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Encyclopedia > Stavudine
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d4T
2'-3'-didehydro-2'-3'-dideoxythymidine
Molecular Weight 224.21
Empiric Formula C10H12N2O4
ATC code J05AF04
Metabolism Renal elimination (ca.40%)
Pregnancy category C (USA)
B3 (Aus)

Stavudine (2'-3'-didehydro-2'-3'-dideoxythymidine, d4T, brand name Zerit®) is a thymidine analogue active against HIV. It is phosphorylated by cellular kinases into active triphosphate. Stavudine triphosphate inhibits the reverse transcriptase by competing with natural substrate, thymidine triphosphate. It also causes termination of DNA synthesis by incorporating into it. Jump to: navigation, search Image File history File links Stavudine. ... Jump to: navigation, search See also Avogadros number Atomic mass unit Dalton (unit) External links Learning by Simulations Calculation of Molecular Formulas from Molecular Masses Categories: Chemistry stubs | Mass | Chemical properties ... The Anatomical Therapeutic Chemical Classification System is used for the classification of drugs. ... The pregnancy category of a pharmaceutical agent is an assessment of the risk of fetal injury due to the pharmaceutical, if it is used as directed by the mother. ... Wikinews has news related to this article: Australia Wikitravel guide to Australia Australian Government Entry Portal Australia Photos Commonwealth Government Online Department of Immigration and Multicultural and Indigenous Affairs (DIMIA) DFAT: Country Information Satellite images of Australia (Google Maps) National Library of Australia National Museum of Australia Categories: Oceanic countries... Deoxythymidine is a molecule (known as a nucleoside) that is formed when thymine is attached to a deoxyribose ring (also known as a deoxyribofuranose) via a β-N1-glycosidic bond. ... Jump to: navigation, search The human immunodeficiency virus, commonly called HIV, is a retrovirus that primarily infects vital components of the human immune system such as CD4+ T cells, macrophages and dendritic cells. ... In biochemistry, a kinase is a type of enzyme that transfers phosphate groups from high-energy donor molecules, such as ATP, to specific target molecules (substrates); the process is termed phosphorylation. Generally, the purpose of phosphorylation is to activate or energize a molecule, increasing its energy so it is able... Reverse transcriptase is an enzyme used by all retroviruses and retrotransposons that transcribes the genetic information from the virus or retrotransposon from RNA into DNA, which can integrate into the host genome. ... DNA replication. ...


The oral absorption rate of stavudine is over 80 %. Approximately half of stavudine is actively secreted unchanged into the urine and the other half is eliminated through endogenic pathways. Simultaneous use of AZT is not recommended, for AZT can inhibit the intracellular phosphorylation of stavudine. Other anti-HIV drugs do not possess this property. The main severe side effect is peripheral neuropathy, which can be corrected by reducing dosage. Stavudine has been shown in laboratory test to be genotoxic, but with clinical doses its carcinogenic effects are non-existent. Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (abbreviated to AZT) is an anti-retroviral drug, the first antiviral treatment to be approved for use against HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir and Retrovis, and as an ingredient in Combivir and Trizivir. ... Phosphorylation is the addition of a phosphate (PO4) group to a protein or a small molecule. ... Neuropathy is a disease of the peripheral or central nervous system. ... Categories: Move to Wiktionary | Biochemistry stubs ... In pathology, a carcinogen is any substance or agent that promotes cancer. ...


Antivirals edit
Antiherpesvirus agents edit

{Acyclovir} {Cidofovir} {Docosanol} {Famciclovir} {Foscarnet} {Fomivirsen} {Ganciclovir} {Idoxuridine} {Penciclovir} {Trifluridine} {Valaciclovir} {Valganciclovir} {Vidarabine} Wikipedia does not yet have an article with this exact name. ... Aciclovir (INN) or aciclovir (USAN), marketed as Zovirax®, is one of the main antiviral drugs. ... Jump to: navigation, search Chemical structure of cidofovir Cidofovir is an injectable antiviral medication for the treatment of cytomegalovirus (CMV) retinitis in patients with AIDS. It suppresses CMV replication by selective inhibition of viral DNA synthesis. ... Jump to: navigation, search Docosanol 10% cream is a topical treatment for recurrent herpes simplex labialis episodes (episodes of cold sores or fever blisters). ... Ganciclovir sodium (Cytovene®) is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus (CMV) infections. ... Valaciclovir (INN) or valacyclovir (USAN) is an antiviral drug used in the management of herpes simplex. ... Valganciclovir hydrochloride (Valcyte®) is an antiviral medication used to treat cytomegalovirus infections. ... Jump to: navigation, search Chemical structure of vidarabine Vidarabine is an anti-viral drug which is active against herpes simplex and varicella zoster viruses. ...

Antiinfluenza agents [ ]

{Amantadine} {Oseltamivir} {Rimantidine} {Zanamivir} Jump to: navigation, search Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Jump to: navigation, search Amantadine, 1-aminoadamantane, is an antiviral drug that was approved by the FDA in 1976 for the treatment of influenza type A in adults. ... Jump to: navigation, search Oseltamivir is an antiviral drug, a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Oseltamivir was the first orally active neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ... Zanamivir is a neuraminidase inhibitor used in the treatment of and prophylaxis of both influenza A and influenza B. Zanamivir was the first neuraminidase inhibitor commercially developed. ...


Antiretrovirals edit

NRTIs edit Jump to: navigation, search Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ... Jump to: navigation, search Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ...

{Zidovudine} {Didanosine} {Stavudine} {Zalcitabine} {Lamivudine} {Abacavir} Zidovudine (INN) or azidothymidine (abbreviated to AZT) is an antiretroviral drug, the first antiviral treatment to be approved for use against HIV. It is also sold under the names Retrovir and Retrovis, and as an ingredient in Combivir and Trizivir. ... Jump to: navigation, search Didanosine (2-3-dideoxyinosine, ddI, Videx®) differs from other nucleoside analogues, because it does not have any of the regular bases, instead it has hypoxanthine attached to the sugar ring. ... Zalcitabine (2-3-dideoxycytidine, ddC), is a derivative of the naturally existing deoxycytidine, made by replacing the hydroxyl group in position 3 with a hydrogen. ... Lamivudine(2-3-dideoxy-3-thiacytidine, 3TC) is a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor. ... Jump to: navigation, search Abacavir (ABC) is extremely potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor, meant for the treatment of AIDS. ABC is capable of crossing the blood-brain barrier. ...


NNRTIs edit Jump to: navigation, search Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ...

{Nevirapine} {Efavirenz} {Delavirdine} Jump to: navigation, search Nevirapine is a controversial AIDS drug. ... DESCRIPTION SUSTIVA® (efavirenz) is a human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) specific, non-nucleoside, reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI). ...


PIs edit Jump to: navigation, search Antiretroviral drugs are medications for the treatment of infection by the retrovirus HIV. Different antiretroviral drugs act at various stages of the HIV life cycle. ...

{Saquinavir} {Indinavir} {Atazanavir} {Ritonavir} {Nelfinavir} {Amprenavir} {Lopinavir} Saquinavir (Fortovase®, Roche) is a protease inhibitor, used as a component of HIV therapy. ... Categories: Stub ... Ritonavir is a drug from the protease inhibitor class used to treat AIDS. It is manufactured as Norvir® by Abbott Laboratories. ... Jump to: navigation, search Nelfinavir (Viracept®) is an antitretroviral drug used in the treatment of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV). ...


Other antiviral agents edit

{Fomivirsen} {Imiquimod} {Interferon} {Lamivudine} {Ribavirin} Jump to: navigation, search Antiviral drugs are a class of medication used specifically for treating viral infections. ... Jump to: navigation, search Interferons (IFNs) are natural proteins produced by the cells of the immune systems of most animals in response to challenges by foreign agents such as viruses, bacteria, parasites and tumor cells. ... Lamivudine(2-3-dideoxy-3-thiacytidine, 3TC) is a potent reverse transcriptase inhibitor. ... Ribavirin (Copegus®; Rebetol®) is an anti-viral drug active against a number of DNA and RNA viruses. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Howstuffworks "Stavudine: A Profile of an Antiviral Drug" (929 words)
Stavudine may cause lactic acidosis and a condition known as peripheral neuropathy, which is numbness, pain, burning, or tingling, usually in the hands or feet.
Stavudine may cause a condition known as peripheral neuropathy, which is tingling, burning, pain, or numbness in the hands or feet.
Before taking stavudine, be sure to tell your doctor about any medical problems you may have, especially liver or renal problems, problems with the pancreas, or tingling, numbness, burning, or pain in the hands or feet.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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