium increases hardness and melting temperature, and vanadium also increases hardness while reducing the effects of metal fatigue. Large amounts of chromium and nickel (often 18% and 8%, respectively) are added to stainless steel so that a hard oxide forms on the metal surface to inhibit corrosion. Tungsten interferes with the formation of cementite, allowing martensite to form with slower quench rates, resulting in high speed steel. On the other hand sulfur, nitrogen, and phosphorus make steel more brittle, so these commonly found elements must be removed from the ore during processing.[8] For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... General Name, symbol, number vanadium, V, 23 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 5, 4, d Appearance silver-grey metal Standard atomic weight 50. ... This article is about a computer game. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... Passivation is the process of making a material passive in relation to another material prior to using the materials together. ... For other uses, see Tungsten (disambiguation). ... High speed steel (often abbreviated HSS) is a material usually used in the manufacture of machine tool bits and other cutters. ... This article is about the chemical element. ... General Name, symbol, number nitrogen, N, 7 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 2, p Appearance colorless gas Standard atomic weight 14. ... General Name, symbol, number phosphorus, P, 15 Chemical series nonmetals Group, period, block 15, 3, p Appearance waxy white/ red/ black/ colorless Standard atomic weight 30. ...


When iron is smelted from its ore by commercial processes, it contains more carbon than is desirable. To become steel, it must be melted and reprocessed to remove the correct amount of carbon, at which point other elements can be added. Once this liquid is cast into ingots, it usually must be "worked" at high temperature to remove any cracks or poorly mixed regions from the solidification process, and to produce shapes such as plate, sheet, wire, etc. It is then heat-treated to produce a desirable crystal structure, and often "cold worked" to produce the final shape. In modern steel making these processes are often combined, with ore going in one end of the assembly line and finished steel coming out the other. These can be streamlined by a deft control of the interaction between work hardening and tempering. Modern car assembly line. ... Work hardening, or strain hardening, is an increase in mechanical strength due to plastic deformation. ...


History of steelmaking

Bloomery smelting during the Middle Ages.
Bloomery smelting during the Middle Ages.

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 351 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (678 × 1156 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/png) fr: Fabrication dacier au moyen-âge Fabrication dacier au moyen-âge File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 351 × 598 pixel Image in higher resolution (678 × 1156 pixel, file size: 71 KB, MIME type: image/png) fr: Fabrication dacier au moyen-âge Fabrication dacier au moyen-âge File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link... The Middle Ages formed the middle period in a traditional schematic division of European history into three ages: the classical civilization of Antiquity, the Middle Ages, and modern times, beginning with the Renaissance. ... The history of ferrous metallurgy began far back in prehistory, most likely with the use of iron from meteors. ...

Ancient steel

Steel was known in antiquity, and may have been produced by managing the bloomery so that the bloom contained carbon.[9] Some of the first steel comes from East Africa, dating back to 1400 BC.[10] In the 4th century BC steel weapons like the Falcata were produced in the Iberian peninsula. The Chinese of the Han Dynasty (202 BC – 220 AD) created steel by melting together wrought iron with cast iron, gaining an ultimate product of a carbon-intermediate—steel by the 1st century AD.[11][12] A bloomery is a type of furnace once widely used for smelting iron from its oxides. ... 4th century BC Iberian falcata. ... China is the worlds oldest continuous major civilization, with written records dating back about 3,500 years and with 5,000 years being commonly used by Chinese as the age of their civilization. ... Han Dynasty in 87 BC Capital Changan (206 BC–9 AD) Luoyang (25 AD–220 AD) Language(s) Chinese Religion Buddhism, Taoism, Confucianism, Chinese folk religion Government Monarchy History  - Establishment 206 BC  - Battle of Gaixia; Han rule of China begins 202 BC  - Interruption of Han rule 9 - 24  - Abdication... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... Cast iron usually refers to grey cast iron, but can mean any of a group of iron-based alloys containing more than 2% carbon (alloys with less carbon are carbon steel by definition). ...


Wootz steel and Damascus steel

Wootz steel was produced in India and Sri Lanka from around 300 BC. Along with their original methods of forging steel, the Chinese had also adopted the production methods of creating Wootz steel, an idea imported from India to China by the 5th century AD.[13] This early steel-making method employed the use of a wind furnace, blown by the monsoon winds and produced almost pure steel.[14] Also known as Damascus steel, wootz is famous for its durability and ability to hold an edge. It was originally created from a number of different materials including various trace elements. It was essentially a complicated alloy with iron as its main component. Recent studies have suggested that carbon nanotubes were included in its structure, which might explain some of its legendary qualities, though given the technology available at that time, they were probably produced more by chance than by design.[15] Wootz is a steel characterized by a pattern of bands or sheets of micro carbides within a tempered martensite or pearlite matrix. ... Damascus steel is a steel used in Middle Eastern swordmaking from about 1100 to 1700AD. Damascus swords were of legendary sharpness and strength, and were apocryphally claimed to be able to cut through lesser quality European swords and even rock. ... Microminerals (also known as trace elements) are micronutrients that are chemical elements. ... An electronic device known as a diode can be formed by joining two nanoscale carbon tubes with different electronic properties. ...


Crucible steel was produced in Merv by 9th to 10th century AD. Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making steel alloy by slowly heating and cooling iron and carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible. ... Merv (Russian: Мерв, from Persian: مرو, Marv, sometimes transliterated Marw or Mary; cf. ...


In the 11th century, there is evidence of the production of steel in Song China using two techniques: a "berganesque" method that produced inferior, inhomogeneous steel and a precursor to the modern Bessemer process that utilized partial decarbonization via repeated forging under a cold blast.[16] For other uses, see Liu Song Dynasty. ...


Early modern steel

A Bessemer converter in Sheffield, England.
A Bessemer converter in Sheffield, England.

Bessemer Converter, Kelham Island Museum, Sheffield, England File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Bessemer Converter, Kelham Island Museum, Sheffield, England File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ...

Blister steel

Main article: Cementation process

Blister steel, produced by the cementation process was first made in Italy in the early 16th century CE and soon after introduced to England. It was produced by Sir Basil Brooke at Coalbrookdale during the 1610s. The raw material for this were bars of wrought iron. During the 17th century it was realised that the best steel came from oregrounds iron from a region of Sweden, north of Stockholm. This was still the usual raw material in the 19th century, almost as long as the process was used.[17][18] The cementation process is a obsolete technique for making steel. ... The cementation process is a obsolete technique for making steel. ... Sir Basil Brooke (1576-1646), metallurgist and recusant, inherited the manor of Madeley from his father. ... Coalbrookdale is a settlement in a side valley of the Ironbridge Gorge in the borough of Telford and Wrekin and ceremonial county of Shropshire, England. ... A wrought iron railing in Troy, New York. ... The English term Oregrounds iron takes its name from the small Swedish city of Öregrund. ... For other uses, see Stockholm (disambiguation). ...


Crucible steel

Main article: Crucible steel

Crucible steel is steel that has been melted in a crucible rather than being forged, with the result that it is more homogeneous. Most previous furnaces could not reach high enough temperatures to melt the steel. The early modern crucible steel industry resulted from the invention of Benjamin Huntsman in the 1740s. Blister steel (made as above) was melted in a crucible in a furnace, and cast (usually) into ingots.[18] Crucible steel describes a number of different techniques for making steel alloy by slowly heating and cooling iron and carbon (typically in the form of charcoal) in a crucible. ... For other uses, see Crucible (disambiguation). ... This article is about smithing. ... Benjamin Huntsman (1704 - 1776), English inventor and steel-manufacturer, was born in Lincolnshire. ...


Modern steelmaking

A Siemens-Martin steel oven from the Brandenburg Museum of Industry.
A Siemens-Martin steel oven from the Brandenburg Museum of Industry.
Main article: Steelmaking
See also: History of the modern steel industry

The modern era in steelmaking began with the introduction of Henry Bessemer's Bessemer process in 1858[19]. This enabled steel to be produced in large quantities cheaply, so that mild steel is now used for most purposes for which wrought iron was formerly used.[20] This was only the first of a number of methods of steel production. The Gilchrist-Thomas process (or basic Bessemer process) was an improvement to the Bessemer process, lining the converter with a basic material to remove phosphorus. Another was the Siemens-Martin process of open hearth steelmaking, which like the Gilchrist-Thomas process complemented, rather than replaced, the original Bessemer process.[18] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 798 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (4048 × 3040 pixel, file size: 2. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 798 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (4048 × 3040 pixel, file size: 2. ... For the similarly spelled Brandenberg, see Brandenberg (Austria) or Brandenburg (disambiguation) Location Coordinates , , Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE4 Capital Potsdam Minister-President Matthias Platzeck (SPD) Governing parties SPD / CDU Votes in Bundesrat 4 (of 69) Basic statistics Area  29,479 km² (11,382... Steelmaking is the second step in producing steel from iron ore. ... The History of the modern steel industry began in the late 1850s, but since then steel has been basic to the worlds industrial economy. ... Steelmaking is the second step in producing steel from iron ore. ... Henry Bessemer (1813-1898) Sir Henry Bessemer (January 19, 1813 – March 15, 1898), English engineer and inventor, was born at Charlton near Hitchin in Hertfordshire. ... The Bessemer process was the first inexpensive industrial process for the mass-production of steel from a molten pig iron. ... Mild steel is the most common form of steel as its price is relatively low while it provides material properties that are acceptable for many applications. ... ...


These were rendered obsolete by the Linz-Donawitz process of basic oxygen steelmaking, developed in the 1950s, and other oxygen steelmaking processes.[21] Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, Linz-Donawitz-Verfahren, LD-converter) is a method of converting molten iron to steel. ...


Steel industry

Tata Steel's Corus plant in the United Kingdom.
Tata Steel's Corus plant in the United Kingdom.
Steel output in 2005
Steel output in 2005

Because of the critical role played by steel in infrastructural and overall economic development, the steel industry is often considered to be an indicator of economic progress. Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 473 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Corus (now Tata Steel) plant This is number 5 Blast Furnace located at the Port Talbot Corus Steel Plant South Wales UK. I, the creator of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 532 pixelsFull resolution (3008 × 2000 pixel, file size: 473 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg)Corus (now Tata Steel) plant This is number 5 Blast Furnace located at the Port Talbot Corus Steel Plant South Wales UK. I, the creator of... Tata Steel, formerly known as TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited), is a steel company based in Mumbai, India. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of output of steel in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - 349,361,500 tonnes). ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 351 pixelsFull resolution (1425 × 625 pixel, file size: 59 KB, MIME type: image/png)This bubble map shows the global distribution of output of steel in 2005 as a percentage of the the top producer (China - 349,361,500 tonnes). ...


The economic boom in China and India has caused a massive increase in the demand for steel in recent years. Between 2000 and 2005, world steel demand increased by 6%. Since 2000, several Indian[22] and Chinese steel firms have risen to prominence like Tata Steel (which bought Corus Group in 2007), Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation and Shagang Group. ArcelorMittal is however the world's largest steel producer. Tata Steel, formerly known as TISCO (Tata Iron and Steel Company Limited), is a steel company based in Mumbai, India. ... For other uses, see Corus. ... Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation, commonly referred to as Baosteel is the largest Chinese iron and steel conglomerate. ... Shagang Group or Jiangsu Shagang Group is located in ZhangJiagang City, a Economic Development Zone of the Yangtze River. ... It has been suggested that Arcelor and Mittal Steel Company be merged into this article or section. ... This article summarizes the world steel production by company. ...


The British Geological Survey reports that in 2005, China was the top producer of steel with about one-third world share followed by Japan, Russia and the USA. The British Geological Survey is a publicly-funded body which aims to advance geoscientific knowledge of the United Kingdom landmass and its continental shelf by means of systematic surveying, monitoring and research. ...


In 2008, steel will be traded as a commodity in the London Metal Exchange. Chicago Board of Trade Commodity market Commodity markets are markets where raw or primary products are exchanged. ... The London Metal Exchange or LME is the futures exchange with the worlds largest market in options and futures contracts on base and other metals. ...

See also: List of steel producers and Global steel industry trends

This article summarizes the world steel production by company. ... The global steel industry has been going through major shifts in focus. ...

Recycling

Steel is the most widely recycled material in North America.[citation needed] The steel industry has been actively recycling for more than 150 years, in large part because it is economically advantageous to do so. It is cheaper to recycle steel than to mine iron ore and manipulate it through the production process to form 'new' steel. Steel does not lose any of its inherent physical properties during the recycling process, and has drastically reduced energy and material requirements than refinement from iron ore. The energy saved by recycling reduces the annual energy consumption of the industry by about 75%, which is enough to power eighteen million homes for one year.[23] Recycling one ton of steel saves 1,100 kilograms of iron ore, 630 kilograms of coal, and 55 kilograms of limestone.[24] 76 million tons of steel were recycled in 2005.[23] North American redirects here. ... The international recycling symbol. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... This heap of iron ore pellets will be used in steel production. ... Coal Example chemical structure of coal Coal is a fossil fuel formed in ecosystems where plant remains were saved by water and mud from oxidization and biodegradation. ... For other uses, see Limestone (disambiguation). ...

A pile of steel scrap in Brussels, waiting to be recycled.
A pile of steel scrap in Brussels, waiting to be recycled.

In recent years, about three quarters of the steel produced annually has been recycled. However, the numbers are much higher for certain types of products. For example, in both 2004 and 2005, 97.5% of structural steel beams and plates were recycled.[25] Other steel construction elements such as reinforcement bars are recycled at a rate of about 65%. Indeed, structural steel typically contains around 95% recycled steel content, whereas lighter gauge, flat rolled steel contains about 30% reused material. Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 931 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) steel scrap in the port of brussels I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (2288 × 1712 pixel, file size: 931 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) steel scrap in the port of brussels I, the creator of this work, hereby grant the permission to copy, distribute and/or modify...


Because steel beams are manufactured to standardized dimensions, there is often very little waste produced during construction, and any waste that is produced may be recycled. For a typical 2,000-square-foot (200 m²) two-story house, a steel frame is equivalent to about six recycled cars, while a comparable wooden frame house may require as many as 40–50 trees.[23] For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... The coniferous Coast Redwood, the tallest tree species on earth. ...


Global demand for steel continues to grow, and though there are large amounts of steel existing, much of it is actively in use. As such, recycled steel must be augmented by some first-use metal, derived from raw materials. Commonly recycled steel products include cans, automobiles, appliances, and debris from demolished buildings. A typical appliance is about 65% steel by weight and automobiles are about 66% steel and iron. Car redirects here. ... The word appliance has several different areas of meaning, all usually referring to a device with a narrow function: One class of objects includes items that are custom-fitted to an individual for the purpose of correction of a physical or dental problem, such as prosthetic, orthotic appliances and dental... Debris (French, pronounced (IPA) dibri) is a word used to describe the remains of something that has been otherwise destroyed. ... Car redirects here. ...


While some recycling takes place through the integrated steel mills and the basic oxygen process, most of the recycled steel is melted electrically, either using an electric arc furnace (for production of low-carbon steel) or an induction furnace (for production of some highly-alloyed ferrous products). Steel mills are the industrial plants where pig iron is converted into steel. ... Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, BOF, Linz-Donawitz-Verfahren, LD-converter) is a method of steelmaking in which carbon-rich molten iron is made into steel. ... An electric arc furnace is a system that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. ... An induction furnace, with fume hood closed, tapping a melt An induction furnace is an electrical furnace in which the heat is applied by induction heating of a conductive medium (usually a metal) in a crucible around which water-cooled magnetic coils are wound. ...


Contemporary steel

Modern steels are made with varying combinations of alloy metals to fulfill many purposes.[8] Carbon steel, composed simply of iron and carbon, accounts for 90% of steel production.[1] High strength low alloy steel has small additions (usually < 2% by weight) of other elements, typically 1.5% manganese, to provide additional strength for a modest price increase.[26] Low alloy steel is alloyed with other elements, usually molybdenum, manganese, chromium, or nickel, in amounts of up to 10% by weight to improve the hardenability of thick sections.[1] Stainless steels and surgical stainless steels contain a minimum of 10% chromium, often combined with nickel, to resist corrosion (rust). Some stainless steels are magnetic, while others are nonmagnetic.[27] Carbon steel,is very fun 2 play with also called plain carbon steel, is a metal alloy, a combination of two elements, iron and carbon, where other elements are present in quantities too small to affect the properties. ... HSLA steel (high strength low alloy steel) is a type of steel alloy that provides many benefits over regular steel alloys. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... Low alloy steel is steel alloyed with other elements, usually molybdenum, manganese, chromium, vanadium, silicon, boron or nickel, in amounts of up to 10% by weight to improve the hardenability of thick sections. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... Surgical stainless steel is a variation of steel consisting of an alloy of chromium (12-20%), molybdenum (0. ... REDIRECT [[ Insert text]]EWWWWWWWWWWWWW YO General Name, symbol, number chromium, Cr, 24 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 6, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 51. ... For other uses, see Nickel (disambiguation). ... For the hazard, see corrosive. ... For other uses, see Rust (disambiguation). ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ... In physics, magnetism is a phenomenon by which materials exert an attractive or repulsive force on other materials. ...


Some more modern steels include tool steels, which are alloyed with large amounts of tungsten and cobalt or other elements to maximize solution hardening. This also allows the use of precipitation hardening and improves the alloy's temperature resistance.[1] Tool steel is generally used in axes, drills, and other devices that need a sharp, long-lasting cutting edge. Other special-purpose alloys include weathering steels such as Cor-ten, which weather by acquiring a stable, rusted surface, and so can be used un-painted.[28] Tool steel refers to a variety of carbon and alloy steels that are particularly well-suited to be made into tools. ... For other uses, see Cobalt (disambiguation). ... In metallurgy, hardening describes techniques to increase the hardness of a material. ... Precipitation hardening is a heat treatment technique used to strengthen malleable materials, especially non-ferrous alloys including most structural alloys of aluminium and titanium. ... Cor-Ten steel - Fulcrum (1987) by Richard Serra Weathering steel, best-known under the trademark Cor-Ten steel, is a group of steel alloys which were developed to obviate the need for painting, and form a stable rust-like appearance if exposed to the weather for several years. ...


Many other high-strength alloys exist, such as dual-phase steel, which is heat treated to contain both a ferrite and martensic microstructure for extra strength.[29] Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP) steel involves special alloying and heat treatments to stabilize amounts of austentite at room temperature in normally austentite-free low-alloy ferritic steels. By applying strain to the metal, the austentite undergoes a phase transition to martensite without the addition of heat.[30] Maraging steel is alloyed with nickel and other elements, but unlike most steel contains almost no carbon at all. This creates a very strong but still malleable metal.[31] Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) steel uses a specific type of strain to increase the effectiveness of work hardening on the alloy.[32] Eglin Steel uses a combination of over a dozen different elements in varying amounts to create a relatively low-cost metal for use in bunker buster weapons. Hadfield steel (after Sir Robert Hadfield) or manganese steel contains 12–14% manganese which when abraded forms an incredibly hard skin which resists wearing. Examples include tank tracks, bulldozer blade edges and cutting blades on the jaws of life.[33] A special class of high-strength alloy, the superalloys, retain their mechanical properties at extreme temperatures while minimizing creep. These are commonly used in applications such as jet engine blades where temperatures can reach levels at which most other alloys would become weak.[34] Maraging steel is an iron-based steel alloy which is known for possessing superior strength without losing malleability. ... Look up malleability in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Eglin Steel (ES-1) is a high-strength, high-performance, low-alloy, low-cost steel, developed for new generation of bunker buster type bombs, eg. ... A bunker buster is a bomb designed to penetrate hardened targets or targets buried deep underground. ... Sir Robert Abbott Hadfield (born November 28, 1858, Sheffield; died September 30, 1940, Surrey) was an English metallurgist, noted for his 1882 discovery of manganese steel, one of the first steel alloys. ... General Name, symbol, number manganese, Mn, 25 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 7, 4, d Appearance silvery metallic Standard atomic weight 54. ... For other uses, see Bulldozer (disambiguation). ... The Jaws Of Life, with spreader and cutter capability The Jaws of Life, or Hurst Tool, is a line of tools originally developed by Hurst Performance and now under the registered trademark of Hale Products, Inc. ... A superalloy, or high-performance alloy, is an alloy able to withstand extreme temperatures that would destroy conventional metals like steel and aluminum. ... Creep is the term used to describe the tendency of a solid material to slowly move or deform permanently under the influence of stresses. ... A Pratt and Whitney turbofan engine for the F-15 Eagle is tested at Robins Air Force Base, Georgia, USA. The tunnel behind the engine muffles noise and allows exhaust to escape. ...


Most of the more commonly used steel alloys are categorized into various grades by standards organizations. For example, the American Iron and Steel Institute has a series of grades defining many types of steel ranging from standard carbon steel to HSLA and stainless steel.[35] The American Society for Testing and Materials has a separate set of standards, which define alloys such as A36 steel, the most commonly used structural steel in the United States.[36] The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) is an association of North American steel producers formed in 1855. ... The American Iron and Steel Institute standardizes numbered AISI steel grades, including the following: // Carbon Steel and Low Alloy Steel Carbon steels and low alloy steels are designated by a four digit number, where the first two digits indicate the alloying elements and the last two digits indicate the amount... ASTM International (ASTM) is an international standards developing organization that develops and publishes voluntary technical standards for a wide range of materials, products, systems, and services. ... A36 steel is a standard steel alloy which is the most common structural steel used in the United States. ...


Though not an alloy, galvanized steel is a commonly used variety of steel which has been hot-dipped or electroplated in zinc for protection against corrosion (rust).[37] Hot-dip galvanizing is a form of galvanization. ... General Name, symbol, number zinc, Zn, 30 Chemical series transition metals Group, period, block 12, 4, d Appearance bluish pale gray Standard atomic weight 65. ...


Modern production methods

White-hot steel pouring out of an electric arc furnace.
White-hot steel pouring out of an electric arc furnace.

Blast furnaces have been used for two millennia to produce pig iron, a crucial step in the steel production process, from iron ore by combining fuel, charcoal, and air. Modern methods use coke instead of charcoal, which has proven to be a great deal more efficient and is credited with contributing to the British Industrial Revolution.[38] Once the iron is refined, converters are used to create steel from the iron. During the late 19th and early 20th century there were many widely used methods such as the Bessemer process and the Siemens-Martin process. However, basic oxygen steelmaking, in which pure oxygen is fed to the furnace to limit impurities, has generally replaced these older systems. Electric arc furnaces are a common method of reprocessing scrap metal to create new steel. They can also be used for converting pig iron to steel, but they use a great deal of electricity (about 440 kWh per metric ton), and are thus generally only economical when there is a plentiful supply of cheap electricity.[39] Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 778 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (3226 × 2486 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 778 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (3226 × 2486 pixel, file size: 1. ... Blast furnace in Sestao, Spain. ... Two weights used in the theatre and made of pig iron; because of this, they are dubbed pig weights or simply pigs. ... Coke Coke is a solid carbonaceous material derived from destructive distillation of low-ash, low-sulfur bituminous coal. ... A Watt steam engine, the steam engine that propelled the Industrial Revolution in Britain and the world. ... Basic oxygen steelmaking (BOS, Linz-Donawitz-Verfahren, LD-converter) is a method of converting molten iron to steel. ... An electric arc furnace is a system that heats charged material by means of an electric arc. ...

Uses of steel

A piece of steel wool
A piece of steel wool

Iron and steel are used widely in the construction of roads, railways, infrastructure and buildings. Most large modern structures, such as stadiums and skyscrapers, bridges and airports, are supported by a steel skeleton. Even those with a concrete structure will employ steel for reinforcing. In addition to widespread use in major appliances and cars (despite growth in usage of aluminium, it is still the main material for car bodies), steel is used in a variety of other construction-related applications, such as bolts, nails, and screws.[40] Other common applications include shipbuilding, pipeline transport, mining, aerospace, white goods (eg. washing machines), heavy equipment (eg. bulldozers), office furniture, steel wool, tools, and armour in the form of personal vests or vehicle armour (better known as rolled homogeneous armour in this role). Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (2272 × 1704 pixel, file size: 1. ... A piece of steel wool Steel wool is a bundle of strands of very fine soft steel filaments, used in finishing and repairing work to polish wood or metal objects, as well as for household cleaning. ... This article is about the building type. ... For other uses, see Skyscraper (disambiguation). ... This article is about the edifice. ... Airport - Wikipedia /**/ @import /skins/monobook/IE50Fixes. ... A major appliance is usually defined as a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... CARS is a four-letter acronym that can stand for: Cable television relay service station Canadian Aviation Regulations Childhood Autism Rating Scale‎ Customer Access and Retrieval System Citizens Against Road Slaughter Coherent anti-Stokes Raman spectroscopy Consortium for Advanced Radiation Sources, a cooperative effort of the University of Chicago and... Aluminum redirects here. ... For other uses, see Construction (disambiguation). ... A pile of nails. ... This article is about screws and bolts. ... Men from Francisco de Orellanas expedition building a small brigantine, the San Pedro, to be used in the search for food Shipbuilding is the construction of ships. ... An elevated section of the Alaska Pipeline. ... This article is about mineral extractions. ... Look up aerospace in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... An excavator Engineering vehicles are heavy-duty vehicles, specially designed for executing engineering tasks. ... A piece of steel wool Steel wool is a bundle of strands of very fine soft steel filaments, used in finishing and repairing work to polish wood or metal objects, as well as for household cleaning. ... This article is about the instrument. ... For other uses, see Armour (disambiguation). ... Military vehicles are commonly armoured to withstand the impact of shrapnel, bullets or shells, protecting the soldiers inside from enemy fire. ... RHA stands for Rolled Homogeneous Armour. ...


Historically

A carbon steel knife
A carbon steel knife

Before the introduction of the Bessemer process and other modern production techniques, steel was expensive and was only used where no cheaper alternative existed, particularly for the cutting edge of knives, razors, swords, and other items where a hard, sharp edge was needed. It was also used for springs, including those used in clocks and watches.[18] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixel Image in higher resolution (1755 × 1119 pixel, file size: 320 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Traditional Finnish knife made of carbon steel and curly birch with leather sheath Photo taken by fi:Käyttäjä:kompak (9th of... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 510 pixel Image in higher resolution (1755 × 1119 pixel, file size: 320 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Traditional Finnish knife made of carbon steel and curly birch with leather sheath Photo taken by fi:Käyttäjä:kompak (9th of... This article is about the tool. ... For other uses, see Spring. ...


Since 1850

With the advent of faster and more efficient steel production methods, steel has been easier to obtain and much cheaper. It has replaced wrought iron for a multitude of purposes. However, the availability of plastics during the later 20th century allowed these materials to replace steel in many products due to their lower cost and weight.[41] For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ...


Long steel

A steel pylon suspending overhead powerlines.
A steel pylon suspending overhead powerlines.

Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 743 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: A Steel tower Place: Mutsumi Sakura-dori(Cherry tree Street), Matsudo, Chiba, Japan Source: Photograph taken by 高橋 宗史 Date: December, 2005 Author: 高橋 宗史 Permission... Image File history File linksMetadata Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixel Image in higher resolution (1600 × 1200 pixel, file size: 743 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) Description: A Steel tower Place: Mutsumi Sakura-dori(Cherry tree Street), Matsudo, Chiba, Japan Source: Photograph taken by 高橋 宗史 Date: December, 2005 Author: 高橋 宗史 Permission... This article or section is in need of attention from an expert on the subject. ... Reinforced concrete at Sainte Jeanne dArc Church (Nice, France): architect Jacques Dror, 1926–1933 Reinforced concrete, also called ferroconcrete in some countries, is concrete in which reinforcement bars (rebars) or fibers have been incorporated to strengthen a material that would otherwise be brittle. ... For other uses, see Wire (disambiguation). ... Rail tracks. ... Structural steel is steel construction material, a profile, formed with a specific shape or cross section and certain standards of chemical composition and strength. ... Old Executive Office Building, Washington D.C. Bank of China Tower, Hong Kong, China In architecture, construction, engineering and real estate development the word building may refer to one of the following: Any man-made structure used or intended for supporting or sheltering any use or continuous occupancy, or An... This article is about the structure. ...

Flat carbon steel

Car redirects here. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Ship (disambiguation). ... A major appliance is a large machine which accomplishes some routine housekeeping task, which includes purposes such as cooking, food preservation, or cleaning, whether in a household, institutional, commercial or industrial setting. ... A magnetic core is the core of an electromagnet or inductor. ...

Stainless steel

A stainless steel sauce boat.
A stainless steel sauce boat.
Main article: Stainless steel

Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3192x2036, 365 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sauce Sauce boat Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high-resolution version (3192x2036, 365 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Sauce Sauce boat Metadata This file contains additional information, probably added from the digital camera or scanner used... A stainless steel sauce boat. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... Cutlery refers to any hand implement used in preparing, serving, and especially eating food in the Western world. ... A ruler is a person in charge of a country. ... In naval parlance, watches are a timekeeping convention. ... “Surgeon” redirects here. ...

See also

This article summarizes the world steel production by country. ... Rolling mill for cold rolling metal sheet like this piece of brass sheet. ... A foundry is a factory which produces castings of metal, both ferrous and non-ferrous. ... Free machining is a manufacturing process utilizing steel, which has specially been designed to increase the machinability of a material during machining. ... The global steel industry has been going through major shifts in focus. ... Hot rolling is a metallurgical process in which the metal is passed through a pair of rolls and the temperature of the metal is above its recrystallization temperature, as opposed to cold rolling, which takes place below it. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Maraging steel is an iron-based steel alloy which is known for possessing superior strength without losing malleability. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article may require cleanup. ... profile rolling (to manufacture a cone) Rolling is a fabricating process in which the metal, plastic, paper, glass, etc. ... A rolling mill is a machine or factory for shaping metal by passing it between rollers. ... Manufacturing Belt, highlighted in red The Rust Belt, a term coined from Manufacturing Belt, is an area in parts of the Midwest and Mid-Atlantic regions of the United States of America. ... Silicon steel is a soft magnetic material, a steel containing silicon, usually with virtually no other alloying elements. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... This is a list of the largest steel producers in the world Mittal Steel Company NV (International) Arcelor (Europe) [1] Nippon Steel (Japan) JFE (Japan) [2] POSCO (South Korea) [3] Corus (Europe) Thyssen-Krupp (Europe) Shanghai Baosteel Group Corporation (China) Riva (Europe) Sumitomo (Japan) other producers United States Steel Corporation... Steel Mill was one of Bruce Springsteens early bands and performed regularly on the Jersey Shore, in Virginia, and also in California from 1969 till January 1971. ... Tinplate is sheet steel covered with a thin layer of tin. ...

References

  1. ^ a b c d e Ashby, Michael F.; & David R. H. Jones [1986] (1992). Engineering Materials 2, with corrections (in English), Oxford: Pergamon Press. ISBN 0-08-032532-7. 
  2. ^ Winter, Mark. Periodic Table: Iron. The University of Sheffield. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  3. ^ F. Brookins, Theo. (November 1899). "Common Minerals and Valuable Ores". Birds and All Nature 6 (4). A. W. Mumford. Retrieved on 2007-02-28. 
  4. ^ "Smelting". Britannica. (2007). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-02-28. 
  5. ^ Mittemeijer, E. J.; Slycke, J. T.. Chemical potentials and activities of nitrogen and carbon imposed by gaseous nitriding and carburising atmospheres (PDF). Surface Engineering 1996 Vol. 12 No. 2 156. Retrieved on 2006-08-10.
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  7. ^ Pye, David. Steel Heat Treating. Gardner Publications, Inc.. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  8. ^ a b Alloying of Steels. Metallurgical Consultants (2006-06-28). Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  9. ^ Wagner, Donald B.. Early iron in China, Korea, and Japan. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  10. ^ Civilizations in Africa: The Iron Age South of the Sahara. Washington State University. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  11. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 3, 563 g
  12. ^ Gernet, 69.
  13. ^ Needham, Volume 4, Part 1, 282.
  14. ^ G. Juleff (1996). "An ancient wind powered iron smelting technology in Sri Lanka". Nature 379 (3): 60-63. doi:10.1038/379060a0. 
  15. ^ Sanderson, Katharine. "Sharpest cut from nanotube sword: Carbon nanotech may have given swords of Damascus their edge", Nature, 2006-11-15. Retrieved on 2006-11-17. 
  16. ^ Robert Hartwell, 'Markets, Technology and the Structure of Enterprise in the Development of the Eleventh Century Chinese Iron and Steel Industry' Journal of Economic History 26 (1966). pp. 53-54
  17. ^ P. W. King, 'The Cartel in Oregrounds Iron: trading in the raw material for steel during the eighteenth century' Journal of Industrial History 6(1) (2003), 25-49.
  18. ^ a b c d "Iron and steel industry". Britannica. (2007). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-03-01. 
  19. ^ James Moore Swank (1892). History of the Manufacture of Iron in All Ages. 
  20. ^ "Bessemer process". Britannica 2. (2005). Encyclopedia Britannica. 168. Retrieved on 2005-08-06. 
  21. ^ "Basic oxygen process". Britannica. (2007). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-02-28. 
  22. ^ India's steel industry steps onto world stage.
  23. ^ a b c Steel Recycling Institute
  24. ^ Information on Recycling Steel Products. WasteCap of Massachusetts. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  25. ^ STEEL RECYCLING RATES AT A GLANCE (PDF). recycle-steel.org (2005). Retrieved on 2007-08-13.
  26. ^ High strength low alloy steels. Schoolscience.co.uk. Retrieved on 2007-08-14.
  27. ^ Steel Glossary. American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI). Retrieved on 2006-07-30.
  28. ^ Steel Interchange. American Institute of Steel Construction Inc. (AISC). Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  29. ^ Dual-phase steel. Intota Expert Knowledge Services. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  30. ^ Werner, Prof. Dr. mont. Ewald. Transformation Induced Plasticity in low alloyed TRIP-steels and microstructure response to a complex stress history. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  31. ^ Properties of Maraging Steels. INI International. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  32. ^ Mirko, Centi; Saliceti Stefano. Transformation Induced Plasticity (TRIP), Twinning Induced Plasticity (TWIP) and Dual-Phase (DP) Steels. Tampere University of Technology. Retrieved on 2007-03-01.
  33. ^ Hadfield manganese steel. Answers.com. McGraw-Hill Dictionary of Scientific and Technical Terms, McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc., 2003. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  34. ^ Bhadeshia, H. K. D. H.. The Superalloys. University of Cambridge. Retrieved on 2007-02-28.
  35. ^ Erik Oberg, et al., "Machinery's Handbook," 25th ed., Industrial Press Inc., 1996, p. 406.
  36. ^ Steel Construction Manual, 8th Edition, second revised edition, American Institute of Steel Construction, 1986, ch. 1 page 1-5
  37. ^ "Galvanic protection". Britannica. (2007). Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved on 2007-02-28. 
  38. ^
    • A. Raistrick, A Dynasty of Ironfounders (1953; York 1989)
    • C. K. Hyde, Technological Change and the British iron industry (Princeton 1977)
    • B. Trinder, The Industrial Revolution in Shropshire (Chichester 2000)
  39. ^ J.A.T. Jones, B. Bowman, P.A. Lefrank, Electric Furnace Steelmaking, in The Making, Shaping and Treating of Steel, R.J. Fruehan, Editor. 1998, The AISE Steel Foundation: Pittsburgh. p.525-660.
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Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 225th day of the year (226th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 226th day of the year (227th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... The American Iron and Steel Institute (AISI) is an association of North American steel producers formed in 1855. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 211th day of the year (212th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Also see: 2002 (number). ... is the 162nd day of the year (163rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 59th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

Further reading

  • Duncan Burn; The Economic History of Steelmaking, 1867-1939: A Study in Competition. Cambridge University Press, 1961 online version
  • J. C. Carr and W. Taplin; History of the British Steel Industry Harvard University Press, 1962 online version
  • Gernet, Jacques (1982). A History of Chinese Civilization. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
  • Harukiyu Hasegawa; The Steel Industry in Japan: A Comparison with Britain 1996 online version
  • Needham, Joseph (1986). Science and Civilization in China: Volume 4, Part 1 & Part 3. Taipei: Caves Books, Ltd.
  • H. Lee Scamehorn; Mill & Mine: The Cf&I in the Twentieth Century University of Nebraska Press, 1992 online version
  • Warren, Kenneth, Big Steel: The First Century of the United States Steel Corporation, 1901-2001. (University of Pittsburgh Press, 2001) online review

External links

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Look up steel in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.

Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wiktionary (a portmanteau of wiki and dictionary) is a multilingual, Web-based project to create a free content dictionary, available in over 151 languages. ...


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