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Encyclopedia > Station wagon

A station wagon (or simply wagon) in American, Australian, Canadian and New Zealand usage and an estate car, or just estate in British usage, is an automobile with a body style similar to a sedan (saloon in British usage) but with the roofline following an extended rear cargo area. Cars can come in a large variety of different body styles. ... A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ...

2008 Volvo XC70

Certain cars with this body style have historically been called a shooting brake, a British term. A few models are referred to as a break, using the French term. Kombi or combi, from the German term for this type, is also sometimes used. Volkswagen's proprietary name for a Kombi is Variant, Opel sometimes uses the word Caravan, BMW uses Touring, and Audi's wagons are called Avant. Fiat often uses the term Weekend, while Alfa Romeo uses Sportwagon. Another term once used by some American and Australian car makers is station sedan.[citation needed] The Volvo V70 is a full-size station wagon. ... Look up style in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... Shooting-brake is a car body style indicating luxury estate cars built for being used by wealthy hunters. ... VW redirects here. ... This article is about the European car manufacturer. ... For other uses, see BMW (disambiguation). ... Audi AG, more commonly known as Audi, is a premium German automobile manufacturer and one of the worlds leading performance-luxury marques, with headquarters in Ingolstadt, Bavaria. ... For other uses, see Fiat (disambiguation). ... Alfa Romeo is an Italian automobile manufacturing company, founded as Darracq Italiana by Cavaliere Ugo Stella, an aristocrat from Milan in partnership with the French automobile firm of Alexandre Darracq. ...


Most station wagons are modified sedan-type car bodies, having the main interior area extended to the near-vertical rear window over what would otherwise be the enclosed area of the sedan version. A hatchback car, although meeting a similar description, would not enjoy the full height of the passenger cabin all the way to the back; the rear glass of a hatchback being sloped further from vertical, and the hatch tending not to reach fully to the rear bumper, as it commonly would in a station wagon. Station wagons also have side windows over the cargo area, whereas some hatchbacks have thick "C" pillars and no cargo area windows. Two exceptions to this rule include Rambler station wagons (1952–62) on which the roof line subtly dipped down over the cargo area, and GM's Oldsmobile Vista Cruiser (1964–72) and Buick Sportwagon (1964–70) on which the rear roof section was slightly elevated and combined with four skylights; the "sportwagon" name has been popularised again in recent years by some manufacturers. Certain models of Land Rover have also been described by the manufacturer as station wagons (even in British usage); these had a tall wagon-like body with extra "alpine lights", or windows, above the cargo bay side windows. Car redirects here. ... Renault Megane hatchback, a proper hatchback which has shown huge success in Europe Peugeot 306 hatchback, with the hatch lifted and the parcel shelf tilted for access Hatchback is a term designating an automobile design, containing a passenger cabin with an integrated cargo space, accessed from behind the vehicle by... Rambler logo, 1960s Rambler was an automobile brand name used by the Thomas B. Jeffery Company between 1900 and 1914, then by its successor, Nash Motors in 1950, and finally by Nashs successor, American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1969. ... General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... The Vista Cruiser was a station wagon built by the Oldsmobile Division of General Motors from 1964-1977, which was based on the Oldsmobile Cutlass/F-85 model, but had a slightly longer wheelbase than the cars it was based upon. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... The Land Rover Series I, II, and III are off-road vehicles produced by the British manufacturer Land Rover. ...


A station wagon is distinguished from a minivan (multi-purpose vehicle) or sport utility vehicle by still being a car, sharing its forward bodywork with other cars in a manufacturer's range.[citation needed] The popularity of the minivan in the 1980s and early 1990s is credited with the decline of the traditional station wagon. It has been suggested that Mini MPV be merged into this article or section. ... An MPV or multi-purpose vehicle is a passenger-carrying vehicle based on a car platform, and is generally a one box design—neither a distinct bonnet (US: hood) nor boot (US: trunk), but rather a maximised interior space. ... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ...

This modified MG ZT-T became the world's fastest estate/station wagon in 2003[citation needed]
This modified MG ZT-T became the world's fastest estate/station wagon in 2003[citation needed]

Contents

Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 784 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2166 × 1656 pixel, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This file has been released into the by its author, Alexander Jones. ... Image File history File links Metadata Size of this preview: 784 × 599 pixelsFull resolution (2166 × 1656 pixel, file size: 646 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) This file has been released into the by its author, Alexander Jones. ... The MG ZT is a high-performance version of the Rover 75 executive car, produced by MG at their Longbridge site in Birmingham. ...

History

1926 York bodied open air Ford station wagon
1926 York bodied open air Ford station wagon

The first station wagons were a product of the age of train travel. They were originally called 'depot hacks' because they worked around train depots as hacks (short for hackney carriage, an old name for taxis). They also came to be known as 'carryalls' and 'suburbans'. The name 'station wagon' is a derivative of 'depot hack'; it was a wagon that carried people and luggage from the train station to various local destinations. Image File history File links Ford_WoodyWagon1926. ... Image File history File links Ford_WoodyWagon1926. ... For other uses, see Train (disambiguation). ... In the United Kingdom, the name hackney carriage refers to a taxicab licensed by the Public Carriage Office in Greater London or by the local authority (non-metropolitan district councils or unitary authorities) in other parts of England, Wales, and Scotland, or by the Department of the Environment in Northern... For specific countries see Taxicabs around the world. ...


Prior to mid-1930s, hardwoods were used by most automotive makes in framing the passenger compartments of their passenger vehicles. In automobiles, the framing was sheathed in steel which was then covered in colored lacquers for protection. Eventually, all steel bodies were adopted because of their strength, cost and durability.[1]


Early station wagons evolved from trucks and were viewed as commercials (along with vans and pickup trucks), not consumer automobiles. The framing of the early station wagons were left unsheathed because of the commercial nature of the vehicles. Early station wagons were fixed roof vehicles, but lacked the glass that would enclose the passenger compartment, and had only bench seats.[2] In lieu of glass, side curtains of canvas could be unrolled. More rigid curtains could be snapped in place to protect passengers from the elements outside. A commercial vehicle is a type of vehicle used for carrying goods or passengers. ... This article is about the road vehicle. ... The best selling North American pickup truck, the Ford F-Series. ...


In 1922 Essex introduced the first affordable enclosed automobile (sedan), which shifted the auto industry away from open vehicles towards meeting consumer demand for enclosed automobiles. Station wagons too, began to be enclosed, especially in higher price categories from up market automobile companies. Windows in these early enclosed models were either retractable or sliding. It was only in 1924 the first closed wagon appeared.[3] The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson brand automobiles in Detroit, Michigan, from 1909 to 1957. ... A notchback full-size luxury sedan. ...

Pontiac woodie
Pontiac woodie

Initially, manufacture of the wagon's passenger compartments was outsourced to custom body builders because of the slower nature of the production of the all wood bodies. Companies that were major producers of wood bodied station wagons included Mitchell Bentley, Hercules, USB&F and Cantrell and other custom builders. The roofs of woodie wagons were usual made of stretched canvas that was treated with a water proofing dressing. Pontiac woodie. ... Pontiac woodie. ...


As time went by the car companies themselves began building their own station wagons. Star (a division of Durant Motors) is usually credited as being the first car company to offer a factory-built station wagon, beginning in 1923, yet in 1919, Stoughton Wagon Company (Stoughton, Wisconsin) began putting custom wagon bodies on Model T chassis;[4] by 1929 Ford was by far the biggest seller of station wagons. Since Ford owned its own hardwood forest and mills, it began supplying the components for a Model A wagon (although initially some final assembly would still take place away from the factory, by Briggs, in Detroit), with wood from the Mengel Company (Louisville).[5] The same year, J. T. Cantrell put woodie bodies on Chrysler vehicles (persisting until 1931).[6] Logo used by Durant Motors Star automobiles The Star was an automobile marque that was assembled by the Durant Motors Company between 1922 and 1928. ... Durant Motors Inc. ... Stoughton is a city in Dane County, Wisconsin. ... This article is about the U.S. state. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... Briggs could refer to: One of the Briggs Initiatives Briggs, Oklahoma The Briggs & Stratton company Briggs cliff, fictional place in Fullmetal Alchemist manga This page or section lists people with the surname Briggs. ... Louisville redirects here. ... For other uses, including the Chrysler Brand, see Chrysler (disambiguation). ...


While commercial in its origins, by the mid-1930s, wood bodied station wagons, also known as “Woodies”, began to take on a prestige aura. The vehicles were priced higher than regular cars, but were popular in affluent communities, especially among the Country Club social set. The vehicles gained in “snob appeal” when mating the utility of the hard wood bodies to better makes of automobiles such as Buick, Packard, Pierce-Arrow. By 1941, the Chrysler Town and Country was the most expensive car in the company's lineup. A country club is a private club that offers a variety of recreational sports facilities to its members. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... For people named Packard, see Packard (surname). ... 1919 Pierce-Arrow advertisement The Pierce-Arrow was a Buffalo, New York (United States) based manufacturing company from 1901 to 1938. ... This article is about the minivan. ...


Cachet aside, woodie wagons required constant maintenance; bodies were finished in varnishes that required recoating, bolts and screws required tightening as wood expanded and contracted throughout the seasons.


This helped prod General Motors to introduce a steel-bodied eight-seat Suburban wagon in 1935.[7] General Motors Corporation, also known as GM, is a multinational corporation headquartered in the United States and has been the worlds largest and most dominant automaker since 1931 till the second half of 2007, surpassed by Toyota; as well as the global industry sales leader for 77 years. ... To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ...


All-steel wagons

1949 Plymouth Suburban station wagon, the first production all-steel bodied station wagon based upon a passenger car; coincidentally similar to the Chevrolet Suburban.

Following World War II, automobile production from preexisting manufacturers resumed using tooling left over from 1942. However, advancement in production techniques learned over the course of World War II made all-steel station wagons practical when automobile manufacturers switched over to new designs. Moreover, production costs of the wooden bodies were high and they offered a disadvantage for owners because they squeaked, groaned, rotted, and required nearly constant upkeep.[8] Image File history File links PlymouthSuburban1949. ... Image File history File links PlymouthSuburban1949. ... This article is about a type of vehicle. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


The first factory-built all-steel station wagon in North America was the 1946 Jeep Station Wagon, based upon the rugged Jeep produced by Willys-Overland during the war.[9][10] The Willys was a two-door vehicle, and in premium trim had its passenger compartment exterior painted in a style that evoked the light framing/darker panel design of wagons from the woodie era. Since it was Jeep-based, some considered more of a utility vehicle than a "real" car.[8] Chevrolet introduced in 1935 the first Chevy Suburban, an all-steel station wagon body, but it was built on a truck (or commercial) chassis. During 1947, the small car manufacturer, Crosley introduced an all-steel car-based wagon. Willys (pronounced will-eeze) was the brand name used by the United States automobile company Willys-Overland Motors, best known for its production of military and civilian Jeeps. ... A trim package is a set of cosmetic (mostly non-functional) embellishments to a vehicle. ... The Crosley was an automobile manufactured by the Crosley Corporation and later by Crosley Motors Incorporated in the United States from 1939 to 1952. ...


In 1949, Plymouth introduced the first all-steel station wagon, the two-door Suburban, that was based on an automotive platform. In 1950 Plymouth discontinued the woody station wagon in its line and converted to all steel bodies; and because it was too coincidental to the Chevrolet Suburban. Buick was the last automobile manufacturer to produce a station wagon with a true wooden structure in 1953. This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ... This article is about a type of vehicle. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ...


By 1955, only Ford and Mercury offered a woody-like model;[1] however the look was accomplished with steel, plastics and various materials, such as DiNoc (a vinyl product) to simulate broad expanses of wood. Known as the Ford Country Squire, this heavily-trimmed full-size wagon was a staple of the Ford line from the 1940s to the 1990s. Ford may mean a number of things: A ford is a river crossing. ... Mercury is an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company founded in 1939 to market entry-level-luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors Buick (and former Oldsmobile) brand and Chryslers Chrysler brand. ... For other uses, see Plastic (disambiguation). ... Chemical structure of the vinyl functional group. ... 1967 Ford Country Squire The Ford Country Squire was a full-size station wagon built by the Ford Motor Company from 1950 until 1991; it was based on the Ford full-size car line available in each year. ...


Reintroduction of woody decorated station wagons by other makers in America began in 1966 when Dodge offered the look for the first time in fifteen years. By 1967, simulated "wood" decoration was used exclusively on top line models, with unadorned vehicles denoting lower price and status models.


In many suburban communities, owning a current year woody station wagon was a sign of affluence and good taste. In the 1980s and early 1990s, the idea of "fake wood" became archaic and manufacturers dropped the option. With the introduction of the retro-styled Chrysler PT Cruiser, aftermarket firms began selling faux woodie kits designed to evoke a sense of nostalgia. The Chrysler PT Cruiser is a typically American retro-styled station wagon or hatchback built by Chrysler, launched in 2000 as the entry-level Chrysler. ...

1958 AMC Ambassador 4-door pillarless hardtop station wagon
1958 AMC Ambassador 4-door pillarless hardtop station wagon

Station wagons enjoyed their greatest popularity and highest production levels in the United States during from the 1950s through the 1970s. The late 1950s through the mid 1960s was also the period of greatest variation in bodystyles, with pillared two and four-door models marketed alongside hardtop (no B-pillar) four door models. As the sporty, airy, and open look of pillarless styling was catching on for regular passenger cars, the first to utilize it was American Motors in its Rambler Cross-Country wagons.[11] Rambler offered a four-door this body style in 1956, followed by Mercury, Oldsmobile, and Buick in 1957; Chrysler entered the market in 1960. Expensive to produce and buy, the hardtop wagon sold in limited numbers. The pillarless design added wind noise, as well as structural issues in trying to eliminate body twist.[12] GM was the first to eliminate the hardtop wagon from its lineup in 1959, and AMC and Ford exited the field beginning with their 1960 and 1961 vehicles, leaving Chrysler and Dodge with the body style through the 1964 model year. 1973 Ambassador Brougham Sedan with 401 V8 The Ambassador logo from 1958 to 1961 The Ambassador was the top-line automobile produced by the American Motors Corporation (AMC) from 1958 until 1974. ... A hardtop is a term for a rigid, rather than canvas, automobile roof. ... American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed on January 14, 1954 by the merger of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and the Hudson Motor Car Company. ...


Full-size wagons

1967 Ford Country Squire - a full size station wagon
1967 Ford Country Squire - a full size station wagon

Traditionally, full-sized American station wagons were configured for 6 or 9 passengers. The basic arrangement, for seating six, was three passengers in the front and three passengers in the rear, all on bench-type seats; to accommodate nine, a third bench seat - often facing backward, but sometimes facing forward or sideways - was installed in the rear cargo area, over the rear axle. In Ford and Mercury wagons built after 1964, the configuration was changed to two seats facing each other, placed behind the rear axle. According to Ford, each seat would accommodate two people, raising the total seating capacity to ten passengers; however, these seats were quite narrow in later models and could only accommodate one passenger, limiting the total capacity to eight passengers. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 879 KB) 1967 Ford Country Squire. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (2304x1728, 879 KB) 1967 Ford Country Squire. ...


Newer models are usually built on smaller platforms and accommodate five or six passengers (depending on whether bucket or bench seats are fitted in front). Full-size SUVs such as the Chevrolet Suburban and Ford Expedition have similar features to the aforementioned full-size station wagons; such as 9-passenger seating with bench seating in the front. Also, many people claim the SUVs to be a "station wagon" under the vehicle's registration title.[citation needed] This article is about a type of vehicle. ... The Ford Expedition is a full-size SUV built by the Ford Motor Company. ... The traditional seat installed in American automobiles was the bench seat. ...


Two-door wagons

1952 Nash Rambler Cross Country wagon
1952 Nash Rambler Cross Country wagon
Mercury Commuter 2-door hardtop station wagon.
Mercury Commuter 2-door hardtop station wagon.
Saab 95
Saab 95
Lloyd Alexander Kombi - a small two door wagon
Lloyd Alexander Kombi - a small two door wagon

In 1951, the compact 100-inch (2,540 mm) wheelbase Nash Rambler line included a two-door station wagon design whose production continued through 1955. After merger of merger of Nash and Hudson, the new company, American Motors (AMC) reintroduced the two-door wagon in the "new" Rambler American line in 1959 with only a few modifications from the original version. This was popular design targeting buyers looking for economy and load space, as well as a business strategy of marketing an old design that has not been successfully duplicated to this day. The Nash Rambler was an American automobile produced by the Nash Motors division of Nash Kelvinator Corporation between 1950 and 1957. ... 1958 Two Door Mercury Hardtop Station Wagon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... 1958 Two Door Mercury Hardtop Station Wagon This image has been released into the public domain by the copyright holder, its copyright has expired, or it is ineligible for copyright. ... Image File history File links Saab95green. ... Image File history File links Saab95green. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons. ... Image File history File links Size of this preview: 800 × 600 pixelsFull resolution (1280 × 960 pixel, file size: 289 KB, MIME type: image/jpeg) (Uploaded using CommonsHelper or PushForCommons. ... Norddeutsche Automobil und Motoren GmbH was a German brand created in 1908 and was owned by the Norddeutsche Lloyd shipping company. ... The Rambler American introduced in the late 1950s was an early compact car. ... The Nash Rambler was an American automobile produced by the Nash Motors division of Nash Kelvinator Corporation between 1950 and 1957. ... Kelvinator Appliance ad from 1951 Nash-Kelvinator Corporation was the result of a merger between Nash Motors and Kelvinator Appliance Company. ... Hudson Logo Hudson Six-40, 1914 1917 Hudson Phaeton The Hudson Motor Car Company made Hudson brand automobiles in Detroit, Michigan, from 1909 to 1957. ... American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed on January 14, 1954 by the merger of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and the Hudson Motor Car Company. ... The original Rambler was an automobile produced of the Thomas B. Jeffery Company then by its successor, Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and finally, by its successor, American Motors Corporation (all in Kenosha, Wisconsin). ...


In 1955, 1956, and 1957, Chevrolet produced the Nomad, and Pontiac the sibling Safari, both of which were sporty two-door wagons. Limited demand for the style (in their home market, the U.S.) resulted in cancellation after three model years. For 1958, both model names were applied to pillared four-door wagon models. Chevrolet dropped the Nomad name at the end of the 1961 model year, while Pontiac continued to use the Safari name into the 1980s. Mercury, a division of the Ford Motor Company, produced a two-door hardtop wagon from 1957 to 1960. When Mercury lost its unique body designs in 1961, the marque lost its hardtop wagons and instead fielded pillared models. 1955 Chevrolet advertising art designed to promote its station wagon vehicle. ... 1955 Pontiac Safari station wagon Safari was a name first applied to Pontiacs version of the 2-door Nomad station wagon. ... Mercury is an automobile marque of the Ford Motor Company founded in 1939 to market entry-level-luxury cars slotted between Ford-branded regular models and Lincoln-branded luxury vehicles, similar to General Motors Buick (and former Oldsmobile) brand and Chryslers Chrysler brand. ... “Ford” redirects here. ...


The 1970s were something of a high point for two-door wagons in the U.S., as many manufacturers fielded an example in their Subcompact car lines. Between 1972 and 1980, a two-door wagon version of the Ford Pinto and Mercury Bobcat was available. A two-door wagon version of the Chevrolet Vega was available between 1971 and 1977; the near-identical Pontiac Astre offered the same body style between 1973 and 1977 and the similar Chevrolet Monza wagon was sold in 1978 and 1979. American Motors also entered the market with a wagon version of the AMC Pacer, produced between 1977 and 1980. The last two-door wagon available in America, the Volkswagen Fox, was discontinued in 1990. AMC Gremlin A subcompact car is an automobile in a vehicle size class smaller than a compact car but larger than a city car (and known as superminis in Europe). ... The Ford Pinto was a subcompact car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company for the North American market, first introduced on September 11, 1970, and built through the 1980 model year. ... The Ford Pinto was a subcompact car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company for the North American market, first introduced in 1971, and built through the 1980 model year. ... The then-innovative Chevrolet Vega was a subcompact car sold from 1971 through 1977. ... The Chevrolet Vega (Pontiacs version was known as the Pontiac Astre) was a compact coupe and station wagon sold from 1971 through 1977 as a replacement for the ill-fated Chevrolet Corvair. ... The Chevrolet Monza was a rear-wheel drive subcompact sporty car introduced in the fall of 1974 as a 1975 model, along with its corporate clones, the Oldsmobile Starfire and the Buick Skyhawk. ... The AMC Pacer is a two-door compact automobile produced in the United States by the American Motors Corporation between 1975 and 1980. ... The Volkswagen Fox is a supermini produced and designed by Volkswagen do Brasil and sold in Latin America and Europe. ...


More utilitarian two-door wagons were known as "sedan delivery" cars, often with solid panels where the rear side windows would be. These were produced in the United States into the 1970s (with panel versions of the Vega and Pinto available). A Sedan delivery (commonly called a delivery) is a windowless cargo van built on a car chassis, mainly based on the station-wagon offered mainly in the USA and Canada until the late 1950s. ...


The Swedish Saab 95 was available from 1959-78; a two-door estate based on a two-door fastback saloon/sedan. Saab 95 Initially the Saab 95 was a 7-seater station wagon/estate made by Saab. ...


In the United Kingdom, estate car versions of small and middle sized models were more common. Estate versions of the Morris 1000 ("Minor") and Mini, with external ash wood frames (structural on the 1000) were popular; they both had 2 vertically divided van-type rear doors in the style of older shooting brakes (see "Station wagons around the world", below). The Hillman Husky estate version of the Hillman Imp was unusual in being a rear-engined estate. The Morris 1000 is a old rustic looking car. ... For the new MINI, see MINI (BMW). ... Shooting-brake is a car body style indicating luxury estate cars built for being used by wealthy hunters. ... Estate car body style (Saab 95) A station wagon (United States usage), wagon (Australian usage, though station wagon is widely used) or estate car (United Kingdom usage) is a car body style similar to a sedan car but with an extended rear cargo area. ... The Hillman Imp was a compact, rear-engined sedan automobile manufactured by the Rootes Group from 1963 to 1976. ... Hillman Imp, with the engine cover and the rear window lifted The Hillman Imp was a compact, rear-engined saloon (US: sedan) automobile manufactured under the Hillman marque by the Rootes Group (later Chrysler Europe) from 1963 to 1976. ...


Other two-door estates from Western Europe included the Ford Escort, Morris 1100, Vauxhall Viva, Vauxhall Chevette, and Fiat 127. A current understanding of Western Europe. ... The Ford Escort was a compact car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company from 1967 through 2003. ... Photo from original press release of Austin 1100 The Morris 1100 was a small family car built by the British Motor Corporation and, later, British Leyland, from August 15, 1962 to June 1974, developed under the ADO16 codename. ... The Viva was a model of car produced by Vauxhall Motors in a variety of models from 1963 to 1979. ... Vauxhall Chevette - rare HSR rally model in road-going trim The Vauxhall Chevette was a model of car manufactured by Vauxhall in the UK from 1975 to 1983. ... The Fiat 127 was a supermini automobile produced by the Italian manufacturer Fiat between 1971 and 1987. ...


More unusual British two-door estates included the Lynx Eventer estate based on the Jaguar XJS, and reminiscent of the Reliant Scimitar, and a one-off Jaguar XK120-based wagon with Morris 1000 rear doors grafted to the body.


Declining popularity in North America

Sales of station wagons in the United States and Canada remained strong until 1984, when the Chrysler Corporation introduced the first minivans, derived from the K platform, which, ironically, also was the platform for the Plymouth Reliant and Dodge Aries station wagon models which the minivan would soon eclipse. To meet Wikipedias quality standards, this article or section may require cleanup. ... 1987 Plymouth Reliant K The Chrysler Corporations K-Car platform of the 1980s ranks as one of the most overt uses of platform sharing in automotive history. ... Plymouth Reliant sedan with second facelift The Plymouth Reliant was one of the first two so-called K-cars (the other being the Dodge Aries) the Chrysler Corporation introduced for the 1981 model year. ... The Dodge Aries was an automobile sold by the Chrysler Corporation from 1981 to 1989. ...


The ripple effect of the 1973 Arab Oil Embargo led to the demise of the station wagon where CAFE (Corporate Average Fuel Economy) legislation dethroned the rear wheel drive layout for efficient front wheel drive vehicles. Station wagons were the victims of Detroit's downsizing trend after 1976, and vehicle choice was limited to SUVs like the Chevrolet Suburban and van conversions (GMC Vandura) which filled the void of station wagon sales. This, indeed, led to the station wagon's demise. The Corporate Average Fuel Economy (CAFE) regulations in the United States, first enacted by Congress in 1975,[1] are federal regulations intended to improve the average fuel economy of cars and light trucks (trucks, vans and sport utility vehicles) sold in the US in the wake of the 1973 Arab... Rear wheel drive was a common form of engine/transmission layout used in automobiles throughout the 20th century. ... Front wheel drive is the most common form of engine/transmission layout used in modern passenger cars, where the engine drives the front wheels. ... This article is about a type of vehicle. ... 1996 GMC Vandura The GMC Vandura, also sold as the Chevy Van, was a full-size van produced by GMC from 1970 (introduced in April 1970 as 1971 models), up until 1996. ...

Buick Roadmaster Estate Wagon
Buick Roadmaster Estate Wagon

The emergence and popularity of SUVs which closely approximate the traditional wagon bodystyle was a further blow. After struggling sales, the last full-size wagons (the Chevrolet Caprice and the Buick Roadmaster) in American production were discontinued in 1996, but, in 2005 the Dodge Magnum was launched, although it is more similar in size to the Ford Taurus wagon than the larger Roadmaster and Caprice. The Roadmaster was an automobile built by the Buick division of General Motors. ... The Chevrolet Caprice (later called Caprice Classic) was a series name of automobile produced by Chevrolet, a division of General Motors, in the United States from the 1965 through 1996 model years. ... The Roadmaster was an automobile built by the Buick division of General Motors. ... The Dodge Magnum name has been used on a number of different automobiles. ... The Ford Taurus is a mid-size, front wheel drive car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company in North America. ...


Since then, smaller wagons have been sold in the U.S. as less expensive alternatives to SUVs and minivans. Domestic wagons also remained in the Ford, Mercury, and Saturn lines until 2004 when the bodies began a phase-out, replaced by car-based crossover SUVs and minivans designed to look like station wagons. A crossover SUV (also called CUV for Crossover Utility Vehicle) or XUV (not to be confused with GMCs Envoy XUV) is an automobile with a sport utility vehicle appearance but is built upon a more economical and fuel-efficient unibody construction. ...

Ford Focus wagon
Ford Focus wagon

The last subcompact station wagon produced in the United States and Canada was the 1992 Toyota Corolla. Compact station wagons have been declining since the 2000s although 2003 saw the introduction of the Toyota Matrix/Pontiac Vibe. Ford dropped the Ford Focus wagon for 2007, and Subaru replaced the Impreza wagon with a 5-door hatchback model. A subcompact car is a car in a vehicle size class smaller than a compact car, but larger than a microcar. ... The Toyota Corolla is a compact car produced by the Japanese automaker Toyota, which has become very popular throughout the world since the nameplate was first introduced in 1966. ... The Rambler American introduced in the late 1950s was an early compact car. ... The Toyota Corolla Matrix, commonly referred to as the Toyota Matrix, is a compact hatchback manufactured by Toyota Motor Corporation in Cambridge, Ontario, Canada and sold in North America. ... The Pontiac Vibe is a compact hatchback car produced in Fremont, California, in the United States by NUMMI (New United Motor Manufacturing, Inc), a joint venture between General Motors and Toyota. ... This article is about the North American Ford Focus. ... For other uses, see Subaru (disambiguation). ... For the high-performance versions of the Impreza, see Subaru Impreza WRX and Subaru Impreza WRX STi The Subaru Impreza is a compact car that was first introduced by Subaru in 1993. ...


Station wagons around the world

Volkswagen Passat Variant - still popular in Europe
Volkswagen Passat Variant - still popular in Europe

In Europe, Australia and New Zealand, these vehicles remain popular and in volume production, although minivans (known in Europe as MPVs — multi-purpose vehicles) and the like have had some impact. As in North America, early station wagons were aftermarket conversions and had their new bodywork built with a wooden frame, sometimes with wooden panels, sometimes steel. Station wagons were the originators of fold down seats to accommodate passengers or cargo. The Volkswagen Passat is a family car built by Volkswagen AG (VW), produced in various forms since 1973. ... For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ...


In the United Kingdom, station wagons are generally called estate cars or usually just estates. A very specific type, rare these days, is known as a shooting brake. These are usually modified luxury coupés with an estate car-like back fitted. They generally retain two side doors. The purpose of them, historically, is obvious from the name; they were vehicles for the well-off shooter and hunter, giving space to carry shotguns and other equipment. They have rarely been made by the factory and are generally aftermarket conversions; some are still made. Until the early 1960s many of them were built with structural wooden rear frames, making them some of the most exclusive and luxurious "woodies" ever built. A smaller Estate car was the very popular Morris Minor Traveller Estate which copied the wooden side panel frames of larger designs. Most small cars produced in the UK from the 1950s until the 1980s had Estate versions,some of which were also used as small delivery vans minus the rear windows. Shooting-brake is a car body style indicating luxury estate cars built for being used by wealthy hunters. ... For other uses, see Shotgun (disambiguation). ... Later Morris Minor Van with aftermarket rear side windows Morris Minor Traveller (estate) Morris Minor Rally The revolutionary Morris Minor (the prototype was called Mosquito) was launched at the Earls Court Motor Show on 20 September, 1948. ...

1966 Land Rover Series IIa Station Wagon (more like an SUV)
1966 Land Rover Series IIa Station Wagon (more like an SUV)

In the 1950s, the British companies Rover and Austin produced 4x4 vehicles (the Land Rover and the Gypsy respectively). Apart from the standard canvas-topped utility vehicles, both these 4x4s were available in estate car bodystyles that were sold as "Station Wagons". These bodystyles incorporated more comfortable seating and trim when compared with the standard editions (which were typically aimed at agricultural and military buyers) and together with options such as heaters these changes made the Station Wagon vehicles more attractive to private buyers. The name was alien in the UK, but was probably chosen because of the high number of these vehicles that went to export markets such as Africa and Australia, where the name was understood. Land Rover still calls the passenger-carrying variations of its Defender model 'Station Wagons'. Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 334 KB)1966 Land Rover Series IIa 109 Station Wagon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Image File history File linksMetadata Download high resolution version (1600x1200, 334 KB)1966 Land Rover Series IIa 109 Station Wagon File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ... Land Rover was the name of one of the first British civilian all-terrain utility vehicles, first produced by Rover in 1947. ... Gypsy marque Austin manufacturer BMC History From 1959 To 1967 Predecessor None Preceeded by None Specifications Body Style 4 WD Length Width Height Weight Engine type Austin A70 OHV Engine size 2200 cc Power hp Variants LWB, SWB Number built The Austin Gypsy was Austins attempt at an off... The Land Rover Defender is a British four wheel drive Off-road utility vehicle. ...


In France almost all station wagon models are called the Break (note the different spelling from the English shooting brake). French breaks from Peugeot and Citroën in particular were available in seven- or eight-seater "family" versions long before MPVs became known in Europe. A brake, also known as a break, was a type of horse-drawn carriage used in the nineteenth and early 20th centuries. ... Peugeot is a major French car brand, part of PSA Peugeot Citroën. ... Citroën is a French automobile manufacturer, founded in 1919 by André Citroën. ...


European manufacturers often built two-door station wagons in the post-war period for the compact class, and not four-door models, a practice that continued at Ford (amongst others) with its Escort Mk III, for example, well into the 1980s. Usually, by that time, manufacturers created four-door models. For other uses, see Europe (disambiguation). ... The Ford Escort was a compact car manufactured by the Ford Motor Company from 1967 through 2003. ...


The German Volkswagen Polo crossed type divisions by offering a two-door estate shape as the main model in its range in some markets in the 1980s. The Czech VW subsidiary, Škoda Auto, produces Estate/Kombi versions of the Felicia,Fabia and Octavia. Volkswagen Derby The Volkswagen Polo is a supermini manufactured by Volkswagen of Germany. ... Å koda Auto ( (help· info)) is a Czech automobile manufacturer and one of the four oldest car producers in the world. ...

1972 Citroën DS Break
1972 Citroën DS Break

Japanese manufacturers did not value station wagons highly until very recently. For many years, models sold as well-appointed station wagons in export markets were sold as utilitarian "van" models in the home market. This explains why station wagons were not updated for consecutive generations in a model's life in Japan: for instance, while a sedan might have a model life of four years, the wagon was expected to serve eight — the 1979 Toyota Corolla (built until 1987), and the 1987 Mazda Capella (built until 1996) are examples of this. The Nissan Avenir is an example of a model that began its life as a utility vehicle, and became a well equipped passenger car in the 1990s. Image File history File links MHV_Citroen_DS_Estate. ... Image File history File links MHV_Citroen_DS_Estate. ... The Toyota Corolla is a compact car produced by the Japanese automaker Toyota, which has become very popular throughout the world since the nameplate was first introduced in 1966. ... Capella is the Japanese domestic market name for Mazdas midsize family car; larger than the Familia/323 but smaller than the Luce/929. ... The Nissan Avenir is a line of station wagons beginning production in 1990 by Nissan of Japan, aimed primarily at the commercial market. ...

An Australian Ford BA Falcon station wagon
An Australian Ford BA Falcon station wagon

In Australia and New Zealand, the most popular station wagons are the large Ford Falcon and Holden Commodore models. These are usually built on a longer wheelbase compared to their sedan counterparts, though they share the same door skins, leading to a slightly unusual appearance with the rear door not reaching all the way to the rear wheel arch. Mitsubishi's Australian subsidiary designed wagon versions of its Magna and Verada for the local market, although it no longer offers a large wagon. Similarly, Toyota no longer offers a wagon version of the Camry. Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Ford BA Falcon is a full-size sedan that can seat 5 people comfortably it was released to the public in September 2002, it was either the make or brake it car for Ford. ... This article is about the Australian car model. ... The Holden Commodore is an automobile produced by the Holden division of General Motors (GM) in Australia. ... This article or section does not cite its references or sources. ... Mitsubishi Motors Corporation ) is the fifth largest automaker in Japan and the thirteenth largest in the world by unit sales. ... The Mitsubishi Magna is a car that was built by Mitsubishi Motors Australia Limited (MMAL) at the Tonsley Park assembly plant in Adelaide (South Australia) from May 1985 to September 2005, spanning three generations. ... Redirect Mitsubishi_Diamante ... Toyota Motor Corporation ) is a multinational corporation headquartered in Japan, and currently is the worlds largest automaker. ... The Toyota Camry is a mid-size car assembled by Toyota in Tsutsumi, (Japan); Georgetown, Kentucky; Altona, Victoria, Australia and most recently Guangzhou, China. ...


Smaller wagons have declined in popularity, in comparison with Europe, although they have traditionally been more popular in New Zealand than in Australia. For example, the Ford Telstar was offered as a wagon in New Zealand, but not Australia, even though the mechanically identical Mazda 626 was sold in both countries. The Ford Telstar was an automobile sold by the Ford Motor Company in Asia, Australasia and Africa, comparable in size to the European Ford Sierra and the American Ford Tempo. ... The Mazda 626 is an automobile produced by Mazda for the export market. ...


Tailgate evolution

1963 Studebaker Wagonaire
1963 Studebaker Wagonaire
1997 Ford Mondeo
1997 Ford Mondeo
2002 Ford Mondeo
2002 Ford Mondeo
2007 Ford Mondeo
2007 Ford Mondeo
2004 Honda Accord Tourer
2004 Honda Accord Tourer
2005 Citroën C5
2005 Citroën C5
Renault Laguna Grandtour
Renault Laguna Grandtour

The vast majority of modern station wagons have an upward-swinging, full-width, full-height rear door supported on gas struts, and a few also have a rear window that can be swung upward independently to load small items without opening the whole liftgate. Historically, however, many different designs have been used for access to the rear of car; the following summary concentrates on American models. 1963 Studebaker Wagonaire Station Wagon Image This image is from an advertising campaign conducted by the Studebaker Corporation, and made originally with the intent for public distribution and promotion of the product featured in the picture. ... 1963 Studebaker Wagonaire Station Wagon Image This image is from an advertising campaign conducted by the Studebaker Corporation, and made originally with the intent for public distribution and promotion of the product featured in the picture. ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (845x526, 78 KB) This picture may have usage restrictions - Honda Accord Source: Own picture File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Honda Accord ... Image File history File links Download high-resolution version (845x526, 78 KB) This picture may have usage restrictions - Honda Accord Source: Own picture File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): Honda Accord ...

  • The earliest common style was an upward-swinging window combined with a downward swinging tailgate. Both were manually operated. This configuration generally prevailed from the earliest origins of the wagon bodystyle in the 1920s through the 1940s. It remained in use through 1960 on several models offered by Ford.
  • In the early 1950s, tailgates with hand-cranked roll-down rear windows began to appear. This was another innovation first seen on Rambler wagons.[13] Later in the decade, electric power was applied to the tailgate window - it could be operated from the driver's seat, as well as by the keyhole in the rear door. By the early 1960s, this arrangement was becoming common on both full-size and compact wagons.
  • A side hinged tailgate that opened like a door was offered on three-seat wagons by American Motors to make it easier for the back row passengers to enter and exit their rear-facing seats. This was later supplanted by the dual-hinged tailgate.
  • The Studebaker Wagonaire station wagon had a unique retractable rear roof section as well as a conventional rear tailgate which folded down. This allowed it to carry tall objects that would not fit otherwise. Water leaks, body flex and noise prevented the innovation from being adopted by other manufacturers. The concept was reintroduced in 2003 on GMC's mid-size Envoy XUV SUV, but did not last long on that vehicle either.
  • The 1964-72 Oldsmobile Vista Cruiser and 1964-69 Buick Sport Wagon featured raised rooflines beginning above the second-row seat and continuing all the way to the rear tailgate. Above the second seat were plexiglas skylights in which passengers could view the outside from overhead. On the three-seat models of these wagons, the third seat faced forward as did the first and second seats, unlike the normal practice of three-seat wagons at the time in which the rearmost seat faced the rear.
  • Ford's full-size wagons for 1966 took the conventional tailgate and disappearing window a step further. The rear section was made to open either downwards like a regular tailgate, or like a door, outward from the curb side. The window had to be retracted for either operation. This was called the "Magic Doorgate". For 1969, Ford made another innovation by allowing the glass to stay up when the door was opened sideways, thus creating the "Three-Way Magic Doorgate". This versatile style quickly caught on and became a fixture on full-size and intermediate wagons from GM, Ford, and Chrysler. GM, however, added a notch in the rear bumper that acted as a step plate; to fill the gap, a small portion of bumper was attached to the doorgate. When opened as a swinging door, this part of the bumper moved away, allowing the depression in the bumper to provide a "step" to ease entry; when the gate was opened by being lowered or raised to a closed position, the chrome section remained in place making the bumper "whole".
  • Full-size GM wagons (Buick, Chevrolet, Oldsmobile, and Pontiac) built between model years 1971 and 1976 brought a completely new design to market. They had a rear window that would slide upwards into the roof as the tailgate dropped down below the load floor. This was referred to as a "clamshell" arrangement. On all full-size GM wagons, the window for the clamshell door was power operated, however the gate door itself could be had in either manual on Chevrolet models or power assist in Pontiac, Oldsmobile or Buick cars. The manual style door quickly lost favor because of the effort required to lift and swing the heavy door up from its storage area; sales tapered off after the 1972 model year and electric assist all but became standard. This was the first power tailgate in station wagon history. This system was large, heavy, and complex, and was never adopted for any other car manufacturer. After that, GM reverted to the doorgate style for its full-size wagons (the February 2008 issue of Collectible Automobile magazine detailed why this setup was phased out - the 1977 GM full-size cars had to meet the DOT-revised category of 4000 GVW; the elimination of the clamshell was the first agenda on the list, and limiting the bodystyles to the station wagon, coupe, and sedan).
  • As the 1970s progressed, the need for lighter weight to meet fuel economy standards led to a simplified, one-piece liftgate on several models, particularly smaller wagons, such as is commonly seen on SUVs today. On the same principle, and quite ironically, the last generation of GM's full-size wagons returned to the upward-lifting rear window as had been used in the 1940s.
  • In recent years, the Citroën C5 wagon features an upward-lifting full-height full-width rear door, where the window on the rear door can be opened independently from the rear door itself. The window is also opened upwards and is held on gas struts. The Renault Laguna II estate chassis has a similar arrangement.
  • Early models of the Range-Rover had a hinging number plate attached to the lower part of the split rear door. When the lower part was folded down the plate hung down to remain readable. This was deleted on later models but the split tailgate remains to this day

Rambler logo, 1960s Rambler was an automobile brand name used by the Thomas B. Jeffery Company between 1900 and 1914, then by its successor, Nash Motors in 1950, and finally by Nashs successor, American Motors Corporation from 1954 to 1969. ... American Motors Corporation (AMC) was an American automobile company formed on January 14, 1954 by the merger of the Nash-Kelvinator Corporation and the Hudson Motor Car Company. ... Studebaker Corporation, or simply Studebaker, was a United States wagon and automobile manufacturer based in South Bend, Indiana. ... 1963 Studebaker Wagonaire The Studebaker Wagonaire was a station wagon produced by the Studebaker Corporation of South Bend, Indiana from 1963 to 1966. ... Body flex is a lack of rigidity in a motor vehicles chassis. ... GMC, formerly known as GMC Truck, is a brand name used on trucks, vans, and SUVs marketed in North America and the Middle East by General Motors. ... A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ... The Vista Cruiser was a station wagon built by the Oldsmobile Division of General Motors from 1964 to 1977, which was based on the Oldsmobile Cutlass/F-85 model, but had a longer full-sized car wheelbase (120-121 inches) than the intermediate sedan chassis (115-116 inches) it was... This mid-size Buick wagon was based on the Buick Skylark model and it was built from 1964 to 1972. ... “Ford” redirects here. ... Buick is a brand of automobile built in the United States, Canada, China and in Spain by General Motors Corporation. ... Chevrolet (IPA: - French origin) (colloquially Chevy) is a brand of automobile, produced by General Motors (GM). ... Oldsmobile is a brand of automobile produced for most of its existence by General Motors. ... This article is about Pontiac automobiles; for the Native American leader, see Chief Pontiac, for other uses see the Pontiac (disambiguation). ... The Citroën C5 is a large family car produced by the French manufacturer Citroën since early 2001. ... The Renault Laguna is a large family car produced by the French manufacturer Renault. ...

See also

A fourth-generation (2006-) Ford Explorer, the best-selling mid-size SUV in the United States. ... Funeral carriage, Museum of Funeral Customs For the extreme metal band, see Hearse (band) A hearse is a funeral vehicle, a conveyance for the coffin from e. ... Renault Megane hatchback, a proper hatchback which has shown huge success in Europe Peugeot 306 hatchback, with the hatch lifted and the parcel shelf tilted for access Hatchback is a term designating an automobile design, containing a passenger cabin with an integrated cargo space, accessed from behind the vehicle by... This article is about the road vehicle. ... It has been suggested that Mini MPV be merged into this article or section. ... A crossover SUV (also called CUV for Crossover Utility Vehicle) or XUV (not to be confused with GMCs Envoy XUV) is an automobile with a sport utility vehicle appearance but is built upon a more economical and fuel-efficient unibody construction. ... A 3-way tailgate is a 2 way station wagon tailgate than can be opened in the following ways: opened sideways like a door with the glass up (new feature) sideways with the glass down (you were usually required to lower the window first) downwards like a gate. ...

Sources

  • Gunnell, John, Editor (1987). The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1946-1975. Kraus Publications. ISBN 0-87341-096-3. 
  • Kimes, Beverly R., Editor. Clark, Henry A. (1996). The Standard Catalog of American Cars 1805-1945. Kraus Publications. ISBN 0-87341-428-4. 
  • Narus, Donald J. (1977). The Great American Woodies and Wagons. Crestline Publications. ISBN 0-912612-13-4. 
  • Brown, Arch (April 1997). "Natural History: The 'Woody' Station Wagon Story -- Part I". Collectible Automobile -- Volume 13 (No. 6): pp. 26-41. 

References

  1. ^ Coincidentally, this benefited furniture makers, who previously had been outbid for the best wood. Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  2. ^ Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  3. ^ .
  4. ^ Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  5. ^ Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  6. ^ Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  7. ^ Georgano, G. N. Cars: Early and Vintage, 1886-1930. (London: Grange-Universal, 1985)
  8. ^ a b Vance, Bill. "Motoring Memories: The last wood-bodied station wagons" Canadian Driver, May 19, 2006, retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  9. ^ Cawthon, Bill. Jeep: From Station Wagon to Superstar May 15, 2002, retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  10. ^ "1945-1952 Jeep: Willys Postwar Jeep" by the Editors of Publications International, Ltd. Undated, retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  11. ^ "Postwar Station Wagons: Mom's Car Makes a Comeback" VMR International, Inc., 1999, retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  12. ^ Schuon, Marshall. "About Cars; Chewing Over the Art Of Automotive Design" The New York Times, June 21, 1992, retrieved on 2008-05-20.
  13. ^ "Postwar Station Wagons: Mom's Car Makes a Comeback" VMR International, Inc., 1999, retrieved on April 15, 2008.

For the UK band, see Furniture (band). ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 140th day of the year (141st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 105th day of the year (106th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2008 (MMVIII) is the current year, a leap year that started on Tuesday of the Anno Domini (or common era), in accordance with the Gregorian calendar. ...

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