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Encyclopedia > Statue of Liberty
Statue of Liberty National Monument
IUCN Category III (Natural Monument)
Statue of Liberty
Location Liberty Island, New York City,[1] U.S.
Nearest city Jersey City, New Jersey
Area 12 acres (49,000 m²)
Established Statue dedicated October 28, 1886; National Monument established October 15, 1924
Visitors 4,235,595 (includes Ellis Island NM) (in 2005)
Governing body National Park Service
Statue of Liberty*
UNESCO World Heritage Site
State Party United States
Type Cultural
Criteria i, vi
Reference 307
Region Europe and North America
Inscription history
Inscription 1984  (8th Session)
* Name as inscribed on World Heritage List.
† Region as classified by UNESCO.

Liberty Enlightening the World (French: La liberté éclairant le monde), known more commonly as the Statue of Liberty (Statue de la Liberté), was presented to the United States by the people of France in 1886. It stands at Liberty Island (part of New York but physically on the New Jersey side of the New York Harbor) as a welcome to all visitors, immigrants, and returning Americans. The copper patina-clad statue, dedicated on October 28, 1886, commemorates the centennial of the United States and is a gesture of friendship from France to the U.S. Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi sculpted the statue and obtained a U.S. patent useful for raising construction funds through the sale of miniatures. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (designer of the Eiffel Tower) engineered the internal structure. Eugène Viollet-le-Duc was responsible for the choice of copper in the statue's construction and adoption of the repoussé technique. Monument of Liberty may refer to: The Shipka Memorial in the Balkan mountains, Bulgaria The Monument of Liberty in Rousse, Bulgaria The Liberty Statue in Budapest, Hungary The Freedom Monument in Riga, Latvia The Statue of Liberty in New York City, USA The Liberty Memorial in Kansas City, Missouri, USA... The World Conservation Union or International Union for the Conservation of Nature and Natural Resources (IUCN) is an international organization dedicated to natural resource conservation. ... A Natural Monument is a natural/cultural feature which is of outstanding or unique value because of its inherent rarity, representative of aesthetic qualities or cultural significance. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 449 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (2407 × 3216 pixels, file size: 2. ... Liberty Island Liberty Island, formerly called Bedloes Island, is a small uninhabited island in Upper New York Bay in the United States, best known as the location of the Statue of Liberty. ... New York, New York and NYC redirect here. ... For other uses of terms redirecting here, see US (disambiguation), USA (disambiguation), and United States (disambiguation) Motto In God We Trust(since 1956) (From Many, One; Latin, traditional) Anthem The Star-Spangled Banner Capital Washington, D.C. Largest city New York City National language English (de facto)1 Demonym American... Location of Jersey City within Hudson County Coordinates: , Country State County Hudson Government  - Mayor Jerramiah T. Healy  - Business Administrator Brian P. OReilly Area  - City 21. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... For the rap album, see 1924 (album). ... For the island in Australia, see Ellis Island, Queensland. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... As of 2006, there are a total of 830 World Heritage Sites located in 138 State Parties. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State... Liberty Island Liberty Island, formerly called Bedloes Island, is a small uninhabited island in Upper New York Bay in the United States, best known as the location of the Statue of Liberty. ... This article is about the state. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... New York Harbor, a geographic term, refers collectively to the rivers, bays, and tidal estuaries near the mouth of the Hudson River in the vicinity of New York City. ... 2000 Census Population Ancestry Map Immigration to the United States of America is the movement of non-residents to the United States. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... The Statue of Liberty gets its green color from the patina formed on its copper surface Patinas are chemical compounds formed on the surface of metals. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... The Statue of Liberty, his most famous work Bartholdi Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (August 2, 1834 – October 4, 1904) was a French sculptor. ... The United States patent law is a first-to-invent patent legal framework in contrast to all other national patent laws. ... Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923; French pronunciation in IPA, in English usually pronounced ) was a French structural engineer and architect and a specialist of metallic structures. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... Eugène Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc (January 27, 1814 – September 17, 1879) was a French architect and theorist, famous for his restorations of medieval buildings. ... For other uses, see Copper (disambiguation). ... Repoussé bracelet by Thomas Feeser, ©2005. ...


The statue is of a robed woman holding a lit flame, and is made of a sheeting of pure copper, hung on a framework of steel (originally puddled iron) with the exception of the flame of the torch, which is coated in gold leaf (originally made of copper and later altered to hold glass panes.) It stands atop a rectangular stonework pedestal with a foundation in the shape of an irregular eleven-pointed star. The statue is 151 ft (46 m) tall, but with the pedestal and foundation, it is 305 ft (93 m) tall. Puddle iron is a type of wrought iron. ... Metal leaf processing Metal leaf is a thin foil used for decoration. ...


Worldwide, the Statue of Liberty is one of the most recognizable icons of the United States,[2] and, more generally, represents liberty and escape from oppression. The Statue of Liberty was, from 1886 until the jet age, often one of the first glimpses of the United States for millions of immigrants after ocean voyages from Europe. Visually, the Statue of Liberty appears to draw inspiration from il Sancarlone or the Colossus of Rhodes. The jet age is a common description of an historical period beginning with the introduction of airliners powered by turbojets and turbofans for scheduled passenger service. ... For the Indian sprinter, see Charles Borromeo (athlete). ... “The Colossus of Rhodes” redirects here. ...


The statue is a central part of Statue of Liberty National Monument, administered by the National Park Service. The term national monument can either refer to a specific monument which aims to represent a nation, or to a general concept. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ...

Contents

Symbolism

The classical appearance (Roman stola, sandals, facial expression) derives from Libertas, ancient Rome's goddess of freedom from slavery, oppression, and tyranny. Her raised right foot is on the move. This symbol of Liberty and Freedom is not standing still or at attention in the harbor, she is moving forward, as her left foot tramples broken shackles at her feet, in symbolism of the United States' wish to be free from oppression and tyranny.[3] The seven spikes on the crown represent the Seven Seas and seven continents.[4] Her torch signifies enlightenment. The tablet in her hand represents knowledge and shows the date of the nation's birth, July 4, 1776. Classical antiquity is a broad term for a long period of cultural history centered on the Mediterranean Sea, which begins roughly with the earliest-recorded Greek poetry of Homer (7th century BC), and continues through the rise of Christianity and the fall of the Western Roman Empire (5th century AD... The stola was the traditional garment of Roman women, corresponding to the toga that was worn by men. ... Libertas is Latin for freedom. In Roman mythology, Libertas was the goddess of freedom. ... Fetters in use Fetters, shackles or leg irons are a kind of physical restraint used on the feet or ankles. ... The traditional Seven Seas Medieval European and Arabic literature often spoke of the Seven Seas. ... Animated, colour-coded map showing the various continents. ... Enlightenment broadly means the acquisition of new wisdom or understanding enabling clarity of perception. ...


The general appearance of the statue’s head approximates the Greek Sun-god Apollo or Helios as preserved on an ancient marble tablet (today in the Archaeological Museum of Corinth (Corinth, Greece) - Apollo was represented as a solar deity, dressed in a similar robe and having on its head a "radiate crown" with the seven spiked rays of the Helios-Apollo's sun rays, like the Statue's nimbus or halo. The ancient Colossus of Rhodes, one of the Seven Wonders of the Ancient World, was a statue of Helios with a radiate crown, which is referred to in the 1903 poem The New Colossus by Emma Lazarus. For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... Corinth, or Korinth (Greek: Κόρινθος, Kórinthos; see also List of traditional Greek place names) is a Greek city-state, on the Isthmus of Corinth, the narrow stretch of land that joins the Peloponnesus to the mainland of Greece. ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... The Trundholm sun chariot pulled by a horse is believed to be a sculpture illustrating, the sun, an important part of Nordic Bronze Age mythology Statue of Hathor - Luxor Museum Sun god redirects here. ... For other uses, see Helios (disambiguation). ... For other uses, see Apollo (disambiguation). ... A halo (Greek: ; also known as a nimbus, glory, or Gloriole) is a ring of light that surrounds an object. ... “The Colossus of Rhodes” redirects here. ... This article is about the Seven Ancient Wonders. ... The New Colossus is a sonnet by Emma Lazarus (1849-1887), written in 1883 and, in 1903, engraved on a bronze plaque and mounted inside the Statue of Liberty. ... Emma Lazarus (July 22, 1849 – November 19, 1887) was an American poet born in New York City. ...


The statue, also known affectionately as "Lady Liberty," has become a symbol of freedom and democracy. She welcomed arriving immigrants, who could see the statue as they arrived in the United States. There is a version of the statue in France given by the United States in return.


History

Discussions in France over a suitable gift to the United States to mark the Centennial of the American Declaration of Independence were headed by the politician and sympathetic writer of the history of the United States, Édouard René de Laboulaye. French sculptor Frédéric Bartholdi was commissioned to design a sculpture with the year 1876 in mind for completion. The idea for the commemorative gift then grew out of the political turmoil which was shaking France at the time. The French Third Republic was still considered as a "temporary" arrangement by many, who wished a return to monarchism, or to some form of representation of republican virtues to a "sister" republic across the sea served as a focus for the republican cause against other politicians. U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is a document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ... Édouard René Lefèvre de Laboulaye (January 18, 1811 in Paris - May 25, 1883 in Paris) was a French jurist. ... The Statue of Liberty, his most famous work Bartholdi Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (August 2, 1834 – October 4, 1904) was a French sculptor. ... Motto Liberté, égalité, fraternité (Liberty, equality, brotherhood) Anthem La Marseillaise The French Third Republic, pre-World War I Capital Paris Language(s) French Religion Roman Catholicism, protestantism and judaism official religions (until 1905), None (from 1905 until 1940) (Law on the separation of Church and State of 1905) Government Republic... Monarchism is the advocacy of the establishment, preservation, or restoration of a monarchy as a form of government in a nation. ...

The first model, on a small scale, was built in 1870. This first statue is now in the Jardin du Luxembourg in Paris. Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... The Statue of Liberty, his most famous work Bartholdi Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (August 2, 1834 – October 4, 1904) was a French sculptor. ... People relaxing in front of the Luxembourg Palace The Jardin du Luxembourg (familiar nickname Luco) is a 224,500 m² public park and the largest in the city located in the 6th arrondissement of Paris, France. ... This article is about the capital of France. ...


While on a visit to Egypt that was to shift his artistic perspective from simply grand to colossal, Bartholdi was inspired by the project of the Suez Canal which was being undertaken by Count Ferdinand de Lesseps, who later became a lifelong friend of his. He envisioned a giant lighthouse standing at the entrance to the canal and drew plans for it. It would be patterned after the Roman goddess Libertas, modified to resemble a robed Egyptian peasant, a fallaha, with light beaming out from both a headband and a torch thrust dramatically upward into the skies. Bartholdi presented his plans to the Egyptian Khediev, Isma'il Pasha, in 1867 and, with revisions, again in 1869, but the project was never commissioned because of financial issues the country was going through.[5] For other uses, see Suez (disambiguation). ... Ferdinand de Lesseps. ... Libertas is Latin for freedom. In Roman mythology, Libertas was the goddess of freedom. ... Ismail Pasha Ismail Pasha, known as Ismail the Magnificent (December 31, 1830–March 2, 1895) (Arabic: إسماعيل باشا), was khedive of Egypt from 1863 until he was removed at the behest of the British in 1879. ...


It was agreed that in a joint effort, the American people were to build the base, and the French people were responsible for the Statue and its assembly in the United States. In France, public donations, various forms of entertainment including notably performances of La liberté éclairant le monde (Liberty enlightening the world) by soon-to-be famous composer Charles Gounod at Paris Opera, and a charitable lottery were among the methods used to raise the 2,250,000 francs ($250,000). In the United States, benefit theatrical events, art exhibitions, auctions and prize fights assisted in providing needed funds. Charles Gounod. ... The Palais Garnier, Paris The Palais Garnier, also known as the Opéra de Paris or Opéra Garnier or Grand Opera House[1], but more commonly as the Paris Opéra, is a 2,200 seat opera house in Paris, France. ... For other meanings of these words, see boxing (disambiguation) or boxer. ...


Meanwhile in France, Bartholdi required the assistance of an engineer to address structural issues associated with designing such a colossal copper sculpture. Gustave Eiffel (designer of the Eiffel Tower) was commissioned to design the massive iron pylon and secondary skeletal framework which allows the Statue's copper skin to move independently yet stand upright. Eiffel delegated the detailed work to his trusted structural engineer, Maurice Koechlin. Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923; French pronunciation in IPA, in English usually pronounced ) was a French structural engineer and architect and a specialist of metallic structures. ... The Eiffel Tower (French: , ) is an iron tower built on the Champ de Mars beside the Seine River in Paris. ... structural engineer is an engineering profession who practices structural engineering. ... Maurice Koechlin (March 8, 1856 - January 14, 1946) was a French structural engineer. ...


Bartholdi had initially planned to have the statue completed and presented to the United States on July 4, 1876, but a late start and subsequent delays prevented it. However, by that time the right arm and torch were completed. This part of the statue was displayed at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia, where visitors were charged 50 cents to climb the ladder to the balcony. The money raised this way was used to start funding the pedestal. is the 185th day of the year (186th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1876 (MDCCCLXXVI) // January 31 - United States orders all Indigenous peoples in the United States to move onto reservations February 2 - The National League of Professional Baseball Clubs of Major League Baseball is formed. ... Opening day ceremonies at the Centennial Exhibition The Centennial International Exhibition of 1876, the first official worlds fair in the United States, was held in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania, to celebrate the 100th anniversary of the signing of the Declaration of Independence in Philadelphia. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ...


On June 30, 1878, at the Paris Exposition, the completed head of the statue was showcased in the garden of the Trocadéro palace, while other pieces were on display in the Champs de Mars. is the 181st day of the year (182nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 1878 (MDCCCLXXVIII) was a common year starting on Tuesday (see link for calendar). ... The third Paris Worlds Fair, called an Exposition Universelle in French was held in 1878 and celebrated the recovery of France after the crushing defeat of the 1870 Franco-Prussian War. ... The Trocadéro is an area of Paris, in the 16th arrondissement, across the Seine from the Eiffel Tower. ...


Back in America, the site, authorized in New York Harbor by an act of Congress, 1877, was selected by General William Tecumseh Sherman, who settled on Bartholdi's own choice, then known as Bedloe's Island (named after Isaac Bedloe), where there was already an early 19th century star-shaped fortification named Fort Wood. United States Minister to France Levi P. Morton hammered the first nail in the construction of the statue. General Sherman redirects here. ... Fort Wood was a star-shaped fortification on Bedloes Island (now Liberty Island). ... List of United States ambassadors to France : Benjamin Franklin, Arthur Lee, Silas Deane (substitued by John Adams in 1778) 1776-1779 Benjamin Franklin 1779-1785 Thomas Jefferson 1785-1789 Gouverneur Morris 1792-1794 James Monroe 1794-1796 Charles Cotesworth Pinckney 1796-1797 Robert R. Livingston 1801-1804 John Armstrong 1804... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ...

Bartholdi's design patent.
Bartholdi's design patent.

On February 18, 1879, Bartholdi was granted a design patent, U.S. Patent D11,023 , on "a statue representing Liberty enlightening the world, the same consisting, essentially, of the draped female figure, with one arm upraised, bearing a torch, and while the other holds an inscribed tablet, and having upon the head a diadem, substantially as set forth." The patent described the head as having "classical, yet severe and calm, features," noted that the body is "thrown slightly over to the left so as to gravitate upon the left leg, the whole figure thus being in equilibrium," and covered representations in "any manner known to the glyptic art in the form of a statue or statuette, or in alto-relievo or bass-relief, in metal, stone, terra-cotta, plaster-of-paris, or other plastic composition."[6] Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 940 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 408 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (640 × 940 pixel, file size: 106 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1879 (MDCCCLXXIX) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Monday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... weener ...


The financing for the statue was completed in France in July 1882.


Fund-raising for the pedestal, led by William M. Evarts, was going slowly, so Hungarian-born publisher Joseph Pulitzer (who established the Pulitzer Prize) opened up the editorial pages of his newspaper, The World, to support the fund raising effort in 1883. Pulitzer used his newspaper to criticize both the rich, who had failed to finance the pedestal construction, and the middle class who were content to rely upon the wealthy to provide the funds.[7] Pulitzer's campaign was an important contribution to the effort, but ultimately Senator Evarts and the American Committee he headed raised the majority of funds for the pedestal. Photograph of U.S. Secretary of State William M. Evarts William Maxwell Evarts (February 6, 1818–February 28, 1901) was an American lawyer and statesman. ... This article is about the European country. ... Joseph Pulitzer Joseph Pulitzer (April 18, 1847 – October 29, 1911) was a Hungarian-American publisher best known for posthumously establishing the Pulitzer Prizes and (along with William Randolph Hearst) for originating yellow journalism. ... The Pulitzer Prize is an American award regarded as the highest national honor in print journalism, literary achievements, and musical composition. ...


The construction of the statue was completed in France in July 1884.


The cornerstone of the pedestal, designed by American architect Richard Morris Hunt, was laid on August 5, 1884, but the construction had to be stopped by lack of funds in January 1885. It was resumed on May 11, 1885 after a renewed fund campaign by Joseph Pulitzer in March 1885. Thirty-eight of the forty-six courses of masonry were yet to be built. Facade of Yale Universitys Scroll and Key Society, displaying Moorish gate and patterned forecourt. ... is the 217th day of the year (218th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1884 (MDCCCLXXXIV) was a leap year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 12-day-slower Julian calendar). ... is the 131st day of the year (132nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ...


The Statue arrived in New York Harbor on June 17, 1885 on board the French frigate Isère. To prepare for transit, the Statue was reduced to 350 individual pieces and packed in 214 crates. (The right arm and the torch, which were completed earlier, had been exhibited at the Centennial Exposition in Philadelphia in 1876, and thereafter at Madison Square in New York City.) is the 168th day of the year (169th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... Madison Square, 1908. ...


Financing for the pedestal was completed on August 11, 1885 and construction was finished on April 22, 1886. When the last stone of the pedestal was swung into place the masons reached into their pockets and showered into the mortar a collection of silver coins. is the 223rd day of the year (224th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... is the 112th day of the year (113th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... This article is about the chemical element. ...


Built into the pedestal's massive masonry are two sets of four iron girders, connected by iron tie beams that are carried up to become part of Eiffel's framework for the statue itself. Thus Liberty is integral with her pedestal.


The statue, which was stored for eleven months in crates waiting for its pedestal to be finished, was then re-assembled in four months' time. On October 28, 1886, the Statue of Liberty was unveiled by President Grover Cleveland in front of thousands of spectators. (Cleveland, as Governor of the State of New York, had earlier vetoed a bill by the New York legislature to contribute $50,000 to the building of the pedestal.)[8] is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1886 (MDCCCLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Wednesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Federal courts Supreme Court Circuit Courts of Appeal District Courts Elections Presidential elections Midterm elections Political Parties Democratic Republican Third parties State & Local government Governors Legislatures (List) State Courts Local Government Other countries Atlas  US Government Portal      For other uses, see President of the United States (disambiguation). ... Stephen Grover Cleveland (March 18, 1837–June 24, 1908), was the twenty-second and twenty-fourth President of the United States. ...


The Statue of Liberty functioned as a lighthouse from 1886 to 1902.[9][10] At that time the U.S. Lighthouse board was responsible for its operation. There was a lighthouse keeper and the electric light could be seen for 24 miles (39 km) at sea. There was an electric plant on the island to generate power for the light. Eddystone Lighthouse, one of the first wavewashed lighthouses For other uses, see Lighthouse (disambiguation). ...


In 1913 a group of young pilots graduated from the Moissant School of Aviation based on Long Island. One of the graduates, the Mexican pilot Juan Pablo Aldasoro was selected to perform the first flight above the Statue of Liberty. All of the graduates later on became members of the Early Birds of Aviation. Year 1913 (MCMXIII) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ...

Political cartoon of the First Red Scare depicting a monstrous "European Anarchist" attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty.
Political cartoon of the First Red Scare depicting a monstrous "European Anarchist" attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty.

In 1916, floodlights were placed around the base of the statue. Also in 1916, the Black Tom explosion caused $100,000 worth of damage ($1.9 million in 2007 dollars) to the statue, embedding shrapnel and eventually leading to the closing of the torch to visitors. The same year, Gutzon Borglum, sculptor of Mount Rushmore, modified the original copper torch by cutting away most of the copper in the flame, retrofitting glass panes and installing an internal light.[11] After these modifications, the torch severely leaked rainwater and snowmelt, accelerating corrosion inside the statue. President Franklin D. Roosevelt rededicated the Statue of Liberty on its 50th anniversary (October 28, 1936). Political Cartoon, Literary Digest, 7/5/19 (Copyright expired. ... Political Cartoon, Literary Digest, 7/5/19 (Copyright expired. ... Political cartoon of the era depicting an anarchist attempting to destroy the Statue of Liberty. ... Anarchist redirects here. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... Modern stage lighting is a flexible tool in the production of theatre, dance, opera and other performance arts. ... Year 1916 (MCMXVI) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Friday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The Black Tom explosion of July 30, 1916 in Jersey City, New Jersey was an act of sabotage on American munition supplies by German agents to prevent the materials from being used by the Allies in World War I. // Black Tom Island, lying off a Jersey City pier. ... Mt Rushmore, Black Hills, South Dakota (John) Gutzon Borglum (March 25, 1867 –March 6, 1941). ... For the 1960s rock band, see Mount Rushmore (band). ... FDR redirects here. ... is the 301st day of the year (302nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1936 (MCMXXXVI) was a leap year starting on Wednesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1956, through an act of Congress, Bedloe's Island was officially renamed Liberty Island, though Liberty Island had been used informally since the turn of the century. A car from 1956 Year 1956 (MCMLVI) was a leap year starting on Sunday (link will display full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


As with all historic areas administered by the National Park Service, Statue of Liberty National Monument, along with Ellis Island and Liberty Island, was listed on the National Register of Historic Places on October 15, 1966.[12] A typical plaque showing entry on the National Register of Historic Places. ... is the 288th day of the year (289th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1966 (MCMLXVI) was a common year starting on Saturday (link will display full calendar) of the 1966 Gregorian calendar. ...


In 1984, the Statue of Liberty was added to the list of World Heritage Sites.[13] This article is about the year. ... A UNESCO World Heritage Site is a specific site (such as a forest, mountain, lake, desert, monument, building, complex, or city) that has been nominated and confirmed for inclusion on the list maintained by the international World Heritage Programme administered by the UNESCO World Heritage Committee, composed of 21 State...


In 2007, the Statue of Liberty was one of 20 finalists in a competition to name the New Seven Wonders of the World. Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... Location of the New Seven Wonders winners. ...


Inspiration for the face

Unsubstantiated sources cite different models for the face of the statue. One indicated the then-recently widowed Isabella Eugenie Boyer, the wife of Isaac Singer, the sewing-machine industrialist. "She was rid of the uncouth presence of her husband, who had left her with only his most socially desirable attributes: his fortune and … his children. She was, from the beginning of her career in Paris, a well-known figure. As the good-looking French widow of an American industrialist she was called upon to be Bartholdi's model for the Statue of Liberty."[14] Another source believed that the "stern face" belonged to Bartholdi's mother, Charlotte Bartholdi (1801–1891), with whom he was very close.[15] National Geographic magazine also pointed to his mother, noting that Bartholdi never denied nor explained the resemblance.[16] Isabella Eugenie Boyer Isabella Eugenie Boyer (1841—1904) was born in Paris to French and English parents. ... For the Jewish American writer, see Isaac Bashevis Singer. ...


Physical characteristics

Aerial view in December 2007.
Aerial view in December 2007.

The interior of the statue used to be open to visitors. They arrived by ferry and could climb the circular single-file stairs (limited by the available space) inside the metallic statue, exposed to the sun out in the harbor (the interior reaching extreme temperatures, particularly in summer months), and about 30 people at a time could fit up into the crown. This provided a broad view of New York Harbor (it faces the ocean) through 25 windows, the largest approximately 18" (46 cm) in height. The view did not, therefore, include the skyline of New York City. The wait outside regularly exceeded 3 hours, excluding the wait for ferries and ferry tickets. For other uses, see Temperature (disambiguation). ...


The green-blue coloration is caused by oxidation, which produced copper salts and created the current hue. Most copper statues in the outside elements, left to their own, will eventually turn this color.[17]


There are 354 steps inside the statue and its pedestal. There are 25 windows in the crown which comprise the jewels beneath the seven rays of the diadem. The tablet which the statue holds in her left hand reads, in Roman numerals, "July 4, 1776" the day of the adoption of the Declaration of Independence. A crown is a symbolic form of headgear worn by a monarch or by a god, for whom the crown is traditionally one of the symbols of power and legitimacy (See Regalia for a broader treatment). ... This article is about a type of crown called a diadem; for alternate meanings, see Diadem. ... This article does not cite any references or sources. ... Roman numerals are a numeral system originating in ancient Rome, adapted from Etruscan numerals. ... U.S. Declaration of Independence The Declaration of Independence is a document in which the Thirteen Colonies declared themselves independent of the Kingdom of Great Britain and explained their justifications for doing so. ...


The Statue of Liberty was engineered to withstand heavy winds. Winds of 50 miles per hour cause the Statue to sway 3 inches (7.62 cm) and the torch to sway 5 inches (12.7 cm). This allows the Statue to move rather than break in high wind load conditions.

Feature Imperial Metric
Height from base to torch 151 ft 1 in 46.5 m
Foundation of pedestal to torch 305 ft 1 in 93 m
Heel to top of head 111 ft 1 in 33.86 m
Length of hand 16 ft 5 in 5 m
Index finger 8 ft 0 in 2.44 m
Circumference at second joint 3 ft 6 in 1.07 m
Head from chin to cranium 17 ft 3 in 5.26 m
Head thickness from ear to ear 10 ft 0 in 3.05 m
Distance across the eye 2 ft 6 in 0.76 m
Length of nose 4 ft 6 in 1.48 m
Right arm length 42 ft 0 in 12.8 m
Right arm greatest thickness 12 ft 0 in 3.66 m
Thickness of waist 35 ft 0 in 10.67 m
Width of mouth 3 ft 0 in 0.91 m
Tablet, length 23 ft 7 in 7.19 m
Tablet, width 13 ft 7 in 4.14 m
Tablet, thickness 2 ft 0 in 0.61 m
Height of granite pedestal 89 ft 0 in 27.13 m
Height of foundation 65 ft 0 in 19.81 m
Weight of copper used in Statue[18] 60,000 pounds 27.22 tons
Weight of steel used in Statue 250,000 pounds 113.4 tons
Total weight used in Statue 450,000 pounds 204.1 tons
Copper sheeting of Statue is 3/32 of an inch thick 2.4 mm

[citation needed]

Origin of the copper

Full-size replica of the face of the Statue, seen as part of the exhibit in one of the corridors of the Statue's pedestal. Note the retention of the original copper color.
Full-size replica of the face of the Statue, seen as part of the exhibit in one of the corridors of the Statue's pedestal. Note the retention of the original copper color.

Historical records make no mention of the source of the copper used in the Statue of Liberty. In the village of Vigsnes in the municipality of Karmøy, Norway, tradition holds that the copper came from the French-owned Vigsnes Mine.[19][20] Ore from this mine, refined in France and Belgium, was a significant source of European copper in the late nineteenth century. In 1985, Bell Labs used emission spectrography to compare samples of copper from the Visnes Mines and from the Statue of Liberty, found the spectrum of impurities to be very similar, and concluded that the evidence argued strongly for a Norwegian origin of the copper. Other sources say that the copper was mined in Nizhny Tagil.[21] The copper sheets were created in the workshops of the Gaget-Gauthier company, and shaped in the Ateliers Mesureur in the west of Paris in 1878. Funding for the copper was provided by Pierre-Eugène Secrétan. Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 472 pixelsFull resolution (814 × 480 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 800 × 472 pixelsFull resolution (814 × 480 pixel, file size: 136 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (All user names refer to en. ... A statue of Henry IV of France on a pedestal Pedestal (from French piedestal, Italian piedestallo, foot of a stall) is a term generally applied to the support of a statue or a vase. ... County Rogaland District Haugaland Municipality NO-1149 Administrative centre Kopervik Mayor (2004) Kjell Arvid Svendsen (KrF) Official language form Neutral Area  - Total  - Land  - Percentage Ranked 313 229 km² 219 km² 0. ... Bell Laboratories (also known as Bell Labs and formerly known as AT&T Bell Laboratories and Bell Telephone Laboratories) was the main research and development arm of the United States Bell System. ... Coat of arms of the city Nizhny Tagil (Russian: ) is a city in Sverdlovsk Oblast, Russia, at ). Population: 390,498 (2002 Census). ...


Liberty centennial

See also: Liberty Weekend
First Lady Nancy Reagan re-opens the statue to the public after the festivities.
First Lady Nancy Reagan re-opens the statue to the public after the festivities.

The Statue of Liberty was one of the earliest beneficiaries of a cause marketing campaign. A 1983 promotion advertised that for each purchase made with an American Express card, American Express would contribute one penny to the renovation of the statue. The campaign generated contributions of $1.7 million to the Statue of Liberty restoration project. In 1984, the statue was closed so that a $62 million renovation could be performed for the statue's centennial. Chrysler chairman Lee Iacocca was appointed by President Reagan to head the commission overseeing the task (but was later dismissed "to avoid any question of conflict" of interest).[22] Workers erected scaffolding around the statue, obscuring it from public view until the rededication on July 3, 1986 — the scaffolding-clad statue can be seen in the 1984 film Desperately Seeking Susan, in the 1985 film Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins, and in the 1985 film Brewster's Millions. Inside work began with workers using liquid nitrogen to remove seven layers of paint applied to the interior of the copper skin over the decades. That left two layers of tar originally applied to plug leaks and prevent corrosion. Blasting with baking soda removed the tar without further damaging the copper. Larger holes in the copper skin had edges smoothed then mated with new copper patches.[citation needed] Image File history File links Question_book-3. ... President Ronald Reagan on Governors Island delivering a speech; First Lady Nancy Reagan is to the left. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 393 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 687 pixels, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 393 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (450 × 687 pixels, file size: 51 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) File historyClick on a date/time to view the file as it appeared at that time. ... Nancy Davis Reagan (born Anne Frances Robbins on July 6, 1921) is the widow of the former United States President Ronald Reagan and was First Lady of the United States from 1981 to 1989. ... Cause marketing or cause-related marketing refers to a type of marketing involving the cooperative efforts of a for profit business and a non-profit organization for mutual benefit. ... American Express (NYSE: AXP), sometimes known as AmEx or Amex, is a diversified global financial services company, headquartered in New York City. ... A century (From the Latin cent, one hundred) is one hundred consecutive years. ... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ... Lido Anthony Lee Iacocca (born October 15, 1924) is an American industrialist most commonly known for his revival of the Chrysler Corporation in the 1980s[1], serving as President and CEO from 1978 and additionally as chairman from 1979, until his retirement at the end of 1992. ... President Ronald Reagan on Governors Island delivering a speech; First Lady Nancy Reagan is to the left. ... is the 184th day of the year (185th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Desperately Seeking Susan is a 1985 film directed by Susan Seidelman and starring Rosanna Arquette and Madonna. ... Remo Williams: The Adventure Begins is a 1985 cult film. ... Brewsters Millions is a novel written by George Barr McCutcheon in 1902. ... A tank of liquid nitrogen, used to supply a cryogenic freezer (for storing laboratory samples at a temperature of about -150 Celsius). ... Tar can be produced from corn stalks by heating in a microwave. ... Flash point Non-flammable. ...


Each of the 1,350 shaped iron ribs backing the skin had to be removed and replaced. The iron had experienced galvanic corrosion wherever it contacted the copper skin, losing up to 50% of its thickness. Bartholdi had anticipated the problem and used an asbestos/pitch combination to separate the metals, but the insulation had worn away decades before. New bars of stainless steel bent into matching shapes replaced the iron bars, with Teflon film separating them from the skin for further insulation and friction reduction. The Galvanic cell, named after Luigi Galvani, consists of two metals connected by an electrolyte which forms a salt bridge between the metals. ... For other uses, see Asbestos (disambiguation). ... The pitch drop experiment. ... The 630 foot (192 m) high, stainless-clad (type 304) Gateway Arch defines St. ... In chemistry, polytetrafluoroethylene (PTFE) is a synthetic fluoropolymer which finds numerous applications. ...


The internal structure of the upraised right arm was reworked. The statue was erected with the arm offset 18" (0.46 m) to the right and forward of Eiffel's central frame, while the head was offset 24" (0.61 m) to the left, which had been compromising the framework. Theory held that Bartholdi made the modification without Eiffel's involvement after seeing the arm and head were too close. Engineers considered reinforcements made in 1932 insufficient and added diagonal bracing in 1984 and 1986 to make the arm structurally sound.


Besides the replacement of much of the internal iron with stainless steel and the structural reinforcement of the statue itself, the restoration of the mid-1980s also included the replacement of the original torch with a replica, replacing the original iron stairs with new stairs, installing a newer elevator within the pedestal, and upgrading climate control systems. The Statue of Liberty was reopened to the public on July 5, 1986. is the 186th day of the year (187th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ...


New torch

The statue's original torch, replaced in 1986.
The statue's original torch, replaced in 1986.

A new torch replaced the original, which was deemed beyond repair because of the extensive 1916 modifications. The 1886 torch is now in the monument's lobby museum. The new torch has gold plating applied to the exterior of the "flame," which is illuminated by external lamps on the surrounding balcony platform. Image File history File links Soltorch. ... Image File history File links Soltorch. ... Gold-plating is a term relating to European Union law, used particularly in the UK. Gold-plating refers to the practise of national bodies exceeding the terms of European Community directives when implementing them into national law. ...


Aftermath of 9/11

Liberty Island closed on September 11, 2001; the island reopened in December, the monument reopened on August 3, 2004, and the statue has remained closed. The National Park Service claims that the statue is not shut because of a terrorist threat, but principally because of a long list of fire regulation contraventions, including inadequate evacuation procedures. The museum and ten-story pedestal are open for visitors but are only accessible if visitors have a "Monument Access Pass" which is a reservation that visitors must make in advance of their visit and pick up before boarding the ferry. There are a maximum of 3000 passes available each day (with a total of 15000 visitors to the island daily). The interior of the statue remains closed, although a glass ceiling in the pedestal allows for views of Eiffel's iron framework. Liberty Island Liberty Island, formerly called Bedloes Island, is a small uninhabited island in Upper New York Bay in the United States, best known as the location of the Statue of Liberty. ... A sequential look at United Flight 175 crashing into the south tower of the World Trade Center The September 11, 2001 attacks (often referred to as 9/11—pronounced nine eleven or nine one one) consisted of a series of coordinated terrorist[1] suicide attacks upon the United States, predominantly... is the 215th day of the year (216th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Alexandre Gustave Eiffel (December 15, 1832 – December 27, 1923; French pronunciation in IPA, in English usually pronounced ) was a French structural engineer and architect and a specialist of metallic structures. ...


Visitors to Liberty Island and the Statue are subject to restrictions, including personal searches similar to the security found in airports.


The Statue of Liberty had previously been threatened by terrorism, according to the FBI. On February 18, 1965, the Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI) announced it had uncovered a plot by three commandos from the Black Liberation Front, who were allegedly connected to Cuba, and a female co-conspirator from Montreal connected with the Front de libération du Québec (FLQ), seeking independence for Quebec from Canada, who were sent to destroy the statue and at least two other national monuments — the Liberty Bell in Philadelphia and the Washington Monument in Washington, D.C. is the 49th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1965 (MCMLXV) was a common year starting on Friday (link will display full calendar) of the 1965 Gregorian calendar. ... F.B.I. and FBI redirect here. ... Nickname: Motto: Concordia Salus (well-being through harmony) Coordinates: , Country Province Region Montréal Founded 1642 Established 1832 Government  - Mayor Gérald Tremblay Area [1][2][3]  - City 365. ... The Front de libération du Québec (Québec Liberation Front), commonly known as the FLQ, and sometimes referred to as Front de libération Québécois was a left-wing terrorist group in Canada responsible for more than 200 bombings and the deaths of at least five... This article is about the Canadian province. ... This article is about the bell in the United States. ... For other uses, see Philadelphia (disambiguation) and Philly. ... This article is about the monument in Washington, D.C. For other monuments dedicated to George Washington, see Washington Monuments (world). ... For other uses, see Washington, D.C. (disambiguation). ...


In June 2006, a bill, S. 3597, was proposed in Senate which, if approved, could re-open the crown and interior of the Statue of Liberty to visitors.[23] In July 2007, a similar measure was proposed in the House of Representatives.[24] Type Upper House President of the Senate Richard B. Cheney, R since January 20, 2001 President pro tempore Robert C. Byrd, D since January 4, 2007 Members 100 Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party Last elections November 7, 2006 Meeting place Senate Chamber United States Capitol Washington, DC United States... Type Bicameral Speaker of the House of Representatives House Majority Leader Nancy Pelosi, (D) since January 4, 2007 Steny Hoyer, (D) since January 4, 2007 House Minority Leader John Boehner, (R) since January 4, 2007 Members 435 plus 4 Delegates and 1 Resident Commissioner Political groups Democratic Party Republican Party...


On August 9, 2006 National Park Service Director Fran P. Mainella, in a letter to Congressman Anthony D. Weiner of New York stated that the crown and interior of the statue would remain closed indefinitely. The letter stated that "the current access patterns reflect a responsible management strategy in the best interests of all our visitors."[25] Critics contend that closing the Statue of Liberty indefinitely is an overreaction, and that safe access could easily be resumed under tighter security measures.[citation needed] is the 221st day of the year (222nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... The National Park Service (NPS) is the United States federal agency that manages all National Parks, many National Monuments, and other conservation and historical properties with various title designations. ... Fran P. Mainella is the 16th Director of the US National Park Service and first woman hold that position. ... Anthony David Weiner (born September 4, 1964) is a Democratic politician from the U.S. state of New York. ... This article is about the state. ...


Jumps

At 2:45 p.m. on February 2, 1912, steeplejack Frederick R. Law successfully performed a parachute jump from the observation platform surrounding the torch. It was done with the permission of the army captain administering the island. The New York Times reported that he "fell fully seventy-five feet [23 m] like a dead weight, the parachute showing no inclination whatsoever to open at first", but he then descended "gracefully", landed hard, and limped away.[26] is the 33rd day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1912 (MCMXII) was a leap year starting on Monday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a leap year starting on Sunday of the 13-day-slower Julian calendar). ... The profession of steeplejack is reserved for a general craftsman who is prepared to scale tall buildings and in particular church steeples with the object of carrying out general repairs. ... BASE jumping is the sport of using a parachute to jump from fixed objects. ... The New York Times is a daily newspaper published in New York City and distributed internationally. ...


The first suicide took place on May 13, 1929. The Times reported a witness as saying the man, later identified as Ralph Gleason, crawled out through one of the windows of the crown, turned around as if to return, "seemed to slip" and "shot downward, bouncing off the breast of the statue in the plunge." Gleason was killed when he landed on a patch of grass at the base, just a few feet from a workman who was mowing the grass.[27] For other uses, see Suicide (disambiguation). ... is the 133rd day of the year (134th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1929 (MCMXXIX) was a common year starting on Tuesday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


On August 23, 2001, French stuntman Thierry Devaux parasailed onto the monument and got hung up on the statue's torch in a bungled attempt to bungee jump from it. He was not hurt and was charged with four misdemeanor offenses including trespassing.[citation needed] {| style=float:right; |- | |- | |} is the 235th day of the year (236th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... This article is about the year. ... Parasailing in Punta Cana, Dominican Republic Parasailing, also known as parascending, is a recreational activity where a person (two or three people may also ride at the same time) is towed behind a vehicle (usually a boat) while attached to a parachute. ... Bungee Jump in Normandy, France (Souleuvre Viaduct) Bungee jumping (or bungy jumping) is the sport that originated from New Zealand and was created by maverick daredevil A J Hackett, and his original jump from a bridge in Greenhithe, Auckland. ... A misdemeanor, or misdemeanour, in many common law legal systems, is a lesser criminal act. ...


Inscription

The interior of the pedestal contains a bronze plaque inscribed with the poem "The New Colossus" by Emma Lazarus. It has never been engraved on the exterior of the pedestal, despite such depictions in editorial cartoons.[28] The New Colossus is a sonnet by Emma Lazarus (1849-1887), written in 1883 and, in 1903, engraved on a bronze plaque and mounted inside the Statue of Liberty. ... Emma Lazarus (July 22, 1849 – November 19, 1887) was an American poet born in New York City. ...

Not like the brazen giant of Greek fame,
With conquering limbs astride from land to land;
Here at our sea-washed, sunset gates shall stand
A mighty woman with a torch, whose flame
Is the imprisoned lightning, and her name
Mother of Exiles. From her beacon-hand
Glows world-wide welcome; her mild eyes command
The air-bridged harbor that twin cities frame.
"Keep, ancient lands, your storied pomp!" cries she
With silent lips. "Give me your tired, your poor,
Your huddled masses yearning to breathe free,
The wretched refuse of your teeming shore.
Send these, the homeless, tempest-tossed to me,
I lift my lamp beside the golden door!"

The bronze plaque in the pedestal contains a typographical error: the comma in "Keep, ancient lands" is missing, causing that line to read "'Keep ancient lands, your storied pomp!' cries she", and noticeably altering its meaning.


Replicas and derivative works

The French Statue of Liberty on the river Seine in Paris, France. Given to the city in 1889, it faces southwest, downstream along the Seine.
The French Statue of Liberty on the river Seine in Paris, France. Given to the city in 1889, it faces southwest, downstream along the Seine.

Hundreds of other Statues of Liberty have been erected worldwide. Download high resolution version (500x694, 88 KB)The Statue of Liberty copy on the river Seine in Paris, France. ... Download high resolution version (500x694, 88 KB)The Statue of Liberty copy on the river Seine in Paris, France. ... Hundreds of smaller replicas of the Statue of Liberty have been erected worldwide. ...


During the 1950s and 1960s, the Boy Scouts of America donated replicas of Lady Liberty to small towns across America. There is a replica statue in the middle of the Susquehanna River near Harrisburg, PA. The statue is almost entirely white as viewed from US-322 East and West going past the river. For the Boy Scouting program within the BSA, see Boy Scouting (Boy Scouts of America). ...


There is a sister statue in Paris and several others elsewhere in France, including one in Bartholdi's home town of Colmar, erected in 2004 to mark the centenary of Bartholdi's death; they also exist in Austria, Germany, Italy, Japan, China, and Vietnam; one existed in Hanoi during French colonial days. There are replicas in theme parks and resorts, including the New York-New York Hotel & Casino in Las Vegas on the Strip, replicas created as commercial advertising, and replicas erected in U.S. communities by patriotic benefactors, including no less than two hundred donated by Boy Scout troops to local communities. During the Tiananmen Square protest of 1989, Chinese student demonstrators in Beijing built a 10 m image called the Goddess of Democracy, which sculptor Tsao Tsing-yuan said was intentionally dissimilar to the Statue of Liberty to avoid being "too openly pro-American."[29] The Statue of Liberty, his most famous work Bartholdi Frédéric Auguste Bartholdi (August 2, 1834 – October 4, 1904) was a French sculptor. ... Petite Venise Colmar is a town and commune in the Haut-Rhin département of Alsace, France. ... New York-New York Hotel & Casino is a hotel and casino located on the famed Las Vegas Strip at 3790 Las Vegas Boulevard South, Las Vegas, Nevada. ... For further information, see Las Vegas metropolitan area and Las Vegas Strip. ... The south end of The Strip; approximately one third of the entire Strip is represented here The Las Vegas Strip (also known as The Strip) is an approximately 4 mile (6. ... alternative Chinese name Traditional Chinese: Simplified Chinese: Literal meaning: Tiananmen Incident The Tiananmen Square protests of 1989, widely known as the Tiananmen Square Massacre, in China referred to as the June Fourth Incident to avoid confusion with the two other Tiananmen Square protests and as an act of official censorship... Peking redirects here. ... Goddess of Democracy The Goddess of Democracy (Chinese: 民主女神; pinyin: mínzhÇ” nÇšshén), also known as the Goddess of Democracy and Freedom, was a 10-metre (30 ft) high statue created during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ...


In popular culture

The Statue of Liberty is part of the New York State Quarter
The Statue of Liberty is part of the New York State Quarter

The Statue of Liberty quickly became a popular icon, featured in scores of posters, pictures, motion pictures, and books. A 1911 O. Henry story relates a fanciful conversation between "Mrs. Liberty" and another statue;[30] it figured in 1918 Liberty Loan posters. During the 1940s and 1950s, pulp Science Fiction magazines featured Lady Liberty surrounded by ruins or by the sediments of the ages. February 1979: Statue of Liberty apparently submerged, Lake Mendota (Madison, Wisc. ... Download high resolution version (1106x1105, 229 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Download high resolution version (1106x1105, 229 KB) Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Obverse of redesigned quarter The 50 State Quarters program (Pub. ...


It has been in dozens of motion pictures. It is a setting in the 1942 Alfred Hitchcock movie Saboteur, which featured a climactic confrontation at the statue. Half submerged in the sand, the Statue provided the apocalyptic revelation at the end of 1968's Planet of the Apes. The statue became a character in the 1989 film, Ghostbusters II, in which it comes to life and helps defeat the evil villain, and was the setting for the climax of the first X-Men film. Sir Alfred Joseph Hitchcock KBE (August 13, 1899 â€“ April 29, 1980) was an iconic and highly influential British-born film director and producer who pioneered many techniques in the suspense and thriller genres. ... Saboteur is a 1942 Universal film directed by Alfred Hitchcock with a screenplay written by Peter Viertel and Joan Harrison. ... This article is about the 1968 film. ... Ghostbusters II is the 1989 sequel to Ghostbusters (1984) produced and directed by Ivan Reitman. ... X-Men is a 2000 superhero film based upon the fictional characters the X-Men. ...


The Ionstorm videogame Deus Ex, features the statue decapitated by a French activist group who objected to America's influence on the suppression of liberty worldwide. This article is about the video game. ...


It was the subject of a 1978 University of Wisconsin-Madison prank in which Lady Liberty appeared to be standing submerged in a frozen-over local lake.[31] It has appeared on New York and New Jersey license plates, is used as a logo for the NHL's New York Rangers and the WNBA's New York Liberty, and it was the subject of magician David Copperfield's largest vanishing act.[32] University of Wisconsin redirects here. ... NHL redirects here. ... The New York Rangers are a professional ice hockey team based in New York, New York, U.S.A. They are members of the Atlantic Division of the Eastern Conference of the National Hockey League (NHL). ... The Womens National Basketball Association (WNBA) is an organization governing a professional basketball league for women in the United States. ... The New York Liberty is a Womens National Basketball Association (WNBA) team based in New York City. ... David Copperfield (born David Seth Kotkin on September 16, 1956) is an American magician and illusionist best known for his combination of illusions and storytelling. ...


The statue is often used as a comparative measurement (usually referring to height rather than length) in books and documentaries.


See also

Wikimedia Commons has media related to:

Libertas is Latin for freedom. In Roman mythology, Libertas was the goddess of freedom. ... Goddess of Democracy The Goddess of Democracy (Chinese: 民主女神; pinyin: mínzhǔ nǚshén), also known as the Goddess of Democracy and Freedom, was a 10-metre (30 ft) high statue created during the Tiananmen Square protests of 1989. ... For the island in Australia, see Ellis Island, Queensland. ... Marianne busts with features of Brigitte Bardot - Catherine Deneuve - Mireille Mathieu Marianne, a national emblem of France, is a personification of Liberty and Reason. ... The statue of liberty, a gift from France to the U.S. Franco-American relations refers to interstate relations between the French Republic and the United States of America. ... This is a list of the most famous statues worldwide, past and present. ... The following is a list of statues by height. ... It has been suggested that Outdoor sculpture in New York City, List of sculptures in Central Park be merged into this article or section. ... The Columbia Pictures logo from 1993 to the present Columbia Pictures Industries, Inc. ... The Statue of Liberty is a trick play in American football, occasionally seen in college football or high school football. ... A trick play, also known as a gadget play, is a play in American football that uses deception and unorthodox strategies to fool the opposing team. ... United States simply as football, is a competitive team sport that is both fast-paced and strategic. ...

References

  • Holdstock, Robert, editor. Encyclopedia of Science Fiction. London: Octopus books, 1978.
  • Moreno, Barry. The Statue of Liberty Encyclopedia. New York: Simon & Schuster, 2000.
  • Vidal, Pierre. Frédéric-Auguste Bartholdi 1834–1904: Par la Main, par l'Esprit. Paris: Les créations du pélican, 2000.
  • Smith, V. Elaine, "Engineering Miss Liberty's Rescue." Popular Science, June 1986, page 68.
  1. ^ Frequently Asked Questions. National Park Service. Retrieved on 2007-03-22.
  2. ^ Statue of Liberty. HTML. Retrieved on 2006-06-20.
  3. ^ Fun Facts
  4. ^ USIA. Portrait of the USA: The Statue of Liberty. Retrieved on 2006-05-29.
  5. ^ Statue of Liberty National Park: History. Retrieved on 2007-02-07.
  6. ^ Khan, B. Zorina (2005). The Democratization of Invention: Patents and Copyrights in American Economic Development, 1790–1920. Cambridge University Press. ISBN 0-521-81135-X.  p. 299 [1]
  7. ^ National Park Service Historical Handbook: Statue of Liberty (2000-09-25). Retrieved on 2007-05-19.
  8. ^ "On This Day, The New York Times, May 2, 1885, "Harper's Weekly featured a cartoon about construction of the Statue of Liberty"
  9. ^ National Lighthouse Museum - Statue of Liberty
  10. ^ Statue of Liberty Lighthouse, New York at Lighthousefriends.com
  11. ^ The Torch Redesigned
  12. ^ NRIS Search by location
  13. ^ Statue of Liberty - UNESCO World Heritage Centre
  14. ^ (Ruth Brandon, Singer and the Sewing Machine: A Capitalist Romance, p. 211)
  15. ^ (Leslie Allen, "Liberty: The Statue and the American Dream," p. 21)
  16. ^ (Alice J. Hall, "Liberty Lifts Her Lamp Once More," July 1986.)
  17. ^ Finishing.com - WHY IS THE STATUE OF LIBERTY GREEN
  18. ^ National Park Service - Statue of Liberty Statistics
  19. ^ Karmøy Kommune. Retrieved on 2006-05-29. (Tourism website) "Vinsnes Mining Museum: The copper mines at Visnes were in operation until as recently as 1972. The copper for the Statue of Liberty in New York was extracted here."
  20. ^ Copper Development Association. Copper Facts. Retrieved on 2006-05-29. A U. S. copper industry website. "The Statue of Liberty contains 179,000 pounds of copper. It came from the Visnes copper mines on Karmoy Island near Stavanger, Norway, and was fabricated by French artisans."
  21. ^ Statue of Liberty Made of Russian Copper?.
  22. ^ Robert Pear (1986-02-14). Iacocca and Secretary of Interior Clash Over Statue Panel Ouster. The New York Times. Retrieved on 2006-06-06. "Interior Secretary Donald P. Hodel … dismissed Mr. Iacocca on Wednesday from the commission 'to avoid any question of conflict' of interest arising from Mr. Iacocca's simultaneous service as head of a private foundation that has raised $233 million for restoration of the statue and Ellis Island. The foundation also awards contracts for the restoration work."
  23. ^ Introduction of Bills and Joint Resolutions—(Senate—June 29, 2006) S6786. Library of Congress Congressional Record (2006-06-29). Retrieved on 2006-08-17.
  24. ^ Save the Statue of Liberty Act (H.R.2982 — July 10, 2007). Library of Congress Congressional Record (2007-07-10). Retrieved on 2007-12-06.
  25. ^ "Statue of Liberty's Crown to Stay Closed" Associated Press, August 9, 2006
  26. ^ "Parachute Leap Off Statue of Liberty; Steeplejack Had First Thought of Jumping Off the Singer Building. Steers With His Arms And Lands Safely on Stone Coping 30 feet from Water's Edge—He Won't Talk About It." The New York Times, February 3, 1912, p. 4
  27. ^ "Youth Plunges Off Statue of Liberty Crown, 200 Feet High, in First Suicide at That Spot." The New York Times, May 14, 1929, p. 1
  28. ^ e.g. Barry Shelton (2000-06-02). New Statue of Liberty. Retrieved on 2006-05-28.
  29. ^ Tsao Tsing-yuan. "The Birth of the Goddess of Democracy." In Popular Protest and Political Culture in Modern China. Edited by Jeffrey N. Wasserstrom and Elizabeth J. Perry, 140–147. Boulder, Col.: Westview Press, 1994.
  30. ^ Henry, O., Sixes and Sevens, "The Lady Higher Up." Project Gutenberg text
  31. ^ Lady Liberty on Lake Mendota.
  32. ^ Poundstone, William. (1986). Bigger Secrets. Houghton Mifflin

Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 81st day of the year (82nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 171st day of the year (172nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 38th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 268th day of the year (269th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 139th day of the year (140th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 122nd day of the year (123rd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1885 (MDCCCLXXXV) was a common year starting on Thursday (link will display the full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar (or a common year starting on Tuesday of the 12-day slower Julian calendar). ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 149th day of the year (150th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1986 (MCMLXXXVI) was a common year starting on Wednesday (link displays 1986 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 45th day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 157th day of the year (158th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Categories: 1935 births | U.S. Secretaries of Energy | U.S. Secretaries of the Interior | People stubs ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 180th day of the year (181st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 229th day of the year (230th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 191st day of the year (192nd in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2007 (MMVII) was a common year starting on Monday of the Gregorian calendar in the 21st century. ... is the 340th day of the year (341st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday. ... is the 153rd day of the year (154th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2006 (MMVI) was a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 148th day of the year (149th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ...

External links

  • Harper's Weekly cartoon on construction of the Statue of Liberty pedistal (NY Times 5/2/1885 On This Day citation)
  • Statue of Liberty National Monument The official Historical Site handbook.
  • StatueOfLiberty.info All about the Statue of Liberty—French—English.
  • PBS documentary about statue of liberty
  • Statue of Liberty-Ellis Island Foundation Fun facts, children's picture contest, and other information on the foundation.
  • Statue of Liberty Facts
  • The Statue of Liberty article by Alexandra Kollontay, 1916.
  • Historical Information and Photographs
  • A Palestinian version of the Statue of Liberty on the cover of "This Week in Palestine" (Ramallah), No. 95, March 2006
  • Gallery Images of the Statue of Liberty
  • Statue of Liberty in the Structurae database
  • Statue of Liberty at the Glass Bead Network

Coordinates: 40.6892° N 74.0445° W Alexandra Mikhaylovna Kollontai (Алекса́ндра Миха́йловна Коллонта́й — born Domontovich, Домонто́вич) (March 31 (March 19, O.S.), 1872 - March 9, 1952) was a Ukrainian Communist revolutionary, first as a member of the Mensheviks, then from 1914 on as a Bolshevik. ... Structurae is an on-line database containing works of structural and civil engineering of all kinds such as Bridges, High-rise buildings, towers, dams, etc. ... Map of Earth showing lines of latitude (horizontally) and longitude (vertically), Eckert VI projection; large version (pdf, 1. ...


  Results from FactBites:
 
Statue of Liberty - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (4070 words)
Liberty Enlightening the World, known more commonly as the Statue of Liberty, is a statue given to the United States by France in 1885, standing at Liberty Island in the mouth of the Hudson River in New York Harbor as a welcome to all visitors, immigrants, and returning Americans.
The Statue of Liberty was reopened to the public on July 5, 1986.
Liberty Island closed on September 11, 2001; the islands reopened in December, and the statue itself reopened on August 3, 2004.
Statue of Liberty -- History (4144 words)
When he heard that the Statue of Liberty was about to die from lack of funds, he saw his chance to take advantage of three distinct opportunities: to raise funds for the statue, to increase his newspaper's circulation, and to blast the rich for their selfishness.
From 1886 to 1902, the Statue of Liberty was maintained by the Lighthouse Board, an agency of the federal government, in conjunction with the Army and the American Committee.
The French-American Committee for the Restoration of the Statue of Liberty was established in 1981.
  More results at FactBites »

 
 

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