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Encyclopedia > States of Germany

Germany is a Federal Republic made up of 16 States, known in German as Länder (singular Land). Since Land is the German word for "country", the term Bundesländer (federal states; singular Bundesland) is commonly used colloquially as it is more specific, though technically incorrect within the corpus of German law. A map displaying todays federations. ... The term state may refer to: a sovereign political entity, see state unitary state nation state a non-sovereign political entity, see state (non-sovereign). ... Bundesland (plural Bundesländer), also known as Land (plural Länder) is the German language name for the federal states of Austria and Germany. ... For other uses, see Law (disambiguation). ...


The cities of Berlin and Hamburg are states in their own right, termed Stadtstaaten (city states), while Bremen consists of two urban districts. The remaining 13 states are termed Flächenländer (area states). This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city, usually having sovereignty. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... This is a list of urban districts in Germany. ...

Image File history File links Size of this preview: 444 × 599 pixel Image in higher resolution (594 × 802 pixel, file size: 67 KB, MIME type: image/png) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): States of Germany...

Mecklenburg-Vorpommern
Hesse
Baden-Württemberg

Contents

Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Lower_Saxony. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Image File history File links Bremen_Wappen(Mittel). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Hamburg. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Mecklenburg-Western_Pomerania_(great). ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ... Image File history File links Wappen_Sachsen-Anhalt. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Saxony. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Image File history File links Brandenburg_Wappen. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Thuringia. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Hesse. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_North_Rhine-Westfalia. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Schleswig-Holstein. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ...

States

After the end of the Second World War, the Länder in the western part of the former Deutsches Reich were constituted as administrative areas first and subsequently federated into the Bund or Federal Republic of Germany. This is in contrast to post-war development in Austria, where the Bund was constituted first, and then the individual states were created as units of a federal system. In Austria, the states are also referred to as Länder in the constitution. Mushroom cloud from the nuclear explosion over Nagasaki rising 18 km into the air. ... Deutsches Reich was the official name for Germany from 1871 to 1945 in the German language. ... This article or section does not cite any references or sources. ...


The use of the term Länder (countries) instead of Staaten (states) is in accordance with German political tradition, where the concept of Germany as an entity has always existed, either as a confederation or an alliance of several smaller independent kingdoms and duchies dating from the 9th century. Many of the current Länder have the same names and generally occupy the same areas as their namesakes, the former sovereign countries (for example Bavaria and Saxony).


Overview

Coat of arms Land Joined
the federation
Head of government Government-
coalition
Votes in
Bundesrat
Area (km²) Inhabitants
(Mio)
Inhabitants
per km²
Capital
Baden-Württemberg 1949[1] Günther Oettinger (CDU) CDU/FDP 6 35,752 10,739 300 Stuttgart
Bayern 1949 Edmund Stoiber (CSU) CSU 6 70,552 12,488 177 Munich
Berlin 1990[2] Klaus Wowereit (SPD) SPD/Linke 4 892 3,395 3,807
Brandenburg 1990 Matthias Platzeck (SPD) SPD/CDU 4 29,479 2,559 87 Potsdam
Bremen 1949 Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) SPD/Grüne 3 404 0,663 1,641
Hamburg 1949 Ole von Beust (CDU) CDU 3 755 1,774 2,309
Hessen 1949 Roland Koch (CDU) CDU 5 21,115 6,075 289 Wiesbaden
Mecklenburg-
Vorpommern
1990 Harald Ringstorff (SPD) SPD/CDU 3 23,180 1,707 74 Schwerin
Niedersachsen 1949 Christian Wulff (CDU) CDU/FDP 6 47,624 7,997 168 Hannover
Nordrhein-Westfalen 1949 Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) CDU/FDP 6 34,085 18,029 530 Düsseldorf
Rheinland-Pfalz 1949 Kurt Beck (SPD) SPD 4 19,853 4,053 204 Mainz
Saarland 1957 Peter Müller (CDU) CDU 3 2,569 1,050 409 Saarbrücken
Sachsen 1990 Georg Milbradt (CDU) CDU/SPD 4 18,416 4,250 232 Dresden
Sachsen-Anhalt 1990 Wolfgang Böhmer (CDU) CDU/SPD 4 20,446 2,470 121 Magdeburg
Schleswig-Holstein 1949 Peter Harry Carstensen (CDU) CDU/SPD 4 15,799 2,833 179 Kiel
Thüringen 1990 Dieter Althaus (CDU) CDU 4 16,172 2,335 144 Erfurt

The Bundesrat, German for Federal Council, is a political institution in several countries: Bundesrat of Austria (legislative) Bundesrat of Germany (legislative) Bundesrat of Switzerland: the Swiss Federal Council (executive) This is a disambiguation page — a list of articles associated with the same title. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300... Günther Oettinger (born October 15, 1953 in Stuttgart) is a German politician from the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). ... The Christian Democratic Union (CDU - Christlich-Demokratische Union) is a political party in Germany. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... , City Center seen from Weinsteige Road Castle Solitude The 1956 TV Tower The Weissenhof Estate in 1927 Stuttgart (IPA: []) is the capital of the state of Baden-Württemberg in southern Germany. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Geography Bavaria shares international borders with Austria and the Czech Republic. ... Edmund Stoiber in Würzburg Edmund Stoiber [IPA: ˈɛtmÊŠnt ˈʃtɔʏbɐ] (born September 28, 1941) is a German politician, currently minister-president of the state of Bavaria and chairman of the Christian Social Union (CSU). ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... For other uses, see Munich (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Klaus Wowereit Klaus Wowereit (born October 1, 1953 in Berlin) is a German politician, member of the SPD (Social Democratic Party), and mayor of Berlin since the 2001 state elections. ... The Social Democratic Party of Germany (SPD – Sozialdemokratische Partei Deutschlands) is the second oldest political party of Germany still in existence and also one of the oldest and largest in the world, celebrating its 140th anniversary in 2003. ... The Left Party (In German: , officially with a period at the end), formerly Party of Democratic Socialism (Partei des Demokratischen Sozialismus, PDS) is a left-wing socialist political party in Germany. ... Image File history File links Brandenburg_Wappen. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Matthias Platzeck, born 29 December 1953 in Potsdam, is a German politician. ... Potsdam is the capital city of the federal state of Brandenburg in Germany. ... Image File history File links Bremen_Wappen(Mittel). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Jens Böhrnsen (born June 12, 1949 in Bremen) is a German politician of the SPD. He is the current mayor of Bremen. ... Party symbol of Bündnis 90/Die Grünen Bündnis 90/Die Grünen (literally: Alliance 90/The Greens), the German Green Party, is a political party in Germany whose regional predecessors were founded in the late 1970s as part of the new social movements. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Hamburg. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Carl-Friedrich Arp Freiherr von Beust, generally called Ole von Beust, born April 13, 1955 in Hamburg, Germany, Mayor of the city-state (Bundesland) of Hamburg since 2001. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Hesse. ... Hesse is also the name of the German writer Hermann Hesse, as well as the German mathematician Otto Hesse. ... Roland Koch Roland Koch (born March 24, 1958 in Frankfurt am Main) is a German politician. ... Wiesbaden is a city in central Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Mecklenburg-Western_Pomerania_(great). ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a Bundesland (federal state) in northern Germany. ... Dr. Harald Ringstorff (born September 25, 1939 in Wittenburg) is a German politician of the Social Democratic Party (SPD) and minister-president of the federal state of Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania. ... Schwerin is a town in northern Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Lower_Saxony. ... With an area of 47,618 km² and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Christian Wulff, Premier of Lower Saxony Christian Wulff (born June 19, 1959 in Osnabrück) is a German politician (CDU) and Premier(Ministerpräsident) of Lower Saxony since March 4, 2003. ... Map of Germany showing Hanover Hanover (in German: Hannover [haˈnoːfɐ]), on the river Leine, is the capital of the state of Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen), Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_North_Rhine-Westfalia. ... With eighteen million inhabitants inhabiting 34,080 km² in western-northwestern Germany, North Rhine-Westphalia (German Nordrhein-Westfalen) is largest in population though only fourth in area among Germanys sixteen federal states. ... Jürgen Rüttgers (born June 26, 1951 in Cologne) is a German Politician (CDU) and Minister President of North Rhine-Westphalia, widely known for his views on immigration and the famous phrase Kinder statt Inder (children instead of Indians) which was a media interpretation of Statt Inder an die... The title of this article contains the character ü. Where it is unavailable or not desired, the name may be represented as Duesseldorf. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Rhineland-Palatinate (German Rheinland-Pfalz) is one of 16 Bundesländer of Germany. ... Kurt Beck, 2004 Kurt Beck (* 1949 in Bad Bergzabern) is a German politician and since 1994 the prime minister of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz). ... Mainz is a city in Germany and the capital of the German federal state of Rhineland-Palatinate. ... Image File history File links No higher resolution available. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Peter Müller Peter Aloysius Müller (born September 25, 1955 in Illingen, Germany) is a German politician belonging to the Christian Democratic Union (CDU). ... Saarbrücken [] is the capital of the Saarland Bundesland in Germany. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Saxony. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DED Capital Dresden Minister-President Georg Milbradt (CDU) Governing parties CDU / SPD Votes in Bundesrat 4 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  18,416 km² (7,110 sq mi) Population 4,252,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 231 /km... Georg Milbradt (born 23 February 1945 in Eslohe) is a German politician (CDU). ... Dresden (Sorbian: Drježdźany; etymologically from Old Sorbian Drežďany, meaning people of the riverside forest, Czech: ) is the capital city of the German Federal Free State of Saxony. ... Image File history File links Wappen_Sachsen-Anhalt. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... Prof. ... This article is about the German city. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Schleswig-Holstein. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... This page is a candidate for speedy deletion. ... , For the city in the United States, see Kiel, Wisconsin. ... Image File history File links Coat_of_arms_of_Thuringia. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Dieter Althaus (born in Heiligenstadt, Thuringia, on June 29, 1958) is a German politician (CDU). ... The cathedral Mariendom at night. ...

History

During the initial occupation of Germany after World War II, the territory in each Occupation Zone was re-organized into new Länder to prevent any one Land from ever dominating Germany (as Prussia had done). Initially, only 7 of the pre-War Länder survived: Bavaria, Bremen, Hamburg, Baden, Saarland, Saxony, and Thuringia. The rest were amalgamations of Prussian provinces and smaller Länder. For example, the Prussian Province of Saxony and the Land of Anhalt were merged to create Saxony-Anhalt.


Initially, in 1949, West Germany had eleven states, which were reduced to nine in 1952 as three south-western states (Baden, Württemberg-Hohenzollern and Württemberg-Baden) merged to form Baden-Württemberg. Since 1957, when the French-occupied Saarland was allowed to join (the "small reunification"), the Federal Republic consisted of ten states. West Berlin was in many ways integrated with West Germany, but due to its special status de jure under the sovereignty of the Western Allies, did not officially constitute a Land or part of one. Flag Baden (bright blue) as taken from the French-administered zone of post-war Germany (pale blue) Capital Freiburg Historical era post-World War II  - Established 1945  - State of West Germany 23 May 1949  - Disestablished 25 April, 1952 The state of Baden, named South Baden (German: ) until 2 December 1946... Württemberg-Hohenzollern is a historical state of West Germany. ... Württemberg-Baden is a former state of West Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Look up De jure in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ...


In East Germany, originally five Länder (Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania, Brandenburg, Saxony-Anhalt, Thuringia and Saxony) existed, until 1952, when the GDR divided them into 14 administrative districts (Bezirke). Soviet-controlled East Berlin, despite officially having the same status as West Berlin, was declared capital of the GDR, as a (15th) district. Anthem Auferstanden aus Ruinen Capital East Berlin Language(s) German Government Socialist republic Head of State  - 1949 – 1960 Wilhelm Pieck  - 1960 – 1973 Walter Ulbricht  - 1973 – 1976 Willi Stoph  - 1976 – 1989 Erich Honecker  - 1989 Egon Krenz  - 1989 - 1990 Manfred Gerlach Head of Government  - 1949 – 1964 Otto Grotewohl  - 1964 – 1973 Willi Stoph...


Just prior to the German reunification on 3 October 1990, 14 of the East German districts (not including East Berlin) reconstituted themselves, mainly along the old borders, into the five New Länder. The former district of East Berlin joined West Berlin to form the new Land of Berlin. Thus the 10 old states plus 5 new states plus Berlin add up to 16. German reunification (German: ) took place on October 3, 1990, when the areas of the former German Democratic Republic (GDR, in English commonly called East Germany) were incorporated into the Federal Republic of Germany (FRG, in English commonly called West Germany). The start of this reunification process is commonly referred to... is the 276th day of the year (277th in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 1990 (MCMXC) was a common year starting on Monday (link displays the 1990 Gregorian calendar). ... The New Länder (German: Neue Länder) are collectively the states (Länder) of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) that joined the Federal Republic of Germany upon German reunification in 1990. ... East Berlin was the name given to the eastern part of Berlin between 1949 and 1990. ...


Later, the Grundgesetz was changed to state that the citizens of the 16 states had successfully achieved unity in freedom, and that the basic law now covers all German people. Article 23, which had allowed "other parts of Germany" to join, was abolished as its continued inclusion might have been regarded as an invitation for other German-speaking states and areas to join (e.g. Austria, South Tyrol, Liechtenstein, the Swiss cantons, Alsace, Luxembourg, and Eastern Belgium). The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ...


Unlike other federations, the German States retain the right to act on their own behalf at an international level. They retain the status of subjects of international law, independently from their status as members of a federation. This unique status is enshrined in Articles 23, 24, and 32 of the Basic Law.

the 16 Bundesländer (States) of Germany
the 16 Bundesländer (States) of Germany

The 16 Länder, by reference to the numbers on the map above, are: Image File history File links Karte_Deutsche_Bundesländer_(nummeriert). ... Image File history File links Karte_Deutsche_Bundesländer_(nummeriert). ...

  1. Baden-Württemberg
  2. Free State of Bavaria (Freistaat Bayern)
  3. Berlin
  4. Brandenburg
  5. Free Hanseatic City of Bremen (Freie Hansestadt Bremen)
  6. Free and Hanseatic City of Hamburg (Freie und Hansestadt Hamburg)
  7. Hesse (Hessen)
  8. Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (Mecklenburg-Vorpommern)
  9. Lower Saxony (Niedersachsen)
  10. North Rhine-Westphalia (Nordrhein-Westfalen)
  11. Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz)
  12. Saarland
  13. Free State of Saxony (Freistaat Sachsen)
  14. Saxony-Anhalt (Sachsen-Anhalt)
  15. Schleswig-Holstein
  16. Free State of Thuringia (Freistaat Thüringen)

The description free state (Freistaat) is merely used for historical reasons. Legally a Freistaat is no different from the other states. The usual official name is Land of [...]. Each Land is represented at the federal level in the Bundesrat ("Federal Council"). Image File history File links Flag_of_Baden-Württemberg. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bavaria_(lozengy). ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Berlin. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Brandenburg. ...   (Lower Sorbian: Bramborska; Upper Sorbian: Braniborska) is one of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Bremen. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hamburg. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Hesse. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... Image File history File links Flag_of_Mecklenburg-Western_Pomerania. ... Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania (German: Mecklenburg-Vorpommern) is a state in northern Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Lower_Saxony. ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Image File history File links Flag_of_North_Rhine-Westphalia. ... Coat of arms Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEA Capital Düsseldorf Prime Minister Jürgen Rüttgers (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  34,084 km² (13,160 sq mi) Population 18,033,000... Image File history File links Flag_of_Rhineland-Palatinate. ... The Rhenish Palatinate (Rheinpfalz, sometimes Lower Palatinate or Niederpfalz) occupies rather more than a quarter of the German Bundesland (federal state) of Rhineland-Palatinate (Rheinland-Pfalz) and contains the towns of Ludwigshafen, Kaiserslautern, Neustadt an der Weinstrasse, Pirmasens, Landau and Speyer. ... Wikipedia does not have an article with this exact name. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DEC Capital Saarbrücken Minister-President Peter Müller (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  2,569 km² (992 sq mi) Population 1,044,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 406 /km... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saxony. ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) has a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Saxony-Anhalt. ... With an area of 20,447 km² and a population of 2. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Schleswig-Holstein. ... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Image File history File links Flag_of_Thuringia. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ... Free state is a term occasionally used in the official titles of some states. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Germany at the federal level. ...


Structure of government

The Länder of the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest
The Länder of the Weimar Republic, with the Free State of Prussia (Freistaat Preußen) as the largest
The Provinces of the Kingdom of Prussia (green) within the German Empire (1871-1918)

The Basic Law of the Federal Republic of Germany, the federal constitution, stipulates that the structure of each Federal State's government must "conform to the principles of republican, democratic, and social government, based on the rule of law" (Article 28[1]). Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x762, 99 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:nl. ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (945x762, 99 KB) La bildo estas kopiita de wikipedia:nl. ... Anthem Das Lied der Deutschen Germany during the Weimar period, with the Free State of Prussia (in blue) as the largest state Capital Berlin Language(s) German Government Republic President  - 1918-1925 Friedrich Ebert  - 1925-1933 Paul von Hindenburg Chancellor  - 1919 Philipp Scheidemann(first)  - 1933 Kurt von Schleicher (last) Legislature... For other uses, see Prussia (disambiguation). ... Adams Prussia map with proper spelling of Königsberg and Württemberg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Adams Prussia map with proper spelling of Königsberg and Württemberg File history Legend: (cur) = this is the current file, (del) = delete this old version, (rev) = revert to this old version. ... Anthem Preußenlied, Heil dir im Siegerkranz (both unofficial) The Kingdom of Prussia at its greatest extent, at the time of the formation of the German Empire, 1871 Capital Berlin Government Monarchy King  - 1701 — 1713 Frederick I (first)  - 1888 — 1918 William II (last) Prime minister  - 1848 Adolf Heinrich von Arnim... For German colonial territories, see German Colonial Empire. ... The Basic Law for the Federal Republic of Germany (German: Grundgesetz für die Bundesrepublik Deutschland) is the constitution of modern Germany. ... A map displaying todays federations. ...


Most of the Länder are governed by a cabinet led by a Ministerpräsident (Minister-President), together with a unicameral legislative body known as the Landtag (State Diet). The relationship between the legislative and executive branches mirrors that of the federal system: the legislatures are popularly elected for four or five years (depending on the state), and the Minister-President is then chosen by a majority vote among the Landtag's members. The Minister-President appoints a cabinet to run the Land's agencies and to carry out the executive duties of the Land's government. The governments in Berlin, Bremen and Hamburg are designated by the term Senate. In the three free states of Bavaria, Saxony and Thuringia the government is referred to as the State Government (Staatsregierung), and in the other ten Länder the term Land Government (Landesregierung) is used. A cabinet is a body of high-ranking members of government, typically representing the executive branch. ... A minister-president (Ministerpräsident) is the head of government of a German federal state; the office corresponds to the governorship of a state in the United States. ... Unicameralism is the practice of having only one legislative or parliamentary chamber. ... A legislature is a type of representative deliberative assembly with the power to adopt laws. ... A Landtag (Diet) is a representative assembly or parliament in German speaking countries with some legislative authority. ... In politics, a Diet is a formal deliberative assembly. ... Majoritarianism (often also called majority rule) is a political philosophy or agenda which asserts that a majority (sometimes categorized by religion, language or some other identifying factor) of the population is entitled to a certain degree of primacy in society, and has the right to make decisions that affect the... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... This article is about the city in Germany. ... The seat of Roman Senate in the Roman Forum, Rome A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Free state is a term occasionally used in the official titles of some states. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... The Free State of Saxony (German: Freistaat Sachsen; Sorbian: Swobodny Stat Sakska) has a land area of 18,413 km² and a population of 4. ... The Free State of Thuringia (German: Freistaat Thüringen) is located in central Germany and is considered one of the smaller of Germanys sixteen Bundesländer (federal states), with an area of 16,200 km² and 2. ...


Before January 1, 2000, Bavaria had a bicameral parliament, with a popularly elected Landtag, and an appointed Senate made up of representatives of the state's major social and economic groups. The Senate was abolished following a referendum in 1998. is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... The Landtag of Bavaria is Bavarias unicameral legislature. ... The seat of Roman Senate in the Roman Forum, Rome A senate is a deliberative body, often the upper house or chamber of a legislature. ... Elections Part of the Politics series Politics Portal This box:      A referendum (plural: referendums or referenda) or plebiscite (from Latin plebiscita, originally a decree of the Concilium Plebis) is a direct vote in which an entire electorate is asked to either accept or reject a particular proposal. ...


The Länder of Berlin, Bremen, and Hamburg are governed slightly differently from the other states. In each of these cities, the executive branch consists of a Senate of approximately eight selected by the Land's parliament; the senators carry out duties equivalent to those of the ministers in the larger Länder. The equivalent of the Minister-President is the Senatspräsident (President of the Senate) in Bremen, the Erster Bürgermeister (First Mayor) in Hamburg, and the Regierender Bürgermeister (Governing Mayor) in Berlin. The parliament for Berlin is called the Abgeordnetenhaus (House of Representatives), while Bremen and Hamburg both have a Bürgerschaft. The parliaments in the remaining 13 Länder are referred to as Landtag (State Parliament).


Politics

Politics at the state level often carries implications for federal politics. Opposition victories in elections for State Parliaments, which take place throughout the federal government's four-year term, can weaken the federal government, because state governments have assigned seats in the "Bundesrat" (the upper chamber of the federal parliament), which must also approve many laws after passage by the "Bundestag" (the lower chamber of the federal parliament). State elections are viewed as a barometer of support for the policies of the federal government. If the parties of the governing coalition lose support in successive Land elections, those results may foreshadow political difficulties for the federal government. In the early 1990s, the opposition SPD commanded a two-thirds majority in the Bundesrat, making it particularly difficult for the governing CDU/CSU-FDP coalition to achieve the constitutional changes it sought; by 2003 the situation was the reverse, with an SPD-led government being severely hindered by a large CDU majority in the Bundesrat. This led to Konrad Adenauer and Gerhard Schröder losing the federal chancellorship in 1963 and 2005 respectively because their governments became unable to decisively act, thus losing popular support, all because of the efforts of the various state leaders in the Bundesrat in blocking legislation. The Politics series Politics Portal This box:      Politics is the process by which groups of people make decisions. ... The Bundesrat (federal council) is the representation of the 16 Federal States (Länder) of Germany at the federal level. ... Type Lower house President of the Bundestag Dr. Norbert Lammert, CDU since October 18, 2005 Members 614 Political groups (as of September 18, 2005 elections) Christian Democratic Union/Christian Social Union of Bavaria Bloc (226), Social Democratic Party of Germany (222), Free Democratic Party (61), The Left Party. ... SPD redirects here. ... The Christian Democratic Union of Germany (CDU — Christlich Demokratische Union Deutschlands) is the second largest political party in Germany. ... The Christian Social Union of Bavaria ( ) is a Christian democratic political party in Germany. ... Categories: Politics stubs | Liberal related stubs | German political parties | Liberal parties ... For other uses, see Konrad Adenauer (disambiguation). ...   [] (born April 7, 1944), German politician, was Chancellor of Germany from 1998 to 2005. ... The head of government of Germany is called Chancellor (German: Kanzler). ...


The powers of the state governments and legislatures in their own territories have been much diminished in recent decades due to ever-increasing federal legislation. A commission has been formed to examine the possibility of instituting a clearer separation of federal and state powers. The states, in particular, are responsible for cultural development, law enforcement and the educational system in its entirety (both primary and secondary schools, and the universities as well).


Further subdivisions

The city-states of Berlin and Hamburg are subdivided into boroughs. The state of Bremen consists of two urban districts, Bremen and Bremerhaven, which are not contiguous. In the other Länder there are the following subdivisions: Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1264x632, 38 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): States of Germany ... Image File history File links Download high resolution version (1264x632, 38 KB) File links The following pages on the English Wikipedia link to this file (pages on other projects are not listed): States of Germany ... A city-state is a region controlled exclusively by a city. ... Look up Borough in Wiktionary, the free dictionary. ... This is a list of urban districts in Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Bremerhaven is a city in the federal state of Bremen, Germany. ...


Landschaftsverbände

Landschaftsverbände ("area associations"): The most populous state of North Rhine-Westphalia is uniquely divided into two Landschaftsverbände, one for the Rhineland, one for Westphalia-Lippe. This was meant to ease the friction caused by uniting the two culturally quite different regions into a single Land after World War II. The Landschaftsverbände retain very little power today. The Rhineland (Rheinland in German) is the general name for the land on both sides of the river Rhine in the west of Germany. ... Westphalia (German: Westfalen) is a region in Germany, centred on the cities of Bielefeld, Dortmund, Gelsenkirchen, Münster, and Osnabrück and included in the states of North Rhine-Westphalia and Lower Saxony. ... This article is about the district Lippe. ... Combatants Allied powers: China France Great Britain Soviet Union United States and others Axis powers: Germany Italy Japan and others Commanders Chiang Kai-shek Charles de Gaulle Winston Churchill Joseph Stalin Franklin Roosevelt Adolf Hitler Benito Mussolini Hideki Tōjō Casualties Military dead: 17,000,000 Civilian dead: 33,000...


Regierungsbezirke

Regierungsbezirke ("governmental districts"): The large states of Baden-Württemberg, Bavaria, Hesse, North Rhine-Westphalia and Saxony are divided into administrative regions, or Regierungsbezirke. In Rhineland-Palatinate, the Regierungsbezirke were dissolved on January 1, 2000, in Saxony-Anhalt on January 1, 2004 and in Lower Saxony on January 1, 2005. A Regierungsbezirk is an government region of Germany, a subdivision of certain federal states (Bundesländer). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2000 (MM) was a leap year starting on Saturday (link will display full 2000 Gregorian calendar). ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2004 (MMIV) was a leap year starting on Thursday of the Gregorian calendar. ... is the 1st day of the year in the Gregorian calendar. ... Year 2005 (MMV) was a common year starting on Saturday (link displays full calendar) of the Gregorian calendar. ...


Kreise

Kreise (administrative districts): Every state (except the city states Berlin, Hamburg and Bremen) consists of rural districts, Landkreise, and urban districts, Stadtkreise (also: Kreisfreie Städte), cities which are districts in their own right. The state of Bremen consists of two urban districts, while Berlin and Hamburg are states and urban districts at the same time. There are 439 German districts (Kreise), administrative units in Germany. ... This article is about the capital of Germany. ... This article is about the city in Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000... Germany is divided into 439 administrative districts; these consist of 323 rural districts (Landkreise), listed fully here, and 116 urban districts (Kreisfreie Städte / Stadtkreise) - cities which constitute a district in their own right (see List of German urban districts). ... This is a list of urban districts in Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE5 State subdivisions 2 urban districts Capital Bremen Senate President Jens Böhrnsen (SPD) Governing parties SPD / Alliance 90/The Greens Votes in Bundesrat 3 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  408 km² (158 sq mi) Population 664,000...


There are 313 Landkreise and 116 Kreisfreie Städte, making 439 districts all together. Each consists of an elected council and an executive, who is chosen by either the council or the people, depending on the Bundesland, and whose duties are comparable to those of a county executive in the United States, supervising local government administration. The Landkreise have primary administrative functions in specific areas, such as highways, hospitals, and public utilities.


Ämter

Ämter ("offices"): In some states there is an administrative unit between districts and municipalities. These units are called Ämter (singular Amt), Amtsgemeinden, Landgemeinden, Verbandsgemeinden, Verwaltungsgemeinschaften or Kirchspiellandgemeinden. An Amt (plural Ämter) is an administrative unit, which is unique to the German Bundesländer (federal states) of Schleswig-Holstein, Mecklenburg-Western Pomerania and Brandenburg. ...


Gemeinden

Gemeinden ("municipalities"): Every rural district and every Amt is subdivided into municipalities, while every urban district is a municipality in its own right. There are (as of 1 March 2006) 12,320 municipalities, which are the smallest administrative units in Germany. Cities are municipalities as well, which have city rights (Stadtrecht). Nowadays, this is mostly just the right to be called a city. However, in older times it included many privileges, such as the right to impose its own taxes or to allow industry only within city limits. A municipality is an administrative entity composed of a clearly defined territory and its population and commonly referring to a city, town, or village, or a small grouping of them. ... is the 60th day of the year (61st in leap years) in the Gregorian calendar. ... 2006 is a common year starting on Sunday of the Gregorian calendar. ... Town privileges were important features of European towns during most of the second millennium. ...


Gemeinden are ruled by elected councils and an executive, the mayor, who is chosen by either the council or the people, depending on the Bundesland. The "constitution" for the Gemeinden is created by the Länder and is uniform throughout a Bundesland (except for Bremen, which allows Bremerhaven to have its own constitution).


Gemeinden have two major policy responsibilities. First, they administer programs authorized by the federal or Land government. Such programs typically might relate to youth, schools, public health, and social assistance. Second, Article 28(2) of the Basic Law guarantees Gemeinden "the right to regulate on their own responsibility all the affairs of the local community within the limits set by law." Under this broad statement of competence, local governments can justify a wide range of activities. For instance, many municipalities develop and expand the economic infrastructure of their communities through the development of industrial parks.


Local authorities foster cultural activities by supporting local artists, building arts' centres, and by having fairs. Local government also provides public utilities, such as gas and electricity, as well as public transportation. The majority of the funding for municipalities is provided by higher levels of government rather than from taxes raised and collected directly by themselves.


In five of the German states, there are unincorporated areas, in many cases unpopulated forest and mountain areas, but also four Bavarian lakes, that are not part of any municipality. As of January 1, 2005, there were 246 such areas, most of them in Bavaria, with a total area of 4167.66 km², or 1.2 percent of the total area of Germany. The following table gives an overview. This article does not cite any references or sources. ... For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ...

State 01. Jan. 2004 01. Jan. 2000
Number Area in km² Number Area in km²
Bavaria 216 2725.06 262 2992.78
Lower Saxony 23 949.16 25 1394.10
Hesse 4 327.05 4 327.05
Schleswig-Holstein 2 99.41 2 99.41
Baden-Württemberg 1 66.98 2 76.99
Total 246 4167.66 295 4890.33

The table shows that in 2000 the number of unincorporated areas was still 295, with a total area of 4890.33 km². Unincorporated areas are continually being incorporated into neighboring municipalities, wholly or partially, most frequently in Bavaria. For other uses, see Bavaria (disambiguation). ... With an area of 47,618 km and nearly eight million inhabitants, Lower Saxony (German Niedersachsen) lies in north-western Germany and is second in area and fourth in population among the countrys sixteen Bundesl nder (federal states). ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE7 Capital Wiesbaden Largest city Frankfurt Minister-President Roland Koch (CDU) Governing party CDU Votes in Bundesrat 5 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  21,100 km² (8,147 sq mi) Population 6,077,000 (08/2006)[1]  - Density... Schleswig-Holstein is the northernmost of the 16 Bundesländer in Germany. ... Location Time zone CET/CEST (UTC+1/+2) Administration Country NUTS Region DE1 Capital Stuttgart Prime Minister Günther Oettinger (CDU) Governing parties CDU / FDP Votes in Bundesrat 6 (from 69) Basic statistics Area  35,752 km² (13,804 sq mi) Population 10,741,000 (11/2006)[1]  - Density 300...


Only four unincorporated areas are populated, with an aggregate population of about 2000.


See also

Complete list of 2,073 cities in Germany (as of September 1, 2005) Only municipalities with independent administration and that have the Stadtrecht (city rights) are included. ... This is a list of current subnational entities, some of which may be states in the legal sense of the word, by country: See also: ISO 3166-2 country subdivision codes based on ISO 3166-1 country codes. ... Germany is a federation of 16 states called Länder (singular Land, which may be translated as country) or unofficially Bundesländer (singular Bundesland, German federal state). ... This is the main page for the list of states which were part of the Holy Roman Empire, as alphabetized in the adjacent template, at any time within the empires existence between 962 and 1806. ... The New Länder (German: Neue Länder) are collectively the states (Länder) of the former German Democratic Republic (East Germany) that joined the Federal Republic of Germany upon German reunification in 1990. ... Landespolizei is a term used in the Federal Republic of Germany to denote the law enforcement services which patrol the German Bundesländer and is the approximite equivalent to the State police in the United States of America. ...

External links

  • CityMayors feature on Germany subdivisions

References

  1. ^ 1949 traten die damaligen Länder Baden, Württemberg-Baden und Württemberg-Hohenzollern dem Bund bei, die 1952 zum heutigen Bundesland Baden-Württemberg vereinigt wurden.
  2. ^ Berlin ist erst seit der Wiedervereinigung ein vollwertiges Bundesland, auch wenn Berlin (West) während der Teilung weitgehend als solches behandelt wurde. Siehe auch Berlin-Frage.

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