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Encyclopedia > Static electricity

Static electricity is a class of phenomena involving the net charge present on an object; typically referring to charged object with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction, repulsion, and sparks. A phenomenon (plural: phenomena) is an observable event, especially something special (literally something that can be seen from the Greek word phainomenon = observable). ... Electric charge is a fundamental conserved property of some subatomic particles, which determines their electromagnetic interactions. ... The difference between high voltage and low voltage depends on the situation and on the field of science or industry involved. ... Look up Spark on Wiktionary, the free dictionary The word spark has several meanings: In electricity, spark usually refers to a momentary electrostatic discharge across a spark gap. ...

## Contents

Static electricity

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. == == == Static electricity is a class of phenomena involving the net charge present on an object; typically referring to charged object with voltages of sufficient magnitude to produce visible attraction, repulsion, and sparks.

## Generation

The presence of surface charge imbalance means that the objects will exhibit attractive or repulsive forces. This surface charge imbalance, which leads to static electricity, can be generated by touching two differing surfaces together and then separating them due to the phenomena of contact electrification and the triboelectric effect. Rubbing two non-conductive objects generates a great amount of static electricity. This is not just the result of friction; two non-conductive surfaces can become charged by just being placed one on top of the other. Since most surfaces have a rough texture, it take longer to achieve charging through contact than through rubbing. Rubbing objects together increases amount of adhesive contact between the two surfaces. Usually insulators, e.g., substances that do not conduct electricity, are good at both generating, and holding, a surface charge. Some examples of these substances are rubber, plastic, glass, and pith. Conductive objects only rarely generate charge imbalance except, for example, when a metal surface is impacted by solid or liquid nonconductors. The charge that is transferred during contact electrification is stored on the surface of each object. Static electric generators, devices which produce very high voltage at very low current (such as the Van de Graaf generator or Wimshurst machine) and used for classroom physics demonstrations, rely on this effect. Surface charge is the electric charge present on an interface, for instance on the surface of a semiconductor material. ... In the late-18th century, scientists developed sensitive instruments for detecting electrification, otherwise known as electrostatic charge imbalance. ... The triboelectric effect is an electrical phenomenon where certain materials become electrically charged after coming into contact with another, different, material. ... Insulators are materials which prevent the flow of heat (thermal insulators) or electric charge (electrical insulators). ... Rubber is an elastic hydrocarbon polymer which occurs as a milky emulsion (known as latex) in the sap of a number of plants but can also be produced synthetically. ... Plastic is a term that covers a range of synthetic or semisynthetic polymerization products. ... The materials definition of a glass is a uniform amorphous solid material, usually produced when a suitably viscous molten material cools very rapidly, thereby not giving enough time for a regular crystal lattice to form. ... The centre dark spot (about 1 mm diameter) in this yew wood is the pith Pith is a light substance that is found in vascular plants. ... It has been suggested that Conductor (power engineering) be merged into this article or section. ... An electrostatic generator is a mechanical device which produces a high voltage electrical output at very low current. ... A Van de Graaff generator For the band with a similar name, see Van der Graaf Generator. ... The Wimshurst machine is an historical electrostatic machine for generating high voltages, and was developed by British inventor James Wimshurst (1832 - 1903). ...

Note that the presence of electric current does not detract from the electrostatic forces nor from the sparking, from the corona discharge, or other phenomena. Both phenomena can exist simultaneously in the same system. The word current usually implies a flow or movement. ... In electricity, a corona discharge is an electrical discharge brought on by the ionization of a fluid surrounding a conductor, which occurs when the potential gradient exceeds a certain value, in situations where sparking is not favoured. ...

Effects

Natural electrostatic phenomena are most familiar as an occasional annoyance in seasons of low humidity, but can be destructive and harmful in some situations (e.g. electronics manufacturing.) When working in direct contact with integrated circuit electronics (especially delicate MOSFETs), or in the presence of flammable gas, care must be taken to avoid accumulating and discharging a static charge.

Static is a serious nuisance in the processing of analog recording media, because it can attract dust to sensitive materials. In the case of photography, dust accumulating on lenses and photographic plates degrades the resulting picture. Dust also permanently damages vinyl records because it can be embedded into the grooves as the stylus passes over. In both cases, several approaches exist to combat such dust deposition. Some brushes, particularly those with carbon fiber bristles, are advertised as possessing anti-static properties. Also available are handheld static guns which shoot streams of ions to discharge static on records and lenses.

## Effects

Natural electrostatic phenomena are most familiar as an occasional annoyance in seasons of low humidity, but can be destructive and harmful in some situations (e.g. electronics manufacturing.) When working in direct contact with integrated circuit electronics (especially delicate MOSFETs), or in the presence of flammable gas, care must be taken to avoid accumulating and discharging a static charge. Optical Microscope image of an integrated circuit showing defects in the aluminium layer deposition. ... The MOSFET, or Metal-Oxide-Semiconductor Field-Effect Transistor, is by far the most common field effect transistor in both digital and analog circuits. ... An electrostatic discharge (ESD) is an electric current driven by the excess electric charge stored on an insulating object. ...

Static is a serious nuisance in the processing of analog recording media, because it can attract dust to sensitive materials. In the case of photography, dust accumulating on lenses and photographic plates degrades the resulting picture. Dust also permanently damages vinyl records because it can be embedded into the grooves as the stylus passes over. In both cases, several approaches exist to combat such dust deposition. Some brushes, particularly those with carbon fiber bristles, are advertised as possessing anti-static properties. Also available are handheld static guns which shoot streams of ions to discharge static on records and lenses. For the fictional fundamental particle in Philip Pullmans His Dark Materials, see Dust (His Dark Materials). ... Lens and mounting of a large format camera Photography is the process of making pictures by means of the action of light. ... A lens is: a part of the eye an optical device that may be used in a camera or in a telescope; see lens (optics). ... A vinyl is an organic molecule containing a vinyl group: H R / C = C / H H where R represents a functional group such as a hydrocarbon or halogen. ... Styli used in writing in the Fourteenth Century. ... Carbon fiber composite is a strong, light and very expensive material. ... An ion is an atom or group of atoms with a net electric charge. ...

Electronics

Natural The Wimshurst machine is an historical electrostatic machine for generating high voltages, and was developed by British inventor James Wimshurst (1832 - 1903). ... Van de Graaff generator A Van de Graaff generator is a machine which uses a moving belt to accumulate very high charges on a hollow metal globe. ... The first photoconductive copy was made October 22, 1938 by Chester Carlson in the state of New York. ... This is a list of communications, computers, electronic circuits, fiberoptics, microelectronics, medical electronics, reliablity, and semiconductors. ...

Historical The triboelectric effect is an electrical phenomenon where certain materials become electrically charged after coming into contact with another, different, material. ... Bioelectromagnetism (sometimes equated with bioelectricity) refers to the static voltage of biological cells and to the electric currents that flow in living tissues, such as nerves and muscles, as a result of action potentials. ... The centre dark spot (about 1 mm diameter) in this yew wood is the pith Pith is a light substance that is found in vascular plants. ... Cumulonimbus cloud in central Oklahoma. ... Relative humidity is the ratio of the current vapor pressure of water in any gas (especially air) to the equilibrium vapor pressure, at which the gas is called saturated at the current temperature, expressed as a percentage. ... Lightning over Pentagon City in Arlington County, Virginia Cloud to cloud lightning Lightning is a powerful natural electrostatic discharge produced during a thunderstorm. ... Dissolving table salt in water In chemistry, a solution is a homogeneous mixture of one or more substances (the solutes) dissolved in another substance (the solvent). ... Electrical phenomena are commonplace and unusual events that can be observed which illuminate the principles of the physics of electricity and are explained by them. ...

Other Luigi Galvani Luigi Galvani (September 9, 1737–December 4, 1798) was an Italian physician and physicist who lived and died in Bologna. ... Sir Thomas Brownes vast work refuting the common errors and superstitions of his age, Pseudodoxia Epidemica, first appeared in 1646 and went through five editions, the last revision occurring in 1672. ...

Static has several definitions: Used in everyday speech as shorthand for static electricity, or as a slang term for hardheadedness (as in Dont give me static). In consumer electronics, static is a synonym for white noise. ...

Results from FactBites:

 Static Electricity Static Control explanation and techniques to control the phenomenon of static electricity and how ... (1801 words) Static electricity in the atmosphere remains at rest until the potential gradient, between clouds, reaches a level that causes the insulator between clouds, in this case air, to break down or fail, and lightning is created to equalize the potential gradient. Static electricity is generated by unbalancing the molecular construction of relatively non-conductive insulators such as plastics and paper. If the static charge is negative in polarity, the electrostatic field is negative and positive ions are generated via the grounded sharp ends of the induction device and the positive ions are attracted back to the static laden surface.
 Electrostatics - Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia (1539 words) The electric field (in units of volts per meter) is defined as the force (in newtons) per unit charge (in coulombs). Static electric generators, devices which produce very high voltage at very low current and used for classroom physics demonstrations, rely on this effect. Note that the charges associated with static electricity need not be still or "static." The presence of charge motions and electric current does not detract from the net charge, the electrostatic forces, nor from the sparking and corona discharge, or other phenomena.
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